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VOL. I. 





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r i 



Ik tlic iiaiiu' of Cliarlrs Darwin hut rarely (k'cmi's in 
tlicsc panes, it is not tliat tlicy owe little to his iii- 
HiKMU'c. On the conlraiy, full lialfof tho hook is a 
detailed exi>aiision of the fourth and fifth clia|)te)'s of 
liis hcsniil (,/ Mail. Ihit in that portion of his 
nieinorahle work, the ^rcat naturalist has <;iven us 
clearly to undei'stand that he offers us only a brief 
sketch, not any full and completed demonstration. 
His })ronr(.ss in these chapters reminds us of the 
mai'ch of some active and hrilliant <j;eneral who out- 
hnos a gi-eat con([uest, hut leaves heliind him many a 
fort, and city, and strono place, to h(> suhsequently 
heleaouered hy j)loddin<;' oftic-ers, each concluding in 
his own province, hy time and Ial)onr, what his com- 
mander had effectively done in desion. Darwin 
showed in these chai)ters a nohle mft of insi<dit 
out to have made good liis position from point to 
point, to have left nothinii' h ^ind him unreduced, 
would have demanded a lal a-r which neither his 
own health nor the length of an ordinaiy life would 
have i)ermitted. He left many a <lepartment in 
which a hook sucli as the following might make itself 
useful, hy lahoi'iously filling in the mast(>i''s scheme. 

Vet there has been occasion only rarely to make 
speeific acknowledgment of seivices derived : foi- the 
matei'ials on which he hased his sketch, amplified hy 
the intervening time, have heen open for further re- 
search, and as these have here heen (pioted always at 




first liaiid, I Jaiwin's inHnciicc lias j^rown too <i;('iu'ral 
to !)(' iiicntioiu'd from pa^^c to |)a^i\ 

And there is aiiotlu'i', amid the mass of writers 
herein cited, to whom in less de<;ree the same ae- 
knowled>>nient is <lne. Adam Smith would in all 
likelihood have I'evealed the origin of our moral 
instincts, had he only jwssessed a mere sus})icion of 
that greatest of Inologie truths which Darwin was 
.sul)se(|uently to establish. He saw that morulity was 
founded on syni))athy, but nowise [)erceivini>; whence 
that sympathy could possibly be derived, the whole 
remained involved as nuich in mystery as (>ver. 
Though sometimes (|uoted in these pa^es, Smith's 
TlicDi'ii of Moral Sciit'niH'iit.s ha had mor(> influence 
on them than I have s})ecifically acknowledo(>d. 

During eleven years I have worked at this book, 
collectiu};' its materials in n)ore or less desultorv 
fashion in leisure of other work, but of late I have 
been able to devote myself almost exclusively to it. 
Ne^ertheless, a sense of depression attends the con- 
trast between tlie dreams of fifteen years ago and the 
tame reality which is all that these years have been 
able to ])roduce. Cheerfully enough would I si)end 
another four years, if I saw, in any reasonable faith, 
a hope of thereby making it ajjpreciably a})proach that 
carl} ideal. Yet it is not mine to judge it. and I leave 
it to find its own degree of usefulness. Sincerity of 
effort may have power to atone for nuich of inherent 

The very nature of my book involves the traversing 
of many diverse sciences, each of them the province 
of accom})lislied sjjccialists, and I must ask of such of 
thcKc as may read it to remember that the liistorian 
of the growth of our moral instinct must <leal to the 


n too ^tMUTlll 

SH of writers 
lie saiuc iic- 
woiild in all 
t' our moral 

suspicion of 
Darwin was 
inorulity was 
ivin^- whonc-c 
il. the whole 
MT as ever. 
|>(\s, Smith's 
)r(' influence 
It this hook, 
ss desultory 

late I have 
nsively to il. 
nds the eon- 

ago {in<l the 
s have been 
luld I spend 
lonable faith, 
})proach that 
. and I leave 

Sincerity of 
1 of inherent 




best of his ability with so mai.y distinct de|)artments 
of our knowled<>(\ with /oolouy, with physiology, with 
anthropolojiy, with history, and law, and philosoijhy, 
that he must be content with a very nio(h'rate depth 
in each. In every science, and ev(>ry department of 
a science, I have ^one, as 1 think, to reconnised 
authorities. I have «;iven, as a rule, only the matured 
conclusions of standard writers. Neve:theless, a want 
of technical knowledge will infallibly betray itself even 
in compilation. Kven when all tlmt is ur^ed is strictly 
true, there will often be some .scarcelv definable rinu 
of the amateui' which will catch the ear of the ex[)ert. 
Yet shall 1 not be nuich concerned, unless the want 
of confidence thus en<:endere(l shall weaken in the 
minds of some the cogency of proofs which in the 
hands of an expert ought to have been convincing. 

All my i)revious literary work has been so ex- 
clusively Australian that I fe(>l in this book as thoudi 
only for the first time coming in front of the }mblic ; 
but as no i)revious efibrt has cost me anything like 
the .same amount of labour. 1 feel that not lightly 
have I made the mo«e extended venture. .Vnd I hear 
it often asserted that he who has something to say, 
and who takes the pains to say it intelligibly, is 
always sure of a hearing in England. 


he traversing 
the province 
sk of such of 
the historian 
!t deal to the 






A Pkf.liminahy Outline 




The OuKiiN of the Pauental Instinct 20 

Tlie DL•^trm■tiou of Life, j), 20— Twn Paths of Spi-rics I'lVM.rViitinii, |>. 21-V,iliii' 
of Pari'iitiil Care, p. •'iO-Tlie Vivi])arous Ilahit. \t. :!ii. 


Pahental Caue in Amphihians and UeI'TII.ES 
AiiKiiiu Aiiililiiliiiuis, p. 11 —AiiiDiif; Reptiles, p. 4ti. 

... 41 


Pauental Caue of liiiius 

Tile liieiilMtiiiK liistiiiet, p. "il -liinis of tlie Lower Graile, p. .lO— Birds of the 
Medium Cr.ule. p. »il — Hinls of the Fliirher (irade, \). ti4. 
Appendix — Law of the Period id' liiriiliidion. p. tilt. 



Pauental Instinct in I\Iam:\ials 70 

The Viviparous Habit, \). 7li- The Marsupials, p. 71 -The Phueiitalia, p. 80— 
Noii-deeiduate Phieentalia, p. S-J._I),.,.iduate I'laeeiitalia, p. Sti-Tlie Mon- 
keys, p. itO- Mankind, ]>. a'l. 

Appendix A -Rate of I'ropafratioii, [i. 100. 
Appendix H—lVriod of Gestation, p. 101. 


The Classification of Mankind 103 

Savajres, p. 103-Barliarians, p. lOri -Civilised, p. lOti-Cnltiired, p. 107. 




Paukntai. Cauk in Mankind 

IMiMiiiisliiiij,' Niinilu'is of Oli'sprin^:, \>. 109— Hise of IntaiitiiMili", p. ]l;j— The 
I)is:i|iiu'iU'iiiU'i' iif tlu' liinviT Kai't's, p. I'JO — Lower Harliariaii I'areiits, p. -MiiidU' Harharian I'arents, )>. 12i<— Decline of lufaiitieiile, |). 1;{1 — 
Infaiitieide in Itonie, I). !•').') — Teutonic Infanticide, p. ]:i8— Infanticide in 
Modern Civilised Haces, p. 141— Self-restraint tlie Noliler Sulistitute, p. 146 
— (.eufitliened Period of Parental Care, p. l.'iO — Kliniination of the Less- 
parental Tvp.'s, p. 1'>.'V 





ThK (illOWTH 01' CoN.UciAl, SVMI'ATIIY 158 

Tlie Sympathetic Type leaves the (Jreater Prof,'eiiy, p. l.'jS— Conjii(;al Keclint; in 
tlie Lower Manmials, p. Itil ConJMfral Feeling in Hirds, p. liiti -Coiijngal 
Keeling anionfi the lliglier Mammals, p. Ul-Conjngal Peeling among 
Savages, p. 171 .Monogamy [nvvails in Savage Life, p. ISO— Promiscuity, 
suoeeecled liy Monogamous Union, the Karly Hent of Mankind, p. 18t). 


Thr Idkai, of Chastity 190 

The Purchase of Wives, p. l!K) The Capture of Wives, p. lH.'i— Obligation to 
(.'hastily at tirst Contineil to Women, p. 201 — Wife among Har- 
liarians, p. 'JO.'i- Wife Purchase renders Marriage more Stahle, p. "209— 
Pemale Chastity among the Higher Harharians, p. 21;! -Polyamlry, ]). 216 
— Female Chastity in (ireece, p. 218 — Chastity among Semitic |{a<'es, p. 
22;i- *'lui.stity in Rome, p. 2'2ri — Teutonic Chastity, p. 2"28. 


The Status ok Woman and thk Chastity ok Mkn 233 

Sympathy the First t)rigin of .Male (.'hastity, p. 2;W— The Status of Wonjau not 
tlie Same as tlu' 'I'reatment she receives, p. '236 — The Decline of Wife 
Purchase, p. 210— Kise of the Dowry System in Kurope, p. "249— Woman . 
.Vc(|uires a Status, i). "J.'iti — Kti'ects of Various Religions, |i. ■2tiri- The 
Tutelage of Women, p. 270 Klfects of Christianity, p. 27-'i KM'ects of 
Chivalry, p. 280- Kti'ects of Disease, ]). 282- Status of Woman in Kngland, 
p. 28ri--The Dawn of Nobler Conjugal Symiiathies, p. 2N7. 


Thk (liuiwrn ok Soiiai. Svmkathv in Anijiai.s '201 

Parental Syni|ialhy spreads out into Social Sympatliy, p. '291 -.\llcge<l Sym- 
pathy in Insects, p. '294- True Symi)atliy first a])pears with the Warm- 
blooded Types, p, .'too Social Symi)athy in the Lower Rirds. p. :iOI — 
Social Sympathy in the lliglier Minis, \). ;ilO -Social Sympatliy in the 
Lower Maiunials. p. Ml" Social Sympathy in the [liyhcr Mannii.'iN. p, :i'2:j 
— Social Sympathy in the <.^uadriimana, p. 3-'?'2— Social Sympathy in tlie 
Apes. [I, .'i|:l Social Sympathies in .Man, \>. 'M\K 




. 109 

, p. 11.3— The 
111 Parents, \>. 
Lille, p. 1:51- 
liifaiitifide in 
istitute, p. 146 
1 of tiu' [a'ss- 



■ri„- \Vi,l,.„in« of Synipatliy, p. :!.>•{ -Pn'servativ. Value .,f Svn,i,atl,v 
p. .•i..l-lM.:ivasMit; Size of Soeial I'nion.s, p. :!.■;!. -Social Svrnpatiiv l.e-in.-; 
!)>• lieiiiK R-^ep Init Xarrow, ii. ;Wti-Social Syni|.atliv in SaVitKes. p. :i70- - 

Soe-alSynipatliyanioiigKarbarians, p. :i7i)-rannihalism, p.:5,H7-raniii1ials 
n,ay l,e Airectionat.., (iocl-UMiipeivd I'eople, p. .-Jiil-Care of the Sick an.i 
Aged, 1). :j!t4. 




igal Keeling' in 
'eeliiiK' among 
1, p. 18ti. 


-Obligation to 
e among Har- 
ihle, I). 209— 
i'anilry, p. 216 
litii; Races, j). 



Civilisation apparently Breeds an Element ,.r Misery, p. tOO-Hospitals and 
Asyhinis, p. 40;5-Rise of in Kurope, p. 40ti-'l'h,. Kia ot Tine 
BeneHeenee, p. 414 -Nineteenth (.'entnry Benelleeii.e, p. 420. 

Tin: CiiowTH oi' Sympathy a.s Shown in Waukahh 4.J5 

Tlie Warlike Klements of Society destroy Kach ( Ithcr, p. 42.')— War among 
Savage Kac's, p. 42S -Warfare among Barbarians, p. l:il -Warfare among 
t'lviliscd Kaecs, p. 4:3n-^ Warfare in Karly .Mediaeval Knrope, p. 447-I)ecline 
of the Spirit of Ferocity, ]). 4.>t. 


of Woman not 
'cliiie of Wif»^ 
1>. 2t>."i-:Tlie 
7;) Ktl'ccts of 
111 in Knglainl, 


-AUcgeil SyiH- 
tli the Wiirin- 
inls, p. :i01 
npalliy in the 

Onl„;ll<. ),, :«.'{ 

ii]iatliy in thi' 








IiiscnlM' to Nature noithcr onlcr nor .lisonltM' ; ncithor hoautv 
nor .loformity ; for thin-s. f hold, are or.lorlvor .lisor.lorlv, beautiful 
or UfTly, m relation to our .•oneeiitions onlv,an.l not in tiiemselve. - 
S]ii,io.t(i, r,ittn-t<, Oldcihiin/. 

It is the purpose of this Ixjok to show, how from the iieeds of 
annual hie as they rose an.l developed, tliere spran^r, at Hrst 
with in..xpressil)le slowness, but imperceptibly .(uick.Hiino- as 
It advanced, tliat moral instinct which, with its concomitanrin- 
telliu.e„ce, forms the no])lest featm-o as yet visible on this 
ancient earth of ours. The inquiry thus to be undertaken 
will, as I hope, be wholly witlumt preju.lice to those oTander 
<u.d deeper questions of philosophy that lie beneath it and 
beyond it-,,uestions which, though ever near at hand, press- 
n.H' on the heart even of the child if he be of thou«-htful 
inood, yet preserving- to the ripest years a sense of wist- 
iul fascination, must none the less be answered always in 
a mann.r more or less uncertain and speculative. For to 
fm.te sense the infinite must stand apart, and these wider 
.speculations therefore lie outside the purposed scope of my 
investi^^a ions, wherein appears alone the growth of our moral 
ins mc s from their liumble source among the lower animals. 

t r r 'V r'^^ '" continuity that development will bo 
tiaced throuy], lowliest savage to the noblest of men, always 
as a nologic process; nor .shall I make the attempt to 

■i» fc Pi^^N— Ci iH fcV.K - m ii ' f 



correlate it with any possible scheme of the universe. How 
these ethical conceptions may shape as fragments of an all- 
eml)racin<;- thouoht may otler a tieUl for (liscussion vaster and 
more sublime, but one that is absolutely and necessarily remote 
from the range of this inijuiry. 

'IMuxmi;'hout its earlier chapters, my l)ooV will follow the 
growth oi sympathy: it will show how, in due course, 
parental care must iiave made its beneficent appearance as 
an agency essential to the emergence, the survival aiid 
subseciuent ascendency of the more intelligent types, auud 
a world of ceaseless competition. Having shown how 
sympathy thus entered on its first humblest existence, I 
hope in succeeding chapters to indicate how it has deepeixnl 
and expanded, and how there has arisen from it the moral 
instinct with all its accompanying accessories, the sense of 
duty, the feeling of self-respect, the entlnisiasm of both the 
tender an<l the manly i.leal of ethic beauty. Lastly, a few 
tinal chapters will enter on an inciuiry as to the physiological 
basis of those emotional susceptibilities which we collectively 
call by the name of sympathy. 

(Chapter II.) A few preliminary pages wdl depict the 
huge destruction of life that marks the daily routine of our 
earth. Often enough has this been done before, but as it is 
essential to the whole validity of the demonstration which 
follows that the reader should once for all have realised in 
some slight measure the stress and struggle of the competition, 
shouhl have felt within his mind how faint, how inexpressibly 
faint, is the chance of survival for the individual in the lower 
forms of life, I have deemed myself free to draw the picture 
yet once more after my own fashion. 

That immeasurable waste of life which destroys a 
million creatures for every one that is destined to survive, 
can be met and resisted only by an extravagant ter- 
tility. Among tish, as we shall see, the average mother 
.leposits more than (iOO.OOO spawn, whereof Init (Jiie or two 
surviving will serve to keep the species replenished. It is 
plain, tirerefore, that a very little thing, the most trifling 
advantage, may serve to pick that one out of l,alf a nullion 
which is to be the successful competitor. Under ordinary 


i verse. How 
iits of an all- 
011 vaster and 
ssarily remote 

nil I'ollow the 
1 due course, 
appearance as 

survival and 

t types, amid 

shown how 

t existence, I 

has deepen"d 
1 it tlie moral 
1, the sense of 
in of botli the 

Lastly, a few 
e physioh:)<^ical 
we collectively 

kvill depict the 
■ routine of our 
jre, hut as it is 
istration which 
•ive realised in 
;he competition, 
w inexpressibly 
lal in the lower 
L-aw the picture 

icli destroys a 
ned to survive, 
:travapint fer- 
ivei'a;:.'!' mother 
Imt one or two 
lenished. It is 
le most trifling 
]' ludf a niillion 
Under ordinary 


Circumstances tlie preservative feature will not he an adNance 
... nite]l.,.ence : for such an advance implies a .greater intricacy 
of nerve oro-anisation, which cannot occur without an i„ 
creasmj. period of immaturity. But it is precisely in this 
time ot jrrowth to a.lolescence that the individual is „,ost 
pt'.'ilously encompassed. Xc) doubt the creature of hi.d.est 
nervous tyiK. would, if ,mce it reached maturity, be domi;;;uxt ;' 
iHit s en^thened penod of helples.sness is fateful to it in a 
world that swarms with dan^.ers. If the e^^., of a Hsh take 
... ^.Mieral tlurty days to liatch, but a few of better brain am 
i..Mher nervous type take thirty-one, none of these will 
-•entually prevail. For if only one out of half a million is 
to survive, an md^^■idual that runs these formidable risks a 
•ay lon^^er than the rest will assuredly not be that one All 
le powers that mio-ht have l,ecome visible when maturity 
hou d have been attained would therefore never be known 
tor the time of immaturity would too rarely be passed In- the' 
more hio-hly-or^-anised individual, and where one did chance 
to escape, Its prou-eny, if inheritino' the .same }i;i.-her develon 
nient, would in ovneral be less lucky. " ^ 

It is this which makes the lower species breed so true to 
their own humble nerve development ; it is this which keeps 
abundance of the lowlier tribes in existence side by side w 
o^hei. that have advanced. A hu,e fertility, a r^id : h 
ins, an ear^- maturity, therein lies the safety of the u 
"telii^ent types. But suppose that in the slow'succe ion o^ 
n;ono tonous a,e,s a slight advance in nerve organisation s lu W 
happen to synchronise with a small tendency on the part of 
parents to guard their egg. or their oiispriu, the h ^her U^^ 
B..ght, and probably would, thereby esipe'^the dai.:! o'i'; 

^'i:;:zt-'''- u' '' '-' '' '- '-y ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

un ki his sheltering condition, it .lid i„ fact attain its ,,lult ' 
f ; ?' ^^'^" ^-'"'l ^ts .nicker sense, its subtler brai t ^^ 
^.% co-ordinated power, give it ascendency over aU il: 

■ Whenever a species has ceased to compete In- means of 
an ..erwhelming fertility, and has begun to Cela 

giiauled, then the prevailing imluence of parental care bed, 

I '^ 



to lu. most manifest. No lono-er -Iocs tho mother waste her 
bonv substance in provi,linu- yolks for a million prms each 
of ihem after all but poorly supplied. She produces "but a 
few e.-s, provides them handsomely with nutriment ami 
possibh- brings then, into the world all duly luvtched. In 
[he thousands of species of fish that merely voul their e^^s 
and depart, the yearly average is over a million to_ each 
female, whereas in the 200 species that exhibit, consciously 
or unconsciously, some parental care the average is no more 
than fifty-six as the yearly .pawn of each female. 

(Chapter III ) In no cold-blooded animal does parental 
care assume to any very perceptible extent the form of a 
conscious solicitude. It is merely some mechanical con- 
trivance v-bereby the eggs, instea.l of being extruded to meet 
the dangers that everywhere surroun.l them, are kept wi nn 
a bag, or squeezed to the sides of the mother, or -cured wi bin 
a nest or, best of all, retained in the maternal oviduct till fullj 
hatched Amphibians and reptiles exhibit all these tricks and 
aodo-es whereby to secure their eggs from danger, and here as 
aino';...- fish, the best of all is the hatching of her eggs within 
the oviduct of the mother. It will be shown that among fish 
and reptiles which have adopte.l that metho.l ol salety, an 
averaoe of twenty ycnnig per annum is as good as 5 000.000 
in the co.lfish or otlier species that have no parental care of 

any sort. , , t i i. 

rChapterlV) Rising into the warm-blooded types, m* 

nee how this quality displays a steadily ascending inthience^^ 

Only bv means of parental solicitude can the young ot bud 

or mammal be developed or secured, while, through its ear y 

days, it slowly grows to that high standard of nervou cl 1- 

cacv which is to make it eventually dominant. But in th 

Manifestation of that solicitude the bird and the mammal 

choose each its own out of two divergent pa hs, already 

fitfully selected-now by one, now by another-o the species 

of reptiles. The bird a.lopts the path of incubation ; the 

^ mammal of gestation ; each showing in its own track an ever- 

"" vard tendency to efficiency. Birds, as we rise m the scale, 

'ow more accomplishe.l in the weaving of their nests, moro 

Hiethodic in their habits of brooding, more devoted m the 





;her waste her 
)ii fferniH, each 
n-othices 'bvit a 
mtriment, and 
y hatched. In 
void their e<;<js 
nillion to each 
hit, consciously 
rajfe is no more 
1 does parental 

the form of a 
nechanical con- 
xtruded to meet 
are kept within 
ir secured within 
oviduct till fully 
these tricks and 
iger, and here, as 
her eggs within 

that among fish 
0(1 of safety, an 
rood as .5,000,000 

parental care of 

[ooded types, we 
ending influence. ^ 
le young of bird 
through its early 

of nervous deli- 
lant. But in the 
md the mammal 
tit paths, alrea<ly 
.er— of the species 

incubation ; the 
wn track an ever- 
e rise in the scale, 
t their nests, more 
re devoted in the 



care that follows upon hatching. Each advance in paivntul 
c.ire lessens the number of offspring that are needed. Thus 
as I hope to show, species of the less intelligent -n-ades „f 
I.u-ds .such as make no nest and display least car" have an 
average of 12-.5 eggs per annum to each female; those of 
greater nitelhgence which make rude nests and display a 
moderate devotion to their young lay on the average only 7-6 
eggs each year; while those of the highest intelligence whose 
nests are hnislied productions and whose devotion to their 
youn. ,s strong, are able to keep their species replenished 
witli only 4-0 eggs each year to every female. 

(Chapter V.) The nuunmals, taking the other of the two 
divergnig tracks, display an e.jual tendency to Tlie 
leinale keeps her eggs within her till they are hatched The 
n.creasnig warmth of her body, the more and more intimate 
connection of the egg with her uterine tissues, the conse- 
.|uent lulne,ss of the provision for its nutrition, an.l the 
supp y ol nnlk for its nurture after birth all indicate the 
<levelopnient of unconscious or mechanical modes of parental 
care. But along with these there is seen a steady growth of 
that consciou,s. care which bids the mother sacrifice her 
comfort or life itself on behalf of her young one At 
first m the monotremes all this is very rudimentary. The 
i^'^'^ lies loosely in the oviduct as it would in a shark's The 
auimars is low : its supply of milk is far less 
nutritious than that of other mammals: the maternal care is 
short and not emotional. Marsupials show an advancement, 
an.l so the progress goes on till, in the monkev order the 
provision made by placenta, lactation, and maternal .levotion 
< tiring infancy reaches a notal^le standard of efficiency That 
the parental care of the mammal is more effective tluin that 

any other class is shown by the fact that on the average 

01 all species the number of ofiispring is only .32 per annum 
to each temale. Moreover, though discrepancies occur, there 
IS trom order to order through all the class a general .liminu- 
.tinn m the number of the oftispring as we rise in the scale, so the monkeys with one young one a year can hold their 
own 4u,te as well as Hsh with a million. I hope to show 
that when proper adjustments are ma.le for the wi.lely vary- 



inj; Hi/cs of (liHl-rent species, the period of {^'cstation is pro- 
portional to tl»u {reneral degree of advancement of the nervous 

type. ; 

(Chapter VI.) An investij-'ation will then he made ot the 
development shown in parental care anionj,' mankind: the 
numher of ortspring is .steadily diminished, that diminution 
bein<j rendered possible by a j^reat increase in tlie length and 
quaUty of the parental devotion. In this and subseciuent 
chapters, there will be needed a classilication of mankind, 
independent of race affinities and founded only on the po,sition 
of tach people in regard to intellectiial advancement. Under 
the lames of tlie Lower, Mld,IU-, and Vppn- Hnvuijes, I .shall 
arrange all races of generally unsettled habitation ; under those 
of Unver, Middle, and Upper Barbarian, I shall classify those 
who have learnt to build permanent dwellings and to cultivate 
the soil. The.Zowvr, Middle, and Upper CiviliHed peoples 
will consist o*f those among whom commerce and manu- 
factures are well developed, and who by .sy.stems of laws and 
their effective administration are able to preserve order in 
large communities. Lastly, a group will be made under the 
names of Louwr, Middle, and Upper Cultured, of which only 
the first is yet existent, consisting of the leading nations of 
the world in our own times, the other two being developments 
to be expected of a future remote, and yet remoter. 

In the lower savages, parental care appears only as the 
continuation and improvement of he same quality which is 
seen among the monkeys, a slightly better placental provision, 
a longer lactation, and a greater subse.juent period of devotion. 
It increases in efficiency through barbarian race and civili.sed, 
and at each stage ii/ its progress, the number of ottspring 
brought into the world declines. At the level of the middle 
savage, men perceive that fewer children better cared for lead 
to happier results : yet they are not content, as inde^Ml they 
cannot l)e, to wait until nature shall produce the less p-o- 
lific strain of correspondingly more intelligent type. They 
are incapable on the other hand of self-restraint, and thus the 
diminution of offspring which all along until then has taken 
place by a certain emergence of less prolilic types, is provide.! 
for anion;- middle and upper savages by means of abortion and 



;ation is pro- 
f the nurvous 

made of the 
lankintl : the 
it (Ihniimtion 
lie lo!\jftli and 
il sul),se(iuent 

of mankind, 
n the position 
nent. Under 
(V(i(jfiH, I shall 
1 ; undei" those 

classify those 
id to cnitivate 
ilisc.d peoples 
e and manu- 
iH of laws and 
erve order in 
ide under the 
of winch only 
insr nations of 


rs only as the 
ality which is 
ntal provision, 
ad of devotion. 
: and civilised, 
jr of otfsprinjf 

of the middle 
• cared for lead 
as inde:;d they 
J the less pro- 
it type. They 
it, and thus the 
hen has taken 
[jes, is provided 
3f abortion and 

infanticide. But these must ^a-ow abhorrent with increase of 
^^enerul sympathy, and at the level of the mi<ldle barbarian 
they h'giu to dech'ne, men providin-,^ for the desirable diniinu- 
tion of ortsprin- by acijuirino- the power of .self-resti'aint, this 
chiefly by way of deferred marria<res, whicli, it i,s to see, 
will be oi)erative mainly by the prolon<,mtion of the period of 
maidenhood amon^' ^drls. Thus the avera<re a<re at which the 
^•irls ()f races are married is little over eleven years, 
while in the cultured races of Europe in the present time, the 
aoe at which spinsters are married exceeds an avera^re of 
twenty-live years; whereby comes this most useful insult, 
that the ottsprin-^ are fewer, but the parental care more 
comi)etcnt. The process still {roes on. The dauohters of th. 
most cultured classes are now the latest to be married, and 
those of all classes are followinjr the same tentlency. Indeed 
for a loii<4' time past in Europe the avera<re aire at wliich <rirls 
are married has been increasin^r at a very perceptible "and 
steady rate. At the same time parental care pro^rresses. 
The cultured classes keep their children with "a lon<r 
education till near the a<re of twenty, and all the .rrea't 
national .systems, with the len^rthenino- curriculum of each 
show how we still proceed in the uniform pro-i-ess of havin^^r 
fewer ottkprinsr Vmt givin'r them a better eciuipment for their 
share in the competition which life inevitably implies. 

rChapter VII.) The growth of parental .sympathy has 
thus been no mere accessory. It was an absolutely essential 
condition before types of high intelligence could appear. But 
the organism that had become so delicately equipped as to be 
susceptible to the emotions of parental .sympithy was thereby 
made more ready for other analogous stinmli. Thus conjugal 
sympathy, the sympathy that changes a mere periodic outburst 
of gratification into life-long tenderness and companionship, 
became antecedently probable, and being of preservative value' 
it was steadily developed. For it gave to the offspring the' 
great advantage of united care on the part of both its parents. 
Conjugal tenderness and fidelity begin oidy on the level of 
the warm-blooded animals. They reach a great development 
m the highest birds, and in mammals, though more gradual in 
growth, they become in the carnivora and quadrumana some- 


m m 


what notable. They are, however, lujt of any really K»eat 
<k.vel()i)inent aiiu.u-- inaniMials till we attain tlie level of nian- 
Kind. Conia},'al .sympathy >f a rude but unniistakal)le wort 
ji/ppears in the lowest .savases, amonj,' whom, thou^'h youths 
atid j^irls in(lulj,'e their early i)a.s,sionH in promiscuous fashion, 
there is always a stronj,' tisudency .sooner or later for the .sexes 
to mate, so that as parents they may indul^^e the natural 
instinct of love and care for their children, and also provide 
each for the other the satisfaction of home-life and familiiir 
comradeship. Out of these relations there arises a very rude 
and only dawninj,' conception of chastity. 

(Chapter VIII.) But this conception is amonj;- sava<,'es 
never more than a mere matter of domestic comfort, a source 
of peace, a haven of conjugal rest after an early perio.l of 
sexual There is no ideal which makes chastity a tlunj; 
beautiful in itself. But when men bej;-in to <,^ather exc'aanjre- 
able wealth, women as the means of gratification, both sexual, 
parental, and industrial, acciuire a definite value. The suitor 
then has to purchase his brid.- from her relatives. This tends 
to enforce the growing- notiuii of chastity, for whatever licence 
the husband may take, he demands, and has the strength to 
compel, that his wife should regard herself as exclusively his. 
No ideal of personal purity is much understood, for the 
husband very freely lends his wife, exchanges her for another 
man's, or barters her temporary company. But the system of 
purchase does much to develop the notion that constancy is the 
duty of the married woman, and when that feeling has taken 
a strong root, it is natural that the value of the bride shouUl 
be increased if she is known to be uncontaminated at her 
marriage. But the ideal of virgin purity thus originated is 
very slow in growing, it is fairly well develops I at the 
level of the higher barbarians, and is of pre oiva^ive ^.llne, 
preventing the birth of children till the fathers are prepared 
to undertrke the responsibilities of home, and the nurture of 

a family. 

^r^hapter iX.) When we reach the stage of the lower 
i -'L^ati' ", the obligation of women to chastity is well es- 
t-,.; :>'L-^i. 'Men acknowledge no such obligation. In poly- 
»ui.,.v- and conci^uiage they assert their freedom from any 


fciiUy <,'vi'iit 
vel <»r niiin- 
:iikal)U' wort 
)U>,'li youtlis 
MH fiiHliion, 
Cor the st'XL'H 
the iiutural 
hIho provide 
and fainilinr 
a very rude 

out; Hava^oH 
art, a source 
ly periotl of 
.Htity a thinj,^ 
;r exc'aan<,fe- 
both sexual, 
The suitor 
This tends 
itever licence 
e streiij^tli to 
clusively his. 
,ood, I'ur the 
ir i'or another 
;he system of 
istancy is the 
xvjr has talvL'u 
bride should 
nated at her 
(>vi<:''iuatpd is 
?lo}M''l at the 
\-ari'.e ^ .due, 
are prepared 
le nurture of 

of the lower 
;y is well es- 
jii. In poly- 
om from any 

A I'lll'LlMINAia (ifTMNK. 



limitation except that cf u.^t interfering; with the purcha.s...) 
piM.perty of their neinhl,„ur,s. iJut in the hi<rher ^mides of 
eivilisation, men rcalis.. the superior comfort of a peucefnl, and a truly sympathetic union. Each man then iKhiiits 
the claims of male chastity, not perhaps as a personal duty, 
hut as a in,.fter of kindui'ss and n(,od-feelinir towards the wife 
wlv, loves iiitii. ind lor whom he has formed an attachment. 
Tli. idea of male chastity therefore sprin^^s fi-(.Mi tlu! ;rn,\vino' 
s^mpufhy felt for the feebler wonum, and it keeps pice with 
■in improvinc,' status of women, a pro,i;Tess which is seen in 
the >,a'a.Iual decline of tlie system of marriaov by purchase. 
The customary payment be^ri„,s to be refused by the bri.le's 
parents, who j^row ashamed of selling' their dau^diter. They 
hand it over to the bride hei'self, and so arises the .system of 
dower. As parental sympathy impi^ovcs, the parents from 
tlieir own property add t.^ this more and more liberally, 
partly in onlei' to start the youno- couple in comfort, paitly iii 
order to secure for their dau^rhter the most desirable of suitors. 
Hence arises the system of dowry. T shall follow in detail 
from that point, the story of the steady rise in the status (jf 
w(imen, and hope to show that, as a neces.sary accompaniment, 
the-e must occur a steadily au^^mentinf,^ deference to women! 
founded in part on an increasing- susceptibility to the charms 
of beauty, but in still larger part on a symputh(;tic regard For 
w.juuin's weakness. The development of this luity fei^in- has 
a powerful, thouy-h somewhat hidilen inilut-nce in .securing' the 
pre-eminence of a race. The sons and daughters who come 
Irom pure homes wherein they have never witnessed an vthing 
but tlie tenderest artecti*)n between their parents, are far m(;re 
hkely to succtvl in life than those broujrht up in families 
suljJLct to the disrupti\e intlueuces of jealousy and strife. 

(Chapter X.) Thus sympathy, whose earliest function it 
was to turn the mother into a careful guardian of helpless 
ud'ancy, likewise comes to convert the merely lustful male 
into the tender lover and careful father. The same suscepti- 
bility to sympathetic stimubis begins to form a bond between 
brethren, between kinsmen, between neighbours. Mere gre- 
gariousness is of .small value, but social sympathy, which is of 
an utterly different cliaracter, is of the utmost importance in 


preservino- a species. I sliall trace its growth and increasing 
inttueiice hi birds and in inannnals. It continues to develop in 
man, for tlie degree of intelligent co-operation and sympathetic 
raiion which exists in the lowest savages gives to the tfibe 
of thirty individuals a distinct ascendency over all other 
creatures of forest and tield. But among the higher grades 
of mankind the increasing faculty of uniting solidly, of foi-m- 
ing large well -disciplined armies, of constituting great 
industrial organisations, is fatal to the savage, who disappears 
as being the less social race. 

(Chapter XI.) A very sketchy retrospect of human his- 
tory will serve to show that in the main it has been the story 
of \he subservience of races too little sympathetic to form 
powerful unions, and the emergence to power and dominance 
of peoples more capable of hearty consolidation. The law of 
sympathy has therefore been the law of progress. The more 
man has developed, the greater the need and inclination 
he has felt for life in ever-increasing association. The tribe 
in the lower savages numbers forty persons to each on an among the mid.Ue savages the average is 150; 
among the higher savages 300. Barbarians of the lower 
grade"number (5500 to the average community, while among 
the middle barbarians 228,000 appears as the mean size. 
In the higher barbarians it is increased to 44.2,000. But 
the lower civilised races, on the average of all peoples, 
number 4,200,000 to a community. The middle civilised show 
only a slight rise to 5,500,000, but the higher civilised increase 
to 24 OOo'oOO. The process still goes forward : the average of 
the niost cultured nations of to-day is about 80,000,000, but the 
five most a.lvanced of them have nearly 80,000,000 people each. 
It is a wonderful thing, incomprehensible to a savage, how 
millions of people can dwell together without fighting, knit in 
hundreds of useful co-operations and forming cities of myriad 
dwellings with never a weapon seen or a midnight summons 
heard chilling to arm.s. The features are indeed so multi- 
tudinous, which testify to the growth of the social sympathy 
of mankind, that I have felt it necessary to confine my.self to 
two out of the five most ciiaracteristic, leaving to mere 
allusions the other three, which an; the rise and decline of 





slavery, the story of the treatinont of criminals, and the story 
of r(,'li<4'iouH animosities, 

(Chapter XII.; But I shall fully describe the <rro\vth of 
kindness to the sick and destitute, a progress of extreme 
.slowness in primitive races, l)ut (luickenin^' -greatly in 
the last two or three centuries ; as yet far from having- 
culminated, i)ut with strikinu' evidence in the hospitals, 
asylums, and similar insitutions to which in the last century 
it has given rise. 

(Chapter XIII.) Then I shall relate the story of declinino- 
ferocity in warfare, from the cannibal, head-huntinj^-, scalping 
vindictiveness of the savage to the comparatively honourable 
and merciful warfare of our own times. 

(Chapter XIV.) When we have traced the capacity of 
isympathy to a reasonable degi-ee of cogency, we have in fact 
witnessed the growth of a natural form of morality ; not a 
complete morality, but a very serviceable, homespun article, 
extremely good of its kind. The man who never fails of 
kindliness in his relations as failier, husband, brother, friend, 
or citizen is a. good man. There are tln-ee higher stages he 
may yet attain. There is the morality of duty, the morality 
of self-respect, and there is the morality which springs from 
an ideal of the beauty of goodness. But these by themselves 
are weak and pretentious things when they want their natural 
basis, a true and warm-hearted .sympathy. Sympathy, or, a.s 
it is there called, love, is the basis of morality, indeed is 
morality in the religions of Jesus and of Buddha. I hope to 
slunv that each of the virtues M-hich we include as necessary 
to the right conduct of a human being is directly or indirectly 
founded on sympath}-. 

(Chapter XV.) But the morality of .sympathy alone is a 
someM'hat inconstant regulator, changing much with varyino- 
emotions ; it lacks the Hxity, the capacity of being predicted 
that marks the more developed moral feeling of a later 
stage. But when the sympathy of a i-ace has found expi-es- 
sion in maxims or in laws, when all the weight of public 
opinion, with its punishment of reiirobation, its reward of 
applause, has been invoked to enforce that comluct which is 
accordant with the average .sympathy, there springs up a 

■iiiimiiBmijipiwi lOw^irkunn— 




sense of duty, ii feeling- that tlie imlividual is to look not only 
inwardly for what his own sympathy dictates, but outwardly 
also to what tin- averaj^'e sympathy of his race would demand,. 
Anil this feelino-, intensified by the sanction of ordinances 
expressive of the sympathetic ideas of the times, grows up 
within the individual from an unremendx'red period of 
infancy, and so assunies that absolute and unconditional 
aspect^'vhich is so characteristic of the sense of duty ; though, 
as a matter of fact, it is purely relative to the character of the 
people and of the period amid which the life of the in.lividual 

is cast. 

The content of every idea of duty is determined by the 
average sympathy of the race at any particular time ; but the 
sanctions which 'give to any duty its impressiveness arise 
from: (1) public ophiion : (2) imitation; (8) authority; (4) 
habit. Of these the Hrst two are purely matters of sympathy. 
As for the third, if deference to authority be not sympathetic,, 
it gives rise only tt) a prudent self-concern, and results merely 
in'^a'iiuasi-morality, a somethhig extremely useful to human 
societies, but not in any way akin to the moral ideal. (July 
when sympathetic, .loes a feeling of reverence for authority 
produce a true morality. Habit is not aljle to originate 
morality, but only to render automatic that which has been 
already originated. Public opinion, operating from a period 
of infancy utterly unremembereil by us, is the real basis of 
duty : but it is capable of eid'orcing duties upon us which are 
mere fashions of time an.l place. These I shall call pseudo- 
moral. They indicate the immense strength of the .sanctions 
that enforce morality, but they are more or less capaVAe of 
rapid or slow evanescence, while the true moral duty, based 
on permanent sympathies, gathers force as the generations 
pass ; new strength of public opinion is a.hled as each new 
century records its assent to the traditions handed down from 

the ohl. 

(Chapter XVI.) Ihit morality is not yet complete though 
a man's inner sympathies are warm, and his nature schooled 
to defer to that opinion which expresses the average sym- 
pathies of the public ami<l which he lives. When a man has 
grown accustomed to judge others Ijy the standard of his 



■sympatliies, when lie lias ncciuired the habit of disapprovino- 
or applaudiiioj the action of others, he naturally turns in- 
wanlly the same critical faculty on his own actions. If his 
nature is lo<i-ical and sympathetic he condemas in himself 
what he would condemn in others, and so he learns to act 
always as before the sio'ht of his own critical self. ]\lorality 
assumes a very noble aspect when, to sympathy and a cheerful 
compliance Avith duty whose sanction is external, there is 
added a complete surrender to that sense of .self-respect which 
is only duty with an internal sanction. A man accustomed to 
scorn all liaseness in others is freed from the temptation of 
baseness in his own conduct, by the knowledy-e that evil, if 
yielded to, will sting him with the scorn of his own subse- 
quent self. 

(Chapter XVII.) But morality appears in all its noblest 
guise, when upon these three there is superimposeil an 
{esthetic glow : when the sight of right conduct awakens all 
the enthusiasm that kindles within us at the aspect of aught 
that is beautiful. Here will arise a need of a very brief 
digression to show the origin of our notions of beauty of 
sight or sound. For to the same general class of influence 
must be ascribed the development of an idea of beauty in 
character. When the stage is reached wherein an idea of 
loveliness has gathered round the appearance of kindness, 
purity and truth, morality has assumed the highest aspect as 
yet known to us. The origin of this enthusiasm I propose to 
examine in some little detail, and thence to show the develop- 
ment of two ideals of virtue — the manly, courageous one, and 
the soft, tender, womanly one. 

(Chapter XVIII.) Having thus traced the growth of a 
true morality to its loftiest manifestation, it becomes necessary 
to descend to tliat practical morality which rules the everyday 
affairs of life. Therein the (juasi-moral is of ecjual utility with 
the true, though far less worthy of admiration. This (juasi- 
morality finds its basis in responsibility which ripens into law. 

The subject of responsibility is one of intricacy to those 
who perceive that necessitarianism is the outcome of scientific 
research. If the individual inherits his character as much as 
his bodily structure, and if that character is moditied only by 

• ? 



surrounding circumstances wliieh he diil not choose for him- 
self; or if, in the case wherein he did ho choose them, his 
capacity of' choice was entirely due to inherited will-power, 
and if the nature of the choice he has made must have de- 
pended on his character as inherited and accjuired from early 
environment, then how is he to be held responsible ? T trust 
to show that the ([uestion of responsibility is not in the least 
concerned with any such problems. It is concerned only with 
the due constitution of motive. When I hold a child respon- 
sible for telling a lie, I do not in any way deny that it owes, 
its weaknesses of clriracter to circumstances wholly outside 
of its power. But while it has strong motives for lying on 
one hand, and weaker motives for adhering to the truth upon 
the other, I weight up the lighter, yet more desirable scale, 
by throwing in the expectation of my displeasure, my scornful 
expressions of disgust, or it may be my infliction of punish- 
ment. These new motives I make just so strong as may be 
necessary to bring the algebraic sum of motives out upon the 
right side. In no case do we need to suppose the individual 
a free agent. His actions are determined by the total play of 
motivcsln his mind, which moti%es he can neither make noi> 
alter. But when we hold each person responsible for the 
conseciuences of his actions, we introduce a new and useful 
element into the sum total of his motives. The i(lea of 
responsibility then in no \\ ;^y implies the possession of free- 
will, but only a mind sane enough to foresee conseciuences and 
a knowledge that the individual will reap the fruits of his 
actions, including among these fruits the diminished or in- 
creased goodwill of his fellows. 

(Chapter XIX.) In the history of its growth, responsibility 
is seen to be of two kinds, dittering in nature and in origin. One 
of these I shall call perihestic ; it is the responsibility which 
grows up round the family hearth and is of a more or less 
truly moral nature. It springs from the influence excited by 
the approval or disapprobation of those whom the individual 
most loves : his parents, his 1)rethren, his wife, his grown-up 
sons. I shall trace the growth of the family and show Ihjw 
by its constitution it was impossible tliat the individual could 
ever grow to maturity without acquiring a strong sense of 





responsibility wliicii would, even when not really moral, l^e 
an excellent \vorkin<r substitute for true morality. 

(Chapter XX.) But this morality does not ^rive rise until 
a very late date to anythin<r in the nature of law. It pro- 
duces widespread and remarkably uniform usao-es. But 
public law springs from that sense of responsibiHty which 
is aphestlc, that is outside the family. It t^nds its ori<,dn in 
the feml of family with family, in retaliation for injuries, in 
arbitration, and in compensation paid to avoid vengeance.' I 
shall show liow all recent researches of experts in^earlylaw 
lead to the conclusion tliat every code was in its origin only a 
system of regulating the amount of retaliation, or of the 
comi^ensation whereby war was to be averted. No early 
public law ever had any pretence of being moral. Its only 
object was in the easiest way possible to avert disorder and 
bloodshed. But out of it arose, as I hope to show, the settled 
u.sage of tine and penalty, whence came the general notion of 
public responsibility. This continues in the criminal legisla- 
tion of oar own day. A man is never punished for behig a 
wic] cd man, but only for having caused or jDrovoked dis- 
order. Laws which thus repress wrong-doing by tlie fear of 
punishment never produce a moral feeling, thougli they may 
secure a fairly moral conthict, based on quasi-moral motives 
that are none the less of huge practical value. 

(Chapter XXI.) Hence I deduce that thJ law never gave 
rise to any moral feeling, but that the moral feeling gave^ise 
to the corresponuiiig law. 

(Chapter XXII.) Finally, when it has been shown that 
morality is the eventual outgrowtli of a parental sx-mpathy 
seen m humble form far down in animal life, it becomes of 
mterest to iiujuire what this sympathy is. Recognising that 
It IS a name we give to a certain complicate.! emotional 
capacity, a power which emotions have of making themselves 
contagious in our minds, there is no little fasciiiation in an 
iiKluiry into the nature of the emotions themselves : and how 
they come to be thus infectious, so that a man will feel pain 
lu seeing another .seriously hurt, and joy in witnessing the 
delight of a friend. 

The connection between emction.s and bodily states has 




Ions been known ; but tbe theory everywhere current is that 
the emotions are conditions that behM>.' prnnanly to thennnd, 
which in sonu, way is able to operate on the bo.y, am aker 
its pln-sioloKHcal condition. This seems absurd, tor althouoh 
we know nothing of the real nature of the mnid. yet it ,s 
iinpossil)le to conceive it as the source of a material energy 
which can open and shut the arteries of the body ; encourage 
or impede the action of the viscera. Though the law of tlie 
conservation of energy is not to be assumed too . og.natically 
in cases where it has not been proved to exist, yet it raises a 
formidalile barrier to the idea tliat an abstract sometlung such 
as the soul can expend material energy. For the energy 
wliieh moves any organ in the body is derived from the mo e- 
cular simplification of food stuffs, and how can the chemica 
oner-v of food stuffs exist in the mind or be emitted from it ? 
How even can the energy which releases such energy be so 

^'""Biii looking at the .juestion in the converse way, regard- 
ino- an emotion as a bodily state which impinges upon con- 
scrousness. there are no anomalies and scarce a difficulty ol 
any moment to be faced. Sensations and emotions then drop 
into line with one another. A sensation is a bodily sta e 
which, in a mysterious way, as yet utterly incomFenensible 
to us reports itself to consciousness. Vibratory atlections ol 
the retina of the eye pass to the brain. They disappear, so 
far as our investigations yet carry us, into a realm ot be- 
wildering mystery, but reappear in consciousness as colours, 
red or vellow or blue, accor.ling as the vibrations are slow or 
fast So do vibrations of air affect the state of the bram 
whe'reby they give rise to sensations of sound, high or low ni 
pitch according to the rapidity of the vibratiors. _ So wi h 
each of the senses. They are all, on their physical side, bodily 
states that give rise to corresponding psychic states. _ _ 

The emotions differ from the sensations chiefly m being 
localise.1 in no particular organ. But when tlie whol.. 
vascular tone of the body is heightened so that blood 
leaves the visceral organs to course through all arteries ol 
■ „,uscle ami brahi and sense-organ, that bodily state rep.>vts 
itself in cf .isciousness as one of the exalting emotions, either 



aii<,^r or joy or hope accordin.,^ to circumstances. But when 
tlio hlood-vessels of the surface are constricted, when the 
blood IS con^rre^rated in the viscera and no lonjrer courses 
freely throu^di the muscles, we are conscious of one of the de- 
pressinj,^ emotions, fear, or ^a-ief, or hopelessness, as the case 
may be. Mind, therefore, becomes the continuous conscious- 
ness of sen.sations and emotions, the former being variations 
of bodily conditions arising in sense organs, the latter being 
variations in the general vascular tone of the body. The 
power of developing these vascular changes must have grown, 
as I hope to show, in the necessities of animal life. That the' 
sight of its prey should rouse an animal's energies to joyous 
expectation, the sight of its foe to furious rage, that the voice of 
its dangerous oppressor should depress it to fear: that the note 
of Its mate, the call of its young one should have acquired 
the capacity of altering the nature and direction of its ener<nes 
all were practically essential to the higher animal life. Those 
bodily conditions, therefore, that correspond to the emotions 
wore of huge preservative value in the struggle for existence, 
and the nerves of emerging species became more and more 
susceptible to stimuli which automatically acted in the direc- 
tion of exalting or depressing their energies. 

(Chapter XXIII.) That this is the true nature of the 
emotions is shown by the action of drugs. Alcohol does not 
enter a man's mind and thence atiect his body. It alters his 
vascular tone, and thereby produces various emotional con- 
ditions. The .same view is greatly strengthened by the 
ertects of disease. Those morbid affections of the nerves 
which stimulate the blood-flow give rise to joyous, sanguine 
or irritable moods. Those that diminish the blood-flow are' 
the cause of silent, melancholy states. Assuming, therefore 
that the emotions on their physical side are changes of 
vascular tone, I shall proceed to classify them. I shall first 
describe the physiological nature of those primary emotions 
which form a large means of providing for the well-bein<r of 
tiie individual. I shall then show that these emotions grew 
contagious, giving rise to the induced emotions, such as the 
mother experiences at the wail of pain in her infant, or such 
as the^lover experiences when his ottered gift is seen to light 

I :M 


f; :1) 




up witli pleasure the eye of his sweetheart. All these were 
oi' immeasurable value to the community. But sympathy is 
only a general term we give to that subtle susceptibility of 
nerve which renders one individual ready to catch the con- 
ta<non of the emotions of another individual. If all this can 
be" sustained, we shall have trace<l to its bodily origin that 
sympathy from whose steady development the moral instinct 

has arisen. 

(Chapter XXIV.) Throughout this book the term moral 
instinct will never be used to denote an instinct which teaches 
a man what is right and what is wrong. For there is no 
such instinct. Ideas of right and wrong vary too radically 
from race to race and from century to century to depend on 
any true instinct. We have often to discuss our notions tor 
long generations before wo determine what is right, and then 
the^decision is subject to revision and reversal m some suc- 
ceedino- j;eneration. But what we do possess are, first, a set 
of selfish instincts, which are fundamentally necessary for 
the preservation of the individual ; and secondly, those instincts 
which I shall call moral, retaining the old significance of the 
term These are founded on sympathy, and serve to check 
and limit the play of instincts in the interests of the 
preservation of the community, or of the species. The moral 
irstinct, however, is not always right. If, on a wild and stormy 
nio-ht, a man fell overboard, and his friend, though the chance 
of ''saving him was extremely remote, jumped m after him 
the impulse would arise from a moral instinct, yet it would 
by no means be right. If I share my dinner with a starving 
man, my impulse is moral, though my action may not be 
right: for while I was working hard to earn my dinner, .he 
inhdit have been wasting his substance in drink. As a rule, 
moml conduct is right conduct; in other words our moral or 
sympathetic instincts in general impel us to what is for the 
good of our race as a whole, but not always. Nor is it at all 
times and in all places equally right to sacrifice the selfish to 

the moral instincts. 

Ri.rht conduct in a given period and among a given people, 
is that" which forms between the self-preserving and the moral 
instincts a compromise such as is reasonable for that time and 


1 these were 
.sympathy is 
ceptibility of 
itch the con- 
l all this can 
y ori^^in that 
loral instinct 

e term moral 
which teaches 
L- there is no 

too radically 
to depend on 
ir notions for 
o'ht, and then 
I in some suc- 
ive, iirst, a set 
necessary for 
those instincts 
iticance of the 
lerve to check 
iterests of the 
!s. The moral 
ild and stormy 
iLdi the chance 

in after him, 
;, yet it would 
,dth a starving' 
n may not be 

ray dinner, .he 
tik. As a rule, 
Is our moral or 
diat is for the 

Nor is it at all 
se the seltish to 



amonfr tliat people. But as tli.. uaif; i ^i 

the weaker mora instinets nil fi, • i x ,. """'-"i-l. or 

■'■-v;: -T ■"' ■■«'■' -■'■'''!" :z 4" i:e:'t:re 

moral than to the sflfish V i • ,'>'>^']^^^ome 
1 1 J. "-"ihii action, bach is rndit n IN rum 

sphere, but we need lend no •iss.\f..„o f 
s..|h\l, Tl,„f • . 'issi.stance of approbation to the 

selMsii. I hat assistance We must oH;... ,-.i ;*■ c n . ^'^ ''"« 

t'>tHe.nora.. H.ieeitcomn:;rrr:t1:^^^ 

But as an absolute and universal fact there i.s neither ri<dit 
nor wron.. It is a distinction that can exist on y „ th 
world, or m such other worlds as nvM- Iv,. 

«..!-„ life „. ci„».„ .„.,„,„„„ e::,„:;ti™"" kL, Lrr 

«I... time ■« ,0 procreation by sexual i„tereo„r,,e If „ 
'":"' ''^■"'' ''."°*.-.'l>«'- «'<"- «" an i»l„„,l, every impul. e of hS 
«ll.pre»ei.„,g .„»ti„ct wouW be rigbt. But ,vhe » ve , 
I. e m »c,ety, the advantage, ot social life can be reape. „ l' 
len he»e.„,pube» are held i„ check by the moral instf 
tlwt aynipitlictic contro by which a mm ;. „ . i I 

postpone his own ,ood to Lt o;':therT i^ :n' i^ 
enough swing to excess, as when the mother ,a rl " r 
health o her Chi d's wilfulness, or the Imsbaiulh w'rl Ih 
prospects to his wife's whims. But ri^ht conduct ses -o 
the mora instinct, after due allowance has been made for the 
rea,s.nable exercise of the self-preservin,- instinct. 

Hence the moral' instinct is not an instinct of ri<dit con 
.luct, a thing which has no existence, but an instinct ma nT^ 
s •, winch we find it conducive to man's liiVlL ood 
to encourage, by giving to the actions which it pzomn s" th 
approving name of right conduct. ^ '^'' ^^'^ 

a given people, 
f and the moral 
r that time and 





The Destruction of Life. 

It i. beyond the power of the most vivi.l inuxj^ination to for.n 
, ,,,note concoption of the hourly .lestruct.on of hie ha 
takes place upon our -lobe. The numbers we may yive have 
ttJM. nLnn, tiat is dednite enough and thejr rela u.. 
amouK then^selves may be readily grasped; but these tians 
™d<;t figures are utterly beyond the -^pe ot .eahs^- 
within .Mir Hie herrings caught roun. I he Biitish J.sks 
t': amount each year to the total number of the unjan 
race. fMitchell, The Herrivg, p. U.) But each o these la 
own by the consumption of smaller tish and crustaceans loi 
nZ ninths before. Of herrings taken at random from 
a Zp h will be found to have from twenty to seventy 
:i :lials within it : but if each has grown by the con- 
sumption of only one a day for half a year, «- ^-rnng 1 u 
represents an annual destruction of lives exceedmg 180 times 
the number of the whole human species. 

Out of so small a sea as the Caspian there are drawn 
each year 300.000,000 roach and ^O.^OO^^O brean. (.See^ 
Freshwater Fish of Europe, pp. 148, 213.) Ihe hshu 
^" of New England yearly land 700,000,000 m^nhadden 
mS. Fisheries Report, 1877), and the Canadian fisheries are 
eckoned to be twice as extensive. The market returns sho. 
that even Australia uses 200.000,000 fish per annum, and so a 
thrse huge rates, over all the world, consumption goes on. It 
a perfectly safe computation that the fish con.sumed each 
ye^r merely as humali food, exceed 200 times the total 
number of our species, and that these have destroyed betore 


nation to i'or.n 
n of life that 
[nay give have 
[ their relations 
)ut these trans- 

of realisation 
he British Isles 

of the human 
ch of these has 

crustaceans for 
t random from 
mty to seventy 
wn by the con- 
Ke herring haul 
ietUng 180 times 

ihere are drawn 
bream. (Seeley, 
I) The fisher- 
,000 menhadden 
lian fisheries are 
vet returns show 
annum, and so at 
ition goes on 


h consumed each 

times the total 

I destroyed before 


their capture., at least 100„wn nunduT of feebler 

But the human destruction of tish is only the merest trifle 
m the stupendous sum. A blue-fish (Pumatomus Su/tafrix) 
ulten eats 1000 herrings for a meal, and sometimes great 
l.erds ol these feast for weeks npon shoals of fish. Professor 
Haird, allowing each blue-fish but ten herrings or menhadden 
a day, reckons that 10,000,000,000 are thus consume.! for the 
dady needs of this one species. ( U.S. Fisherlrs Report 1 877 ) 
He estimates that each year three thousand million millions of 
u.e.diadden are eaten by other fish upon the coas of North 
America, and this he considers to be less than a fourth of the 
total coiuvamption of t'..: ; one species over all the seas. A seal 
can readily take a bushel of young fish for a day's meal 
(Professor Rymer Jonat^, Mmnvialia, y,. 17(5), and this, as I 
liiid by measurement, would amount to loOO if the fish' were 
of the size of sardines. A year's food for a seal must 
exceed 10,000 fisli. and on St. Paul's Island alone, Mr. 
Elliot estimates that there are 8,000,000 fur seals, besides 
all the other species less in demand for commerce. The 
ammal .sustenance of tlie .seals on this one island would amount 
to a number of fish quite equal to 20 times the whole human 
race; and the seals of all the world must therefore consume 
.. (juantity of inconceivable magnitude. A porpoise devours 
about as many as a seal, and the number of pori;.:.^es that 
tumble over all oceans is hopelessly beyond our powers of 

When we read therefore of a single liuge dolphin {Orca 
(jladiator) with thirteen porpoises and fourteen seals in its 
stomach (Greely's Arctic Service, i., 77), we stagger under the 
ertort to realise what a huge procession of creatures must have 
been distilled in gastric pulp to furnish that one meal to one 

But there are whales such as the Common Rorqual whose 
daily meal is probably more than .500 bushels of fish, or 
upwards of 7,000,000 per annum to each ; and these mon.sters 
have been seen in shoals ranging up to 100 in number 
(Mitchell, The Herring, p. 23), while Bishop Stanley has 
.seen ninety-two stranded together at one point upon a shore. 





{Jiir(ls,c\\. xviii.) Accordinij to the U.S. Fisheries Report, IM84, 
it was ontiinatca tliat lOOO wlialcs passtsd each day alon;,' 
tin; shores of Calit'oniia, and the avcrai^'e t'oi- several seasons 
<hirin;,' whicli a watch was kept anionnted to 80,000 wliales 
all passiii;;' one way hetwoen 15th l)ecend)er and tst February. 
The yearly sustenance of these troopini,^ monsters wouM l)e 
alumt 150 times as many fish as tliere are human l)ein<,'s in 

the worlil. 

In short, a very cautious and moderate estimate will show 
the destruction of fish by fish within tlus depths of ocean to 
bo such that if the same velocity of disappearance; were applied 
to the human race it would be altogether wiped out of ex- 
istence in four seconds. 

But tish have other enemies besides tlie dwellers in the 
ocean. How stupendous are the immbers of gannets and 
cormorants, puflins, <,niillemots, loons, divers, penj,'uins, peli- 
cans, <,nills, terns, petrels, albatrosses, and so on, which reap 
their daily harvest from the sea. Two hundred tliousand 
gannets dwell on the rocky islet of 8t. Kilda, each consunun<f, 
as it has been observed, about five fish ilaily, or a total for the 
islaiKl of 8()0,000,000 in a year. But there are thousands of 
untold clitls and rocky shores from which, as Brehm tells us, 
these birds arise in flights that darken the sun. According 
to Figuier's accouni the guillemots are in ecjual swarms, and 
Darwin considers the fuhnar petrels to exceed any other 
species in numbers. Flinders speaks {Voyage to Terra Aus- 
tralis I., clxx.) of having seen a stream of sooty petrels, .SOO 
yards wide and fifty to eighty yards deep, pass over his ship in 
unbroken seiiuence for a full hour and a half. They flew nearly 
at the speed of a pigeon, and the mariner reckoned there 
were 100,000,000 in that single agglomeration. 

Now, I have watched a dozen of these sooty petrels in tlie 
bay below my house for a week together, keeping them some- 
times for an hour at a stretch in the lield of a glass, and I 
saw them tlip about fifty times an hour, one or other of them. 
They never failed to bring up a fish at each dive. At any- 
thing approaching this rate Flinders' huge flight, when it 
spread out to feed, mu.sL have demanded for a ycar'« siipply 
1000 times as many tish as there are people in the world. 

oilers in the 


AiuluboH tuDs UH that wlienovLT h(3 killed a brown p.-lican 
he(om.aHl,.mtlOOIlsK in its l.uj., ami wi.ito pelicu.s may 
prol)iil)ly In,- reokoiinl to out as nuieh. Consi.lor tho yearly 
cnsuiupti-.n ol- such a binl ; then turn to's -ioscrip- 
tion ol then- nmnbers in Ceylon, or Lovaillant's account of tho 
inainier in which they swarm on tlie coasts oF South Africa! 

Evory river, ev...y Jako, all tho innumorable that 
spnnkle earths surface are the scenes of the same process. 
Withni their waters the same cataract of lifo sprin<rs from tho 
eii<r into joyous li<rht and pours in a and pro<lij,nou.s 
current uito tlu; darkness of ravenous maws. Alligators'^ tor- 
toises, otters, horons, stoi-ks, cranes, ibisos, bitterns, osp'rey.s 
kui^^-Hshors, and all tho mijrhty hosts (,f sharp-eyt.l birds that 
nij,dit and day watch over the waters of cmr continents devour 
tho Hsh in prodiu:i()us multitudes. If one reckons the number 
ol .Irops that cross the brink of Nia^^ara in a second, they do 
not greatly exceed th.^ number of flsli that in tho same space 
of time have descended into the darkness. 

Nor is this mijrhty destruction a^r of the waters 
alone. Woodlands and meadows, tho treeless moorland and 
the iloep thicket witness tho same engulf ment. A barn owl 
eats on an average 2000 mice in a year. Lenz reckons that a 
falcon destroys over 1000 birds in twelve months, while he 
considers that a family of Kvo mouse-buzzards will consume 
at least 50,000 rodents in a year, and evory hawk rcpiires 
2000 or 3000 frogs or creatures of small size for its annual 

_ Of animals Imver in scale, tho destruction leaves our 
nnagmation in abject helplessness. Bishop Stanley {Familiar 
History of Birds, ch. x.) calculates from careful observations 
that a sparrow destroys about 3500 caterpillars in a week 
Tho chaffinch and the titmouse have been seen to devour at 
the sain,^ rate, while Brehm (piotes an observation from which 
It wouKl seem that a family of three blue tits mav in a year 
consume with case 1,000,000 grubs. Five small todies, acoord- 
nig to the same excellent authority, can destroy 1,000,000 
nisects in a year. Tho great majority of the countless species 
ol passenno birds in all likelihood destroy the humbler forms 
ol life at much the same velocity. When we read therefore 



i ! 


of 1,000,000 larks beiii^- Ccaj^tured for food each season in one 
district of France, when we read (Gray's Birds of tke West 
of Scotland, p. 122) of flocks containing- millions of wax 
wings, and thence make an estimate of the birds of Europe as 
running to many thousands of millions, we faintly realise the 
fact that one continuous and stupendous slaughter is the 
underlying feature of daily history. If the observations made 
by Gosse in Jamaica are a safe foundation for an estimate, 
each small bird demands 250,000 insects for its yearly suste- 
nance. How absurdly low, then, must the estimate be that 
in every second of time the number of insects which go out 
of existence is a thousand times the whole number of the 
human species ! 

Not to prolong a tedious insistence on numbers inconceiv- 
ably vast, it is perhaps sufficient to say, that of life a long 
way above the lowest tj'pes — life well developed, capable of 
joys and pains and w^ell able to enlist our human sympathies, 
there disappears in a small fraction of the time our hearts 
require or a single beat a number that far transcends the 
total of ail the men and women that now^ live or have ever 
lived in all the generations of bygone history. 



Two Paths of Species Preservation. 

How then does any given species contrive to exist in face 
of this universal deluge of destruction ? There are but two 
ways in which the response is made. On the one hand there 
may be a stupendous fertility, and on the other there may be 
the development of qualities which procure for the individual 
more or less of inununity. The former of these courses is in 
general characteristic of the low^er animals up to the level of 
the tish ; the latter is the path of later grow^th which leads 
to progress. The former sends its huge armies out into the 
field, a mighty holocaust from which a few survivors will 
re-stock the world; the latter sends forth but a limited 
number, yet succeeds as well by protecting them better. 

The average of five authorities gives 27,800 eggs as the 



number spawne.l by a .si„f,-le female berring. (Harmer, Ph il. 
Trans., 1767, give.s 29,260 : Blancluu-e. Diet des Peches, 30.000 ; 
Bertram. Harvest of the Sea, 85,000: Guntber, Sftn/>, jf 
t ishes 25,000 ; Buckland, British Fishes, 19,840.) Accor<Hng 
to Buck and, tbeu- .spawn in favoured rocky bottoms extends 
in wide ayers of .six-feet Full balf of tbese are not 
fertilised by tbe male, and a lar^^e part of the remainder are 
devoured by hsb, gulls, duck.s, and other Such as 
escape these dangers are liatched in from fourteen to thirty 
days, but according to Bertram, not more than one-tenth of 
those that are hatched attain to the age of .six months 

And yet the herring is not a fish of any peculiar fecundity. 
The sprat, the smelt, the grayling, the loach, the whiting, and 
many other common fish are quite its e.jual in this respect. 
Many species deposit over 100,000 eggs to each female, among 
which, If we quote only familiar names, are the perch! 
the mackerel, the turbot. the plaice, the brill, the sole, 
the carp, the gold-fish, the roach, the tench, the bream, the 
pike, the eel, and the lamprey. A still larger number of 
species lay many hundred thousand eggs to each female, and 
others again lay several millions. Of those species in which 
he female lays more than a million may be mentioned 
the riounder (1,250,000), the halibut (3,000,000), the .sturgeon 

f sr '° ''''''''''' ^"' ^'^ ''' ('^^--^^^ «*• «- -^ti-c 

6,296,000 eggs). 

When the female has deposited her ova, it becomes the 
business of the male to sprinkle them with his milt Two- 
thirds of them fail to be fertilised, and either rot or are 
devoured Myriads, though fertilised, become the foo.l of fish 
or fowl, but If only one per cent, of a cod's eggs are hatched, 
that leaves the goodly number of 60,000 children to each mother 
and if only one per cent, of the,se grew up to maturity, , she 
would have 600 to take the place of herself and the male each 
year It is easily to be seen, therefore, how a fecundity so 
great responds to the needs that are generated by the mi-ditv 
agencies of destruction. "" "^ 

Assuming that the average female cod .should spawn but 
twic, ,n h,T life, she deposits about 12,000,000,s • if of 
all that number, two should reach maturity to repirc" I'.erself 




i - . '; 


and her male when they are ^'one, the species is kept constant 
in its numbers. If ten of them survived, the wide ocean 
would fail to contain the cod-fish after a century, even though 
they were packed from shore to shore like sardines in a box. 
If only one survived, the would be lialved in number 
every year, and would speedily disappear. How nicely 
balanced therefore must be the processes on the whole, when 
neither more nor less than one in 6,000,000 must survive on 
the average of a period ! Any increase provides its own 
antidote, in the shape of augmenting enemies who multiply 
with extending footl. Any iliminution on the other hand in 
part provides its own specific by starving oti' the enemies of 
the race ; but this is a more dangerous process, leaving an 
excess of hungry monsters for a time to hunt with ravenous 
avidity for the scattered renniants. Many a species must 
thus have gone out of existence. But as a rule it probably 
happens with a fertile species, as among ourselves with an 
infectious disease ; though it be stamped out most vigor- 
ously, and apparently in all places destroyed, yet it lurks 
unseen in some favoured spot, some peculiarly sheltered 
nest, whence by reason of its marvellous fertility it spreads 
when the right time comes, with unsuspected speed. So it 
must have often happened that a once extensive species may 
have been all but annihilated, yet a few in some inaccessible 
rocky hollow, or at some prohibitive depth, may have contrived 
to linger on. Then if a few yornig ones had but a single season 
of quietness to grow mature, many millions would emerge to 
roam abroad in search of food. But their enemies being 
meantime largely starved off, the balance might for a few 
seasons remain in their favour, so that all seas would again be 
stocked witli their ir.creasing .'iiultitudcs. Again would their 
enemies, who perhaps had themselves been close to extinction, 
reduplicate, and the balance might swing for ages till a sort of 
etiuilibrium should he reached. 

The species jiow wi.lely spread must have attained to a 
very delicate balancing of loss with gain ; but there are many 
which inhabit so limited an area, or so great a depth of the 
sea, or situations so peonliar that we nnist eniisid.M- those to 
be species rigorously confined to their havens of shelter by 


emertife to 


the inevitable destruction which befel tiien. whenever they 
wandered beyond the bounds of their sanctuary. ^ 

flu cuaton _ Hudson (Naturalist in La Plata) tells how, 
a tei a few favourable seasons, the swam, over the Pani^ 

of beasts and birds which prey on nuce increase a hundred- 
h V ' vt7 ^"''" -f '^'"'^ "^ ''''y ^^'"^'"^ ""til the swanns of 

t^^.^'^" P underers; every „,ouse is watched with 
or r r,t7 ^ T^ '"'PP*-'^^ "P ^^' '^^ ^1^"-^ to venture forth 
and 3 ; r /'"'• '^"^ ^^^'^ ""^^ '^" ^"t fail from the 
e on bds T ^^^•^'^"^^•^^^'-'^•-■'^'^ -^J Jecay. Season after 

reason bids the ravagers decline, till, when a fruitful summer 

uHn-o^r- :r";«' -'^^ "°^ ^-^^ «-^ -^ abundant ;::: 

cm e w H '" "'' "^" '^"^""^■^- ^^^^^''^^ ^«-^- they in- 

hu fp^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ '^T'' " '° ''^'^^^ ^'^^'«'^^-«' -^^ the same 

nuot jJiocess is renewed. 

Naturalists and travellers have noted tliese oscillations 

c^LTo itnTX'""""^"'^' ^ -^P*^"-^ ""«-^^t readily 
com to ad ust its fertility so as to meet the average require 

ixiceivt that this was done. It has often been noted that 

a nuin er o grey herons (Anlea Cinerea), say fifty coup es 

have gathered in a community and built themselves fi tv 

least 400 individuals to gu off upon their emioTation Next 
reason there will appear, not 200 couples, but^tu fifty a 
be ore ; and year after year for half a century the same Ui'ing 
w^^l occur. White, of Selborne, says that however many 
s^it^ may have been hatched in a .listrict, there always 
return next season just about the same number of pairs ^ 

Judging irom the experience of fishermen we may conehide 
h t mos species of flsh are of the oscillating class, t .ouo-h I 
extreme fecundity of many must secure a r^ugh sort of con 

n 1 . r''^''^' ''' '"PP"'^*^''- ^"t of all the 

>ul serials that have been accessible I have gathered 






28 TiiK oRic.ix AM) c.iiowTir OK Tirn ^motial instinct. 

every cuso in whicli tlic imiiilxT of e^os Iwis been ivconlcd for 
a ^-iven species. I liave tlius obtained information i'or sixty- 
nine species, and to these T have added the nuuihei-s i'or six 
Australian sjiecies wliicli I have counted in order to widen 
tlie ran^'e. Tlie avera^^e of th(! wlioh' seventy-tivo species is 
046,000 e^^a to eacli female. These belonnf to oidy thirty-tivo 
families, out of the 144' enumtn-ated in (liintlun-'s l)ook, and so 
the calculation is nowise exhaustive ; but as they are taken 
from ei<>ht out of the ten orders into which he divides all 
fishes, the number thus arrived at may be regarded as at least 
an impartial representation, if not one of final accuracy. 

The avera<;e female Hsh, having expelled her ()4(),000 e<,^<^s, 
departs upon her course and may be hundreds of miles away 
when her proj^eny emerjfe. Whether the male follows the 
female till she spawns, or a little later seeks about through 
the seas till he Hnds her e^^^s, he fertilises them with bis 
milt : and as a rule he too departs, so that when the yonn^ 
opes, a few weeks later, stru(j;f;-le forth into life there is no 
help, no care, no protection awaitini>- them. They have to 
enter upon a world of danjL^ei's and take their chance, which, 
on the average, is a poor one, for out of 800,000 that ai"o 
hatched not more than one will reach maturity. 

Herein arises ample scope for that process which Darwin 
calls " natural selection " and Spencer denominates " the 
survival of the fittest". Mere chance will in tlie majority of 
cases cause the survival of tliis individual rather than of that. 
But in th(! lon^ run there will be a certain preponderance 
given to those especially <i;ifted for escape. 

Here let me make a distinction which is to be of import- 
ance in some of the following- chapters, between those whose 
gift is only a trick, a mere accident which never'-heless is 
potent for safety, and those which make a true advance in 
complexity, which make a step, however small, on the patli to 
a Jiobler type. In the first case it may be only a darker tint, 
a brighter set of spots, a flatter shape, a moi-e seaweed-like 
exterior or some such trifle which, in spite of its slender claim 
to respect, is yet of essential value in securing the survival of 
a species. Still these things are but side-tracks lea-'-'ng to 
blind ends ; while the other is the high road of developments 


ocor<l('il for 
1 for .sixty- 
K'vs for six 
r to widen 
.spocies i» 

)ok, and sa 
'■ are taken 
divides all 

as at least 

(j.OOO eo;i>-H, 
iiiiU's away 
'ollows the 
it thron^h 
ri with his 
the youn^ 
here is no 
.'y have to 
nco, which, 
!{) that are 

ch Darwin 

lates " the 
najority of 
an ot' that, 

of injport- 
l\ose whose 
ir'^heless is 
idvance in 
;lu! path tO' 
arker tint, 
!nder claim 
survival of 
!oa'''n_i;- to 


If the animal heconics more .lelicately or^ranised in its nerves, 
li Its sense-oru-ans hecom.; more perf.,.ctly frame.l, its hrain 
more erticient as an or-an of cont.vl, so that all the co-ordinated 
faculties of the animal work with inc. easing speed and ex- 
tent an.l effectiven(,ss, there is no end to the path of .levelop- 
n.ont thus opened out. There is a point of darkness beyond 
which the darkest fish cannot -o, an<l when a is ([uite Hat 
It can he no Hatter. But to nerve development and all the 
power which brains can o-ive, no limit is apparent, or, at any 
rate, as will be seen in sul)se(|uent chapters, the world is 3-et 
very tar from having- reached it. 

In .spite of all the oI)jections thei'e are to the increase 
of scientiHc words, I propose to call the former course 
" Dologeny " : it is the process of breedino' from the craftiest or 
most tricky of the race. The latter I shall call " Aristo-eny " • 
It is the process of breedin<r always from the best, wlierdn it is 
to be understood that the best is the individual of comph'test 
nerve development. 

When the nerve structure has reached the standar.l of the 
tish, this .second or aristoo'tmie course is never po.ssible unless 
there along with the improved variety .some little mani- 
festation of parental care. For it is a corollary from A^on 
Baer's law, tliat any additional si/e of brain, and any increased 
complexity of nerves, will imply a longer period of immaturity. 
It each animal in its embryonic stage must summarise the 
history of its race development, it is plain that each addition 
to the story must, if other things be constant, prol(;ng the 
time of Its helpless growth. But if only one egg in 800,000 
IS to reach maturity, and all are left to chance, those which 
take the longest time to develop will not be among the 
successful can<lidates. Whilst still in the egg, the superior 
nerve construction with which the creature would eventually 
have been endowed will in no way .save it from its enemies ; 
and. 111 general, if it takes but a nin^r]^ hour longer to liatch^ 
Its doom is certain, for its average chance is so infinitesimal 
to begin with, that a trifle one way or the other will carry 
the decision of life or death. 

Hence the survival in the great mass of cases will be 
dologenic; and thus we can account for a difficulty which is 

I !^:^ 


I)opularly felt in re<(ard to the acceptance of Darwin's views. 
If the best fitted to survive come out the winners in th.e 
stni^wle for existence, wherefore sliould iower forms continue 
to exist? Why are tliey not extinct before the superior 
powers of their more capable rivals ;* The reason is that the 
lower forms with their extreme fecundity are well able to 
hold their <,a-ound, For every million destroyed a few survive,, 
and these are enough not only to perpetuate the species, but 
to make it numerous. 

The only effect of the mighty pressure to which these 
lower forms are subject is to make them breed quite truly. 
When a species has reached the limit of the trick or accident 
which secures for it the certainty of perpetuation, it is kept 
hard up to that limit. 'J'he slightest deviation in any 
individual implies destruction, and change is possible only 
when change occurs in the circumjacent pressure. The influx 
of a new sort of enemy may very decidedly alter the character 
of the individuals that survive; but in the normal case, a 
species lias adapted itself to its surroundings. There 'is 
pressure on this side and pressure upon that. The resultant 
of all the pressures combined leaves the species in etiuilibrium, 
but compels it to breed truly, no individual ever surviving 
unless it possesses the qualities v/hich enabled its parents to 
survive. In such a case progress is impossible ; for it is pro- 
bable that long ago the race has reached the limit of the trick 
or dodge by which it learnt to secure its safety under existing 

Value of Parental Care. 

This applies, however, only to dologenic variations. The 
case is quite otherwise when the true aristogenic changes, 
have happened to occur. Once established, they have \n 
endless career, and boundless possibilities, but it is only very 
rarely that they have a chance of occurring. For no impi-ove- 
ment of nerve type will be permanent or of any value M'hich is 
not accompanied or preceded by the development of parental 
care. Large variations of nerve complexity are very common 
in any single species ; but, in the absence of parental care, the 


he bra „s of fash a ,n-eat ran.^e of si.e may be noticed. Tal^e 
ion a heap al ho tish of one species that are practically o 
the same weight an.l weigh their brair.s. According to mv 
e-pernnents on many .species, one fish will have a l^a n "n 
per cent., sometimes twenty per cent, heavier than its f-ellow 
of the same weight in this same species. Yet if any such 
diH..nce IS to be truly beneficial, itlill not be a qu L lo 
n^r ly larger or smaller, but will mean an ad<lition of func- 

embiyonic stage. Yet in a world wherein not one in 100 000 
J. to reach maturity a ,uick attainment of moderate efficiency 

powerr^S^reT-^' r ■''r ''■'"' ' '^'^-^^ ^--th to hi^i. 
powers. So the big-bramed dog-fish, by reason of slow ma- 
tunty, may die out. and that of smaller brain survive 
At a certain stage of development therefore we may reirard 

fui her progress. But this itself may present dologenic as 

well as aristogenic forms. The parents which give uZJ 

spring the necessary attention in their tender dJys may ll 

n ways wh,eh are merely tricky and accidental,'or the^ may 

Glancing first at the former, we find many curious wiles 
and eccentric habits by which here and there a specie.s of^fish 

female ,s the active .pa.ent, but in all the six .species of 
Aspredo (freshwater cat-fish from Guiana) the flat bdly of tl^ 
female becomes at breeding time quite soft, like putty, so that 
when the eggs have been fertilised by the male, by rolling her- 
self upon them she makes them stick to her. There thev are 
earned till hatched. (Giiiither, p. 160.) So succIhiH^th 
aitif.ce tha than 2000 eggs suffice for the constancy of the 

ruti^;;i^. ^" ''- ''''"'-' '''-'- ''''' - -^ ^^^^^ -pure 

Among the Solenostomata (a genus of pipe-fishes), the 
female carries her eggs in a pouch, formed by the broad 

^:;^V::j'^-^y'^i- "- ^helr eJges coalesce 




v. • *' 


with the skin of the belly. The 

eggs are extruded into this 



■ I 

! II 

secure retreat, which is specially lined witli filaments to pre- 
vent their falling- out, and there they are hatched in compara- 
tive safety. In Doryrkamphus, the female has a similar pouch 
upon the breast and belly. 

The ten species so included are the oidy fish in which any 
sort of care for her eji'<fs is exhibited by the female. But in 
a very much larn^er lunnber of cases the male has developed 
some dologenic contrivance of the kind. This is what we 
mifijht reasonably expect, for as the fertilisation of the eg^s is 
ert'ected by the male aftei- they have left the body of the female, 
he is the last to concern himself with them, and any develop- 
ment of parental care is very likely to occur Ijy preference on 
his side. And then we have to remember that the male umst 
have already arrived at a curious susceptibility of his nervous 
oro'anism, when the sio-ht or smell of the e^f<;s of his own 
species and of no others will impel him to shed his milt 
over them. Species in which this sort of attraction was 
unusually stronj^, so as to tempt the male to lin^-er by the 
fertilised ova, and to drive away marauders, m^^st have had a 
most decided advantage in the huf;e intricacy of competi- 

This increased stren<;'th of attraction induces the male of 
mau}^ species, after havin<>- fertilised the eggs, to take them 
in his mouth and carry them about with him, starving all the 
time, until they are properly hatched. Two species of the 
genus Ariiis have this habit (F. Day, Linn. Juurn., xv., 38), 
and so great is its efficiency that from fifteen to twenty eggs 
to each are sufficient to maintain the numbers of the race. In 
the Sydney Museum there are two male specimens of an 
allied genus {Ucmiplmalodits dayi) with their mouths full of 
young ones, which had not only been hatched there, but had 
been retained till they reached a considerable size ; the fathers 
in both cases had kept theii ort'spring secure at the back of 
their mouths though they themselves were being drawn from 
the water. (R,amsay and Ogilby, Joiirn. of Linn. Sac. ofN.S. W., 
1886, p. 17.) Some of the tropical cat-fish have the same 
habit. Boulenger ascribes it to the genera Osteoyeniosus and 
Gah'.ickfhyn {PrncccdhinH^ Zoo. Soc, 18<)1 , p, 148), and at least 
one species of the genus Bagras carries its thirty eggs in its 


lents to pre- 

in compara- 

siinilai" jwuch 

n which any 
lale. But in 
las developed 

is what we 
)f the e/.^{^H is 
)!:' the female, 
my develop- 
)rcforeiice on 
le male must 
r his nervous 
I of his own 
iied his milt 
traction was 
inj^er by the 
t have had a 

')f conipeti- 

the male of 
take them 
rving all the 
)ecies of the 
i-rn., XV., 38), 
twenty eggs 
the race. In 
mens of an 
louths full of 
ere, but had 
; the fathers 
the back of 

drawn from 
ve the same 
/eniosus and 
!, and at least 
y eggs in its 


n^uth until they are hatched. Strangely enough, the san.e 

c t, u ,n u speces of wrasse (Chnnnis paterfamilias) 

ueh ,s conh,.ed ,. the Sea of (Jalilee (Charhonniere, mUl. rle 

of the a bed genus Gro/>/,a;„. i„ South /unerica. 

well r,; nv'"".^"T''r"?- ' ■^""'^^^'^'^^ ■'^'»"'*^^- -''^t-" °f the 

i rr ;, "'""• " '^"■"•'^^^ ^^'^ "• ^1- n>ale, after 

tut bsmg the eggs, carnes then, in his n.outh to a little 

Hoatn^g nest of an- l.ubbles which he has already blown upon 

Almost the whole family „f the Synf>nathick, or pipe- 
ftshes are character.sed by parental care. In a large number 
of speces the male has a long narrow pouch beneatt h^- oody 
onned o overlappn^g- folds oF skin. Here he carries the 
eggs tdl they are hatched in a wriggling n.ass, and escape by 
a narrow operung towards the front. Of the genus mnno 
campus or sea-horses, all the twenty species have pouch s of 
Ins sort near the tail, while in another genus Neropkis the 
eggs are .hsposed n. rows upon the breast of the male In 
«ome geneni, especially the P/n,Uopteryx or " Leafy 'sea- 
J)uigT.n.s, the male ,s accustomed, after the fashion of the 
female .l« to stick the eggs against the .soft adhesive- 
ness o the un.ler side of the body, where they ren.ain till 
hatched. 1 he .same habit prevails among the twenty .species 
o Dory^ckt,nJs. (G„„ther, p. (>81.) Buckland (p. im .splk 
of a genus of Sync,nathns which has cup-like depressions for 
he egg.s, instead of the more pouch. In many of 
these hsh the young, after being hatched, have the instinct of 
returnnig for several .lays to the paternal shelter 

But these and similar artiHces, though wonderfully ef- 
ficien .so far as they go, are but blind lanes, .soon reaching 
he r hmit of advantage and offering no means of progress to 
better .systems. There are, however, two much more promis- 
n.g courses, not only efficient in themselves but with m-eat 
possibdities of expansion. These are on the one har.d test- 

S 7' "^''r ^ " '^t' f « '-^«'-^S of eggs within the 
hod oi the female. The latter, as it happens, is the true 
anstogernc track, but the other has a long career of progress 



I ill 

! 'n 

it . I 

beforo it tcrniiimtcH in the heiiutiful .structure luul devoted 
care of a weaver-hinl. 

'Die iiialt'H of many hsli make nests fur tlie safe reception 
of the e^ffrs deposited by the female. (Jiinther enumerate.s as 
of tliis description ei{,dit f,'enera, Seeley inentionH another, and 
F. Day three more. Amon^f the most popularly known of 
these are the forty species which constitute the j^vnus Cottns ; 
the male makes a nest round which he hovers till the ej;-<,^s 
are hatched ; and even then he generally remains near his 
pro^^eny till they scatter out upon their own careers, defend- 
ing them, when need arises, with the strong spines which 
project in front of his g-lls. Among the lumpsuck(n-s (('//- 
clupterus), of all three species the males make nests, and may 
be seen to bite with their sharp teeth any creature that 
approaches, (U.S. Fisheries Report, 18S4, p. 254.) Tlie 
young are provided, like the old, with sucking disks by wliich, 
at least so it is popularly believed, they attach themselves for 
a time to their father, who thus be^vs them far out into deep 
water. The genus Antennarias or walking-lish has at least 
some species which make nests of seaweed, while the walking- 
fish of India (Ophiocepludas), as well as most species of Cal- 
lichthys and Doras (Giinther, p. 572), are accustomed to scrape 
out with their tails very useful sorts of nests in the muddy 
edges of the tropical ponds wherein they live. There they 
remain to watch the hatching of their eggs so assiduously 
that at the breeding season the natives have no difficulty in 
picking them by hand from the water. 

According to Day, Chironectis and Crenilabrus make 
rude nests of seaweed, and the favourite Indian fish, the 
gourami, makes a rough receptacle for its eggs wherein they 
are hatched under the guard of both parents. The English 
grayling, as it is well known, scrapes a hole in the gravel and 
carefully covers the ova with pebbles, while the Australian 
cat-fish (C'7m/o(/^a7Ws 7ner/«s^oHi«.) buries its eggs in a little 
mound of debris. The Australian rocklings {Genypterus), 
according to ]\IcCoy, construct a sort of nest, and the Russian 
fisli called fclie bitski has the same habit. 

There are souks m^nei-a in whicli the males show their care 
oidy by mounting guard over the eggs where they happen to 


1(1 (luvuteil 

; reception 
inemtes as 
lother, and 
known of 
ns I'ottas ; 
1 the e},f<i;.s 
s near his 
rs, (lel'end- 
nes vvliich 
ckers (C'/y- 
i, and may 
ature that 
54.) The 
i by wliich, 
nselves for 
t into deep 
la.s at least 
e walking- 
es of Cal- 
d to scrape 
lie muddy 
rhere they 
ifficulty in 

rus make 
I fish, the 
erein tliey 
le English 
(travel and 
in a little 
lie Russian 

their care 
happen to 


nl>'-- (Day. Li^n^S,,, ';; ^;*^'''^'^'^tK.ast one of A'/vv. 
the hahit o nest-huiidi ;;;,,; ^ ^ !^'t''" '" ""' '"^ ^''^^''""^ '^'^ 
in the French L^^l^r^'' T^^'' f ^^'-'' '^ -" -- 

the foo<l-fishes. Re „ ' '" . ' /" '"■''"'• "' """^''■l''>' 
He placed the f.w "* Perforated zinc in which 

natir:!' Jr rrlS' -nsi„.in, ,.e whole to their 
advantage which the L Mil 7""""" " ''" '^'"' ^^^''"^^ *'^^ 


occurs^illtrlucM T l^'"? '-•-t-huildin, an.on. fishes 
occui.s n the sticklebacks (G./sifw^^cw,.). Their skHl nnd 

by Buekia?;;;; J;::; :r:r,:'''^*" -'T"''"": ■'•■"'"J 

back ofifHr'™' ;„ , «™'™,™".fc"'-«. «'« .spiucs o„ hi, 
leave. Hr^k^U, ,!;,'';''* .",""■•"'' ■*""' '"'■»'"' »■■" 

If otber fl»,, no „,„ J,. !:?, ; t r*;!;;™^:'^^ "r ""• 

bo ik»lK., at tl,»,„ with hi, foJu^H ' 1" ''""■'•"'' 

\Ucn the egg„ are hatched, he ha, „„ „,„i„„, ti'f l^,"' 
bttlc try are at AM barely vi,ible to the b,™,,, ,i. ,„/' 
Aerc are on y about Hfty of then,, they have abu,3»'t "'„' 
A lew day, however «„d then, „,„eh enlarged, and he Jol 


' ' 



down the walls of the iH'st ; tlion Iii.s flock Htroaiu forth after 
liiiii to M'ck for fooil. He tricH as far as possihio to keep 
them tojfftlier, roumliii;;' tlicin up at times as a shepherd does 
his (lock. This has heeu observed to continue foi- six days 
aftei- the hatching', hut then thi' youn;,' fry liecoini; too 
restless: they are huii;,ny and j^o oti" after food in vai-ious 
directions, and .•lo it rarely happens that they are toi^-ether 
upon the tenth day. The father often loses his life 
through th(! rash couraj^^t! with which he throws hii.iself 
upon an enemy. All this devotion is not without its re.sult, 
for while the o<^^^s of other hatch out in extravae-ajit 
numliers only to be devoured in infancy, the stickleback lays 
n(i more than from twenty to ninety; and yet it is rtje-arded 
by many competent authorities as the most numerous of all 
European tish. On the Continent sticklebacks are cau<,dit in 
prodi<;ious (piantities. and .squeezed for the oil they contain, 
the refuse beinfj used for manure. Oiinther relates that dense 
columns ascend the Welland at certain seasons, from which 
men have been known to draw nearly TOO bushels each in a 
day. Thus it appears how nnich nion^ efficacious may be some 
fifty eo-f-'s if duly tended, than r)0,000 left to all the danj^ers 
of chance. 

The Viviparous Haiht. 

Yet there is a still more efficaciou.s course, the true aristo- 
genic path which leads to the noblest types. This occurs 
whenever the female retains the fertilised egg in her ovary or 
oviduct till it is hatched, an.l then extrudes the living young 
one, already freed from all the dangers of the first and most 
helpless period. There are about 180 .species of fish in whic!) 
the females are viviparous. In one family of seventeen 
species (Emhiotoryhi') well known on the west coast of North 
America, the males {U.S. Fisheries Report, 1884, p. 277) 
insert their milt into the vent of the female in autumn. It 
lies inactive for many months, but fertilises the eggs within 
the ovary in the following summer. These are rapidly hatched, 
and, as they grow large, they squeeze themstilves together, 
lying alternately heads and tails in little c<»mpartnients till 


I'ortli lifter 
It! to keep 
plicnl ilot'H 
1' six 'liiy.s 
icoint! too 
ill viiriouH 
e t(>i,'(>tlii'r 
^ his lifo 
k's hii.isolf 

its result, 
'back lays 
s ren'anlod 
rous of all 

cauji'lit in 
y contain, 
tliat dense 
om which 
1 each in a 
,y be some 
le danjfers 

•ue aristo- 
liis occurs 
r ovar}^ or 

and most 
I in which 
; of North 
s p. 277) 
t^mn. It 
;g.s within 
y hatched, 
-ments till 

THE OKHHN <.,•■ ,„,, varkKVAL INSTlNrr. 87 

extrud.-d. So ofR.aeious is this protection that although each 
eighteen to w nty 'V ^ T^ '''"!' ^^'^'"^'^ ^'^^'^ 

Gin!ZZ!!^ ""'v^ "■'""' ^•"''^''"" '^ --' "' the species 
,^;""'"r^;'rf'''''^t«^'->'l-H.HlThon.son. (ErulaL,./ 

n .nil at . " '^'""' ' '''^'-'^ -^ *''^' «P-i- of the san.e 

H.n i^ (the small senu-tropical ('ij,.rino,hnts) the e..'s are 

no hatched rn the ovary but in the oviducts or tubes ttuli ! 

m t;' t f ;""r ,"' '" '""' *^" •- •« ^^'« to insert his 
he voun! a. '. . " • ''""'^^- '" ''"^" •'^P-'- (^1-^^^'/-) 
thatrom ri ?'^'''' '^ -"-•'<'^h'y -tive condition so 
selvl A r / ."^'^ "■" ""'" '^'^'^ ^" take care of then.- 
LnirnH-e f 7 r;''^''^r'^ter species of the Scomhcrsocidw, or 

f^^ 'in t /' . "": • ':''"'' '''^'"' ^'^^^''^ ^^^*^"" the oviduct, 
and u the lanuly winch unites these nearly allied ones 

^ve^ ^ecx. are viviparous, notably .., ,;,,.^,, ,,, ^d 

nsn or the Kentuckv cavps '!"' ,.. n i 
U] 1 ., "^ ^avts. I u-ell-known viviparous 

bh^^iny was described Ion, a,o by Varrell iBritisk FlL, ii 
381) as bein, most interesting i„ this respect. At every 
«quee.e applied to the sides of the mother, the spri,ht y 1 tUe 

T 7?:' "•" '7 '" ^''^' '''''' """'^- "f 1^0 or 200. 
s, t- /r ^'^"''' ''^ ^'^^ 'States that twenty-eij-ht 

species oi .Wj^a.u. aiv viviparous, and Dr. AIcock'(p'o. 
^00. .,oc mi, p 22(i) has recently made known thre 
pecies w lucli live at ,reat depths in the sea, whose ^■oun. are 
bn-^t forth alive. Many other species no do^bt :^^ 

specif i!;^!T *'r ^T*"' I-'-poiKlerance of known viviparous 
spec es IS to be found amon. fish of tiie shark order. This is 
wha wo nn^ht c .pect, for they are distinctly the most 

be the best of all hsh brains (Brai. an Orr,an of Mind, 
p. 115). and so far as wei^lit j^oes, I can certify that while 
the brains of specimens of nine species of ..rdinarv^ food 
k:he«, each of a pound weight, only xveraged some thirteen 
.lams, those of seventeen .specimens of four species of do^-fish 

^ SI 


r ii-' 



of tlio Siime weiglit, avoraf^-e'l not less than thirty-nine jrrains ; 
a In-ain not far sliort of tliat possessed by birds of the less in- 
telli<,'ent species wlien they have tlie same body weif,dit. 

Very few of the rays are viviparous, but amon^- tlie sliarks 
proper (Plagiostomes), inc'.udinir do<r-lisli, porbeagles, etc., 
Mcintosh tells us that all are of this habit except Scyllium, 
C'cstraeion, and Callorhynchiis. Thus while less than 1 per 
cent, of fish in general are viviparous, there are no less than 
90 per cent, of the species with good brains that bring forth 
their you- ■; alive. If the fish with a brain three times a.s 
large as , _ average of other fishes must take longer to hatch 
than the ordinary fish, nothing could save it in the egg state 
and during early life except the protection of parental care. 
But no form of parental care is so efficient as that which is 
unconscious and organic, that which leaves the mother no 
choice, but works out its course independently of her voli- 
tion. The shark or dog-fish which unconsciously retains her 
eggs till they are hatched, and then extrudes them as active 
and even rapacious creatures of fair size, gives her young ones 
the best of chances known among fish. When we add to 
this the size and strength, or at least the great agility of the 
mother, we may readily prophesy that a very small number 
of eggs will suffice for the perpetuation of these species. 

It is not in the least surprising, tlierefore, to find that in 
the eleven species for which information is to be had, the 
average number of ott'spring is only twenty-four. Some of 
these fish show a certain amount of conscious parental care. 
Sir Frederick .AlcCoy (Prodromus of Zovloi/y of Victoria 
Decade, viii., p. IS) says that after the (log-fish of Port 
PhMli {Galeus Amtralis) has brought forth her thirty to 
fifty young ones, they swim under and around her for a 
while, no doubt for protection. Many sharks and dog-fish 
give birth to one at a time, either every day or every second 
day for a month or two dui-ing the warm season. The highest 
degree of solicitude seems to be shown in the devil-fish 
(Dicerohatis), which stands between the sharks and the rays. 
It brings forth a young one every six or eight weeks, 
and the two accompany eacli other for several days, tlie 
female at that time being considered especially dangerous 


line grains ; 
the less in- 

;• tlie sharks 
iagle.s, etc., 
t Scyllmm, 
than 1 per 
lo less than 
bring forth 
36 times as 
;er to hatch 
3 egg state 
rental care, 
at which is 
mother no 
if her voH- 
retains her 
1 as active 
y^oung ones 
we add to 
lity of the 
ill number 

ind that hi 
oe had, the 
Some of 
ental care. 
f Victoria 
ih of Port 

thirty to 
her for a 
id dog-fish 
ery second 
'he highest 

1 tlie rays, 
bt weeks, 
days, the 


and violent. In the shark class Owen detected some sign of a 
transition to a uterus or womb. In all the lower forms the 
eggs are produced in the ovary and, when ripe, descend 
through the oviduct and are deposited. In some early types 
of viviparous fish the eggs are .letained long enough in the 
ovary to be_ hatched ; in others they are held while descend- 
ing the ovuluct and there develop. In some of the ovi- 
jDarous species a gland occurs in the oviduct, wherein a touo-h 
horny spiral capsule is formed roun.l the e^. so as to protect 
It a ter ex rusion. In the majority of species, however, the 
wals ot the oviduct are in one part flaccid and easily dis- 
tende<l. riiere gather the eggs, and there they lie as in a 
womb until hatched. (Anat of Vertrhrates, l, p. .574 ) Some 
species proceed even further. Balfour (ii., 66) tells us that 
in the emale of the hound shark (Mustelus la'vis) and 
of the blue shark (Carchartns glaucm) the inner surface of 
the oviduct forms .lepimsions into which numerous raised 
folds on the yolk-sac are fitte.l, the whole arrangement look- 
ing much like a placenta, its object no doubt being that the 
germ may use as nutriment not only the yolk of its own 
sac, but also the transmitted fluids of the mother's blood 

An immen,se advantage lies along this course of internal 
hatching. The huge drain required of the female system 
when millions of eggs ave laid, becomes less necessary yet 
on the other hand a large share of the advantage goes to the 
young. A dog-fish ovary contains thousands of undeveloped 
eggs. The great majority of these become atrophied, and the 
nutriment which would have spread among many is in part 
concentrated on a few. A beneficial compromise is thus 
ettected: while there is less drain on the female, there is 
better provision for the individual ofisnring. For when a 
million eggs are produced, the nutriment^ provided for each in 
the shape of its yolk-sac can be only very minute The 
young fish is therefore born (.f microscopic size, and is accord- 
ingly feeble : thus in its growth to maturity it is an easy 
prey- But if only twenty young ones are' to be supplied 
each has a large yolk-sac, aii.l it may come into the world' 
perhaps twenty lbs. in weight, as in the case of the devil-fish 
(Gunther, p. 348.) This represents a very great advantage 

1 t 




in .survival. A fuJ-^Towii weif,rli,s uiure than a full- 
i,a-own do^.ti.h : yet th. nowl^-horn <lo^^-Hsh ccul.l ea.sily make 
a moul ot H0U..0 lmn<lrc.l.s of n.^wly-luitchod cod ; a ^^ood start 
in hfe for tlie one must therefore mean a very bad .start for 
the other. 

Add to this tliat tlie younj. do^^-Hsh, leisurely broujrht to 
maturity m its mother's oviduct, lias become a more perf..ct 
nervou.s structure, and is in consetiuence cuicker of sense lither 
of limb, and much more cunnin^r {„ its brain. No wonder 
therefore, that the victory in the strufrf,de ^oe-s to the vivi- 
parous .species, and that the otl;er;; hol.l their own by reason 
merely ot an astoundinfr fecundity which makes them the 
prey of the hi^ type. They come into the world only to 
be food, while the lar^^er-brained and almost always vivi- 
parous species live lon^^ upon them and prosper. 

Of species that exhibit no sort of parental care, the avera-^e 
of^ forty-nine ^nves 1,040.000 e^^n to a female each year ■ 
W..U. amon^. those which make nests or any apology for nests' 
the number ,s only about 10,000. A-non-r those which have 
any protective tricks, s-,ch as carrying, the e^.^^s i„ pouches 
or attached to the bo.l.y, or in the mouth, the averaf^e number 
is under .1000: while amon^r those whose care takes the form 
Ota uterine or .luasi-uterine j^avstation which brin^rs the younff 
into the world alive, an avera^.e of Hfty-six e^., is .uite 
sufficient. ' 

It must hence be very evident how much better are a few 
that are tended than a jrreat crowd left without care And 
the hrst link in the chain of reasonin^r of this book is that in 
the .struK^de for existence an immense premium is placed .pon 
parental care, and that not until this has been developed can 
the hi^rher nervous types become po.ssible. 





Among Amphihian.s. 

aimuly stated f , "' ''™'°'""""'- I" «■*. "s 

a^a typical „iL,C4iIo """"^.■«- -» ■"«Wb"''^J 

ho '-1 i- :.!;:t':rr.,T.;:.f;^,*ii '"r-f ^'' '- '° 

tlie avoraL'-o of fhh-Hr ■ ^ ^'''^ '^'^''"'^ "^ reptiles, 

average o:l:,:1;o;';" f ""'' "^^' ^''^^' ^ ^^- 
over Hve e-n ' ..^ 'P ."^'''''' ^'^'' °"^>^ *^ t"«« 

rank i. reac^a ^ h ZL ^. ^^ '^'"''^- \'''' "^^"- 
typical species they hrv " n ^; ^r"""^: "' "-'^^'-'"^ 
every year, and wi^un t. e t^^n ^ X? 'h ""' *'""^'^' 
gressive <linunution is to be Z i H t . T T"" ^'" 

to^'ether avera™ o.ilv 1-^ all the lu^.her onlers taken 

when we reHert Mvif ,'r> <•! ^ , -^ clear, 

• 1 '"- iiuits touicl save a race roni (lestrnctin.. if u 

^ mi tit u^v: " ""V' ^'^"^^^"« ™°- --^-i "' this 

cany the eeble youn^. ones over their initial dangers 
Stian.,^e!y inystoriou« is that nerve suscentil.iUfv ')■ u 


'I \ 



roving thri 

gh the depths, finds a mass of eggs on rock or 
waving sea>s^eed, he is impelled by hunger to eat them if they 
belong to any his own particular one out of all the 8000 
species of fish: yet if they are of his own species he knows 
them by instinct, and instead of devouring, he fertilises them 
by she<lding his milt over them. The hen bird which hears 
the chirp of her emerging chick is move.l by a most mysterious 
nerve thnll, the analogue of that delicious emotion which 
creeps with inexpressible tenderness through the woman's 
frame when first the little new-born face buries its softness 
into her bosom. 

In the concluding chapters of this book a rude sort of first 
approximation will be made to determine the nature of these 
nerve susceptibilities. But at present it is rather our business 
leaving out of count their nature, to show that whatever they 
maybe, they have gradually grown up; and that although the 
distance is huge between the love of any fish for its tii<y brood 
and the attection of the human father and mother for the little 
faces seated round their table, yet there never was any gap 
throughout the history of life in the development of one from 
the other: they are still joined along all the line by a chain of 
.subtle intermediation. 

But the first step, after we leave the fish, carries us only a 
little way. For the fish class is a very large one with a wide 
range of variat.on within its own limits. The next class 
amphibia, is much smaller, and, though higher on the average' 
it IS not higher than the best developed of fish. Indeed in 
regard to parental care, the frog, or toad, the newt, or sala- 
mander, IS only a little in advance of the average fish and 
hardly equals the shark or ray. The 11^0 species of ampliibia 
start midway up the s.;ale of the 8000 species of fish. None 
of them have brains to compare with that of the shark. 

Yet contrasting the classes as a whole, there is one manifest 
advance m reproduction that is made by the amphibia. The 
fertilisation of the eir^^ is always made much more certain than 
in the case of the average fish. As a rule the male clasps the 
tenia e for a day or two at ])reeding time. He squeezes her 
tightly with his fore-limbs roun.l her so as to foro nut 
the eggs, and as they emerge, he squirts upon them his sper- 


I on rock or 
;hem if they 
all the 8000 
3S he knows 
tilises them 
which hears 
i mysterious 
)tion wliich 
le woman's 
its softness 

sort of first 
ire of these 
ur business, 
atever they 
i though the 
ti;>y brood, 
or the little 
IS any gap 
)f one from 
^ a chain of 

■i us only a 
ith a wide 

next class, 
le average, 

Indeed, in 
/t, or sala- 
e fish, and 
f amjjhibia 
■sh. None 

le manifest 
ibia. The 
irtain than 

clasps the 
ueezes her 

forco out 

II his sper- 


wnf.. fi ^'\^^f^"^'«"J.'""l the female sucks it in with the 
r ^ ,' '^'' ^"^■'''"'^' fertilisation of the eggs. The 

«}.. tenons m its ongm and in its intensity. The naturalist 
nr: ; r" '^'''''. ''^ -^-^ --^'-^ -Section to tdUhe 

the male f.T '^'"? """"" ^^'' "^^'^ ^^^^^^^^ 'l^^^^^tion, yet 
«ie male frog knows the female, and is attracted to her by an 
nconce.vable ar<l,>nr, in order to sprinkle her eggs I have 
-Pratediy pulled from a pond by L hind leg 'a' male ^ 
wl ch was claspmg the fen.ale. I have thus can-ied home tl^e 

into watei rom heights nicreasing up to six or seven feet and 

zam (quoted Letourneau, EvohUhm of Marriane p 8) savs 

a under sum !ar circumstances he has amputated 'the 'I ^ 
■of male frogs without inducing them to relax their ^rS^ 

states that the female ,s sometimes smothered by the embraces 

trn7«! *^^^'^"7^^•^^»lt must be advantageous, for if it be 
t ue, as good authorities estimate, that two-4irds of the JZ 
■0 h,sh ,ot unfertilised, it must be beneficial if all frog el 
are of necessity snrinkl.jfl «.;+i. -u a ^ *^^ 

12 000 whicl T r , ""^- "^'"""^^ '"'"^ 10,000 or 

observed 1 do I T''" ^'°""' '""'^ "^'^-- ^^^^^hed or 
obsei ved, I do not remember to have seen one which I had anv 
reason to believe incapable of developing. ^ 

In the tailless sneeios flnf ,•„ iu c 

mode of oxtern.,1 f f r . ^''""^^ """ toads-this 

nioi.e ot external fertilisation is universal: but in the tailed 

pecies, salamanders, newts, blindworms. and so fb 1 

fj. 1 isation IS internal, and the 3-oung are often born ali^- 

lehm says tint the males of the blindworms (Ccecilia) expel 

he semen into the vvater near the female, which suck t ii'o 

fjives the .same description in the case of newts and sala- 
manders. Several species (Salamandra maculosa) are s I to 


{ I 

• :t 


cany the male semen for montli.s before fertilisation take* 
place. {Enihrijoloun, ii., 120.) The brothers Sarasin {Nature, 
xxxii., p. 520) describe one species of blindworni as oviparous' 
but the rest are mostly known to be viviparous, and at least two- 
species oi salamander are of the same habit, In Salaman- 
dra aim the feniale keeps the young within iier body till 
they have undergone the metamorphosis out of the tadpole 

Von Siebold says (quoted by Balfour) that in the sala- 
mander large nuirbers of eggs are formed in the ovary of th& 
female, but that the pair which are the first to descend the 
oviduct, and are the earliest to be hatched, eat up the others, 
as they descend ; so that this pair when at last born are of 
goodly size, representing the bulk of some dozens of incor- 
porated brothers and sisters. Not more than one per cent, of 
the species of amphibia are viviparous as against at least, 
two per cent, of tish. But if the sharks be omitted from 
the fish, the proportion is not greatly ditterent in the two 

Parental care among the amphibia, however, is much 
more often shown in other means of egg-protection. There is. 
nothing it is true in the way of nest-formation ; the nearest, 
approach being in the case of the newts, in which the female 
lays her eggs, one at a time, each on a separate leaf of some 
aquatic plant, folding it up and sticking it together with the 
viscid fluid which surrounds the eggs. Here the youn- tad- 
poles come forth, in no little safety, some twelve or fifteen 
days thereafter. 

But in general, protective care is mostly exhibited in the 
provision of sacs for carrying the eggs throughout the hatch- 
ing perio'l. Among the poucLed frogs of South America, 
{Nototrema) the skin on the back of the female is very loose, 
so as to form a shallow pouch with an opening towards the 
rear. The male seizes the eggs as they issue from the 
oviduct, and after having fertilised them he thrusts them with 
his hmd-foot into this sac. Here they grow rapidly till the back 
of the female becomes all swollen. In one species {N. marsu- 
pi:dum), when the egg,s are hatched into the tadpole sta-e 
tlv, mother seeks the nearest pond, and there her bro'^od 


escape to loa.l tlieir early fish-like life in the water. Other 
^peces (as .Y. t^tudh..un and .Y. ov^^feram) carry the youno- 

Z n !: wVr '^'^"'^' ''''^''^^ *'^'^y"-'- -cape from 
the pouch till they are four-footed froo-s. (Brehrn, p 721 ) 

h^hr" m ^'''''::'''r>hi. and Notod^l^kis have the san.e 
habit (Balfour, n., 121.) I„ the Chilian species of narrow- 
inouthed ivo^JRhinoderraa dc^rwinii) it is the male wliich 
1 a.s the sac. So soon as he has fertilised the eggs, he stuffs 
them into a pouch on his throat where they grow ami spread 
down the sk n of the h..lh- v;n +1. i i T « >• ■-'i-'ieau 

of fl.or., ^w » ^ ^^'^ ''^^'°^^ under-surface is full 

of them. (Howes, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1888, p. 231.) Here the 
young are not only hatched but carried tlirough the tadpole 

Some frogs bestow the same protective care without the 

when Ih. •' 7'"r" " ^^^^"'' ^'"-^^-« or P. dorsicjera) 
whe the emale has emitted her eggs and they have been 

about sixty Ihey seem to be possesse-l of some sort of irri- 
tant fluid, for the skin of the female, smooth before, now 
begins to grow warty-looking, l,y .eason of the formation 
i^und each egg of a thickened skin which rapidly grows ove 

iTh r : n^ '" ''■ ^"""^^ '^' ^°"I^« «f ' -ths the 
pother lies at the bottom of a pond Mobile her brood are 

etched on her back and carried through the tadpole stage, so 

ha when they escape into the water it is as full-fonned 

toads. (Wyman, Am. Journ. of Science, 1854, p. 309 ) There 

S; Tlnf ft^Z^'^'f" '''' '''' ^^"'« habit -(Va J. 

XX., p. 46.3), while a West Indian tree-frog (Hylodes Mar- 

t^mcevs^s) lays about twenty eggs on which the female seems 

to sit, not in way of incubation of course, for her body 

could scarce y give them any heat which they might no^ 

obtain from the air. but merely by way of protection They 

ai-e born complete without going through any tadpole stage 

The well-known nurse-frog of the Rhine and Rhone Valleys 

arf wf ?,"""^ shows a considerable degree of parental 

caie. When the eggs have come from the female ^n lono- 

s.nng8, like sausages, and when the male has 

he winds the chaplets round his hind limbs, the number of 






I i 




eg^s boiiif,^ about sixty. He tlien conceals liimself under a. 
stone or in the soft earth, and lies (juiet for ten or twelve 
days till the eg^ifs are nearly hatched. But as the young 
tadpoles must have their existence in water, he seeks, 
some pond into which he phuiffes. (Brehm, p. 732.) 

^ In the case of a Ceylon tree-hog (Polypedatcsreticiihd us) 
it is the female which carries the eggs in omewhat the same 
manner. She sticks the strings under her body, where they 
hang in little festoons till hatched; those which form the 
attachment evidently causing some such inflammatory process 
as is found in the Surinam toad, for the skin is afterwards 
marked with depressions where they have been fastened. 

Though the exhibition of parental care in amphibians 
never lies on what I have called the aristogenic track, the 
road which ultimately leads to the noblest types— though we 
see few viviparous and no nest-building species, yet such 
care as we find bestowed is greatly instrumental in reducing 
the number of eggs that are rec^uired to keep the species 
constant. The average number annually laid by the ordinary 
frog, toad, or newt cannot be far short of 1000. I have 
counted the eggs of one species (Hyla aurea) and found the 
average to be for nine individuals 3116 eggs, the greatest 
num})er for any one being 5046. Among all the non-par- 
ental species for which I have obtained information the nuinber 
exceeds 800 eggs, yet the average of nine species that show 
parental care is only twenty-seven. Among the viviparous 
species the number of offspring declines to ten or less in the 

Among Reptiles. 

In the next class, the reptiles, there is this one great 
advance, that with a single doubtful exception, the anomalous 
genus Sphenodon, all species have an internal fertilisation of 
the eggs. Sphenudon is an almost extinct genus of two rare 
species found only on a few rocky islets off the coast of New- 
Zealand. The males of these are said to have no intromittent 
organs, but except in this one ease, all the many thnusand 
species of turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and snakes fertilise the 


e.~<-mw,i, n , '■" ''"'""'y ™"'l'"™Wi! with the 

are krir,. , „.l "llowiid tor the fact that the ei'irs 

tl Sot ,,'"'■ ,"■'"' " "•"«'' '"''K™'™'. ax well a, for 
their C """"'"' '■"'""°' "'■ "^"'■"'■""y »"«»""8 

wo pro«'|''f;: *'■ °'''™ "f '-"P'''^ "" «"'! *.-<»' advance, as 

At tr„: ,' ;;':;.,°:'":'- '" »"-*- ■»- "■■«'-'y --'owed. 

em is laid , „» , ■ '"■ ""'""S 'l'° ""'■"». '!» fortilised 
ri4 e e t V ""''""'"P"' '"■'• i' W«-'» 1"'.K and „„,„e,.„„s 

— 3 ' M*-'"? "'""'■ "'^ °"''-' "" half 'hatch'l, or 

development. ^ advanced stage of 

stnicture is .^nir h t „ Z """ T ""'"■ '""''■ ""^'^ 
othe,. indicatio™ h„, hT '""°". '"S".'- '^"a'- An,o„g 

bestowed upon tl i ^'^ ''^1™ T "T ""T "^^ 
«,,„+; I , i^^uKt^iiy- IJie lemale at midimrlif 

h t : ,t T ? '■'■""' *» '■"- - -a, and scrap" a Me 
one another fiV^^L^r J^i^/^t.^^^^^^^^^^ 

«. L the warn, sa^i is f ^thf 0.^:" T; af;^^*^ 

agams many sort, of enen.y.and on the othe,"securfo he 

«g» tin, „,„,,t wa,-,„th .,0 favou,-aHc for ha teh ," 1 Z 

z ,:;';;ini*^^ "- "r^" '- - '"'■'"■•«'-'-- ^^ ^^ 

intj , , ,j t,,ke hve or »,x week.,. At length the you„.r b,-eafc 
tan the.r shells and push their way up thi.ugh the sand 




■f ■; 


Thvy turn with a ,straii<ri' certainty of instinct for the nearest 

water, hut fall a prey, as tliey ^o, to the hirds and hoastH that 

liave ;;athere(I for the festival. Those that reacli the water 

tiud a iiost of fish or of alli<rators waitfnp; to welcome the 

plentiful repast. One would fancy that perhaps the 112 ejjgs 

which appear as the avera^^; of twenty-eijrht species wouhl be 

too few to replenish the stock. But when once a turtle or 

tortoise has <rrown to maturity, there are few animals which 

can molest it, much less swallow it, and as they live to a very 

great aj^'e, it is possible that the average female may in the 

course of her life lay sevei-al thousands of eggs, so that if one 

young one in a thousand could reach maturity, the race would 

probably not diminish. 

The habits of the crocodiles are very much the same, but 
they show a greater (h;gree of maternal attention. Like the 
tortoises, they scrape a hole in the sand, or in some swampy 
place in a forest, where the dead and half-moist leaves make 
digging easy. There they lay their eggs from 20 to 100 in 
numlier, and leave them to tlie heat of the sun. But there is 
this ditterence, that In many species the mother either stays 
near the place or else returns after a week or two, and is not 
quite forgetful of her brood. Livingstone says (on authority 
that is second-hand it is true, but corroborated in otlier ways) 
that the motlier assists her young to break tlie tough shell, 
and helps to unbury them from the superincumbent sand. 
She then leads ihem to the water, each with its yolk-sac still 
adhering to its abdomen: apparently she takes some little 
interest in their first efforts at fish-catching. (Missionary 
Travels, p. 267.) 

A careful account of the process is given by Voeltzkow 
{Nature, xlii., p. 376), who describes the Nile crocodile as choos- 
ing a place five or six yards from the river's edge, where, by 
wheeling round repeatedly, she clears a circular space in the 
midst of which a hole is dug and about twenty eggs are 
deposited. This is done every morning for four days, the 
pits being close to one another. From that time forward 
for about forty days, the crocodile returns constantly to the 
place, and gives some assistance to the younc in escanin" from 
their eggs. Emin Pasha is cautious in accepting this account, 


Jacaie alliiratur (NafuraM ,m thr Amazon, p. 31G) verv 
ot a orucal p.l. ot loaves, tl.ere He hidden the twenty o^^gs; 
Se re tes'" '^^ ""."" ^'^^ "«' ^^^^''"^ *'-' ^in^e of hatcht.. 
been to knT "^r" •^•" '"^' '''' l'^'^. ^ J«^-- having 

caTrht of f T ''""' her. seeing that she had been 
bv M De r v" ■^^•^"^■"' ^"'^'"^"^- ^^'^'^ ^««-»t given 
wLn th?::;;:' ^t;""'"' '''■'' P- '^87) .shows that in Anrerica 

I^IZT f"'^^ ^^'^y '^l^'VS keep a 

wa cli fo, the mother whieh is sure to be at hand. The com- 

amon/; '!'V """,^''"" ^"'^"^ *« ^^'^'^^t that the n.others 
a.K)ng crocodiles and alligators show some small decrree of 

tTrial ,^^^ they lay averages little more 

than half the quantity deposited by turtles, the mean of thir- 
teen species being sixty-six eggs. 

Among the lizards, parents care assumes rather the shape 
o in.-eased of the eggs within the female, for L 
almost all species, as Brehm says (Knrchiiere, p. 150 "the 
mother appears to pay not the smallest attenti;n'to her' eggs 
but runs away as soon as she has laid the last one " In the 
few cases wherein a certain degree of care is shown, we may 

SL^is >/'"■"' ""'''"'' P- ''^ ^^^^ "the maternal 
solicitude 1 neither very strong nor very enduring". But 

here i,s probably more than an equivalent for crocodiles' care 

unt 1 partly or wholly hatched. The lizards thus attain to 

he leve of the highest orders of fish. About twenty-four per 

cent, of them are v viparous if we include under tha^ term' H 

shell, but so far hatched as to be ready for emergence in a few 

out of 1570 which are truly viviparous, bringing forth their 
young without a shell, but, although only six species of 
chameleons are included among thest. all o^" the fS; are 
praeticady viviparous, while in the same way we may ckssifv 
the whole of the largest i'amily of lizards, the'^c.^.^as:^^^^^ 



vivipai-i itiH ; for the young einer{,'e from the whull iniintMliately 
after oxtrusion. 

To 1)0 brou<,'ht into tho world of ;,'oo(l av/.t'., well 
ecjuipped and active is a very jrreat advantaf,'e to the new 
generation, even though never more than a mere trace of sub- 
Ke(iuent care is shown by any lizard. Yet the amount of the 
ailvantage given may be estimateil by the decline in the 
number of ottkpring. While the average for the twenty- six 
species of oviparous lizard.s, as to which information .an 
be had, is twenty-three eggs, the thirteen species which 
are known to be viviparous produce oidy eight offspring 
on an average: the one set thus requiring just three times 
as great a fecundity as the other, in order to maintain their 

In the next order, the snakes and serpents, we still find only 
small traces of advancement in conscious parental care. But 
the advantage of an unconscious protection is provided in 
the very much increased habit of bringing forth their young 
alive. In many species the new-born snake is still enclosed 
in the egg-shell, but if it immediately proceeds to break tho 
shell and to shift for itself, the species is of course to be classed 
as practically viviparous. After a long research, I have been 
able to identify 841 species as being viviparous, and by a co- 
incidence also 841 that are oviparous. Giinther, in his preface 
to Boulenger's Catalogue of Ophufiu (British Museum, 1893), 
estimates the total number of species described up to date as 
being about 1200. No one of course can say exactly how 
many of these are of the one class, how many of the other, but 
in all probability we are entitled to say that nearly half of the 
snakes are viviparous, and that therefore in regard to parental 
protection this oriler stands highest of all yet named. The 
average number of ofispring for the whole order is twenty-two 
as computetl from the forty-six species for which numbers could 
be had. But the number for the non-viviparous species is twenty- 
three, while that for the viviparous species is eighteen. The 
reduction is not great; but after all in the snakes the ditierence 
between the two sets is by no means vital. All snakes carry 
their eggs till they are at least half hatcluid.and of the species 
reckoned as oviparous a very large proportion lay their eggs 


S^heiXi^Vf ,'"■ '"" "''"' ^'" ^"""^ -- -i" 
-.ako whose ;; •t''''^""''" •'^'^^" ""^' ^^"'••^ '^^ "•' ^P-i- "f 

f--l to ta r. ' "'""""^ "'"'" '""'-^ '"'■'' -'" -'t '•" 

snakes caryd-" '^"'"' ^^ ''^ -'^'^''^^ ^^^^^ ^-"ale 
after tl.ey Hv i?'' ;" "?' '7™^' ^'" ^'^""^' ^'''•- "-"*'-« 

-onth.s. Bulv;^ .. ':7t '^ !^^.-''^.^" *° ^- -bout Tour 

youn, are o;^!;,,.;^: t r^ Xb T 'T '^^^^•" ^'^^ 
ance with the resnlf« of '"^ ^''""'' '" '^^'C'^'-^'- 

to ^lepona toV ° '?"^^ ^^'-^'^^ afterwards related 

e%'.s reuuu-„. ^ '*'"* "P°" ^'^'^^ ^e.nperature at whicJi tl,e 

between tL fX^il^ "r 7 "^*'\'^' '""^ -hieh elapse. 

^Hsplays any ™d .,'%""."'•'' '^ ':^ ^h^" ^'^"-- -^^y -''.V-h 

pythons, possibly the wl ole twentr '"' " •'' "''"^' "^' ^'^« 
^'fc'^(s. It is lialf .. ? t \enty-one species, incubate tlieir 

jtiin irp^^^t. ;:?' :f ■^"'^^, ^'^^' ^■'^'^- ^'-•^■^^«^- at the 

She fastedtr Hve"u „ths f "' ' T^P^'^^'^^^ *'^"^'^-' ^''en. 
cess, and when she t t "/"f '"' **'*^^" ^^e hatching p.o- 
luul the folds of r " 'f "^"' '' ^'^ ^^ilst she still 

tl^e fifty-six day w ;!","'' '""" '"'^"^^' '^^^- during 

e^« bf^ -''::^;- ^^^ r ^^ ^^' 

J.U Australia the two sneeievj nf +i, n . 
ami ii, South AMen 1, '''" PJ'"'°» '!l"« P/."rft«l 

habit. I„ A^ S, V e« "'"'.f "''''''"^ '"'™ ""= »•"= 
»llie<l n..n,l„,. i "ho ,\ ? ;^";°"" °'=™-' "» "'«-' 


''. X ! 


(iVfyVf Imngarm) which he classifies as Ophiophagus makes a 
nide sort of nest for her ei;-<;-s alid coils herself round them till 
they are hatched. But there are few cases recorded outside of 
the pythons in which this habit occurs ; the connnon-ringed 
snake {Tropidonotus natrix) and the hog-nosed snake {Hcfcrodon 
pla/i/rhinus) have both been found coiled on their eggs, but in 
these species this is assuredly not a uniform custom. Those 
species which incubate their eggs are generally prepared to 
defend them fiercely, and Mrs. Hopley, in her interesting work 
on snakes, gives a dramatic description of the maternal 
courage of the Natal python in the London gardens when the 
keeper went to remove from her the evidently addled eggs 
which she had under her. 

But there can be little reason to credit the mother snake 
with anything remarkable in the way of consciou.s care of her 
young ones after their birth. On the contrary the description 
which Brehm gives {Kriechtiere, p. 405) of the young viper is 
applicable to the whole order. " So soon as the little creature 
has seen daylight, it goes its way without making the slightest 
claim on the love of its mother, who concerns herself in no 
way about her brood, and without the exchange of one friendly 
glance with all its sisters." Many experiments serve to show 
that the young snake when newly escaped from the shell can 
kill small animals, its fangs being well supplied with poison 
and its ferocity being savagely awakened at the sight of mouse 
or bird. I have several times taken the eggs out of a female 
black snake {Psrudirhia porphyri cm) and seen the little 
creatures strike at my hand so soon as the shell was ripped 
open. And the same precocity is seen in the rattlesnake. 
(Nahire, xxxi., p. 588.) 

There is therefore no indication in either fish or reptile, 
even in the highe-t grade, of that helplessness at birth which 
is the concomitant of any notable degree of conscious parental 
care. That very slowly unfolding maturity, which is essential 
to the finest nerv organism, seems to involve an early period 
of helplessness, which itself demands an instinct of self- 
sacrifice on the pa"t l.> the mother. In neither fish nor 
reptile is t'.ere seen more ^han a primitive indication of 
anything of the kin<l : although there is an increasing 


predion UKule fo. unconscious forms of care whicli do not 
invoi\ e nnection. 

hin^'?f*V'\'- P°"^^'<^'^« «to»y of .levelopment has never a 
Plat so 1^^"" "•" "^ '^' """^"' ■'^^™P''^*^^^ ^'*^«^-«d to 

ITe but?";-' r'.'"' '° ""^'^ ^^""«- ^^'^*'' "-'-^^-l-ble 
connect^ T ' T"' ^^^ ''''''' «*" ''^'^ ^"^^^er extirpation of 
Yet f w? 'f '; r"^'^ '° '^'"'^ ""^•''^ rapidly into existence. 
Yet If we could truly trace the tale of the bygone ages very 

hos ^^"-^r^'r"- '''''''' '^^^^^ ^^- ereepin;g;owt^ 


Nor love nor mother-kindness dwelt on earth. 

Oor land am\ sea, time's vast procession saw 

Only the snap of tooth, the gulp of maw ; 
^or ever, round the ^reat world's teeming girth, 
Had new-born eyes, even in their hour of birth, 

Met with a glance of fondness ; but the law 

Unholy desert I what, .iniid the dearth 
Of ail that makes it lovable to be. 

What was thy profit of exuberant life» 
Till m a fuller time, there stirred in thee, 

And .2 f'""^ '■"*,"'■''' *''° ™°^'''''' h'''-^'"* ' Then strife 
And greed were doome.l for some far ultimate day. 
When love the lives of all things yet shall sway. 




k !i 


mi e ■ 

I, ■■ 





parental caiie of biivls. 

The Incubating Instinct. 

If it be true, as no doubt it is, that both the bird and the 
mammal are developments from difierent points in the scale 
of reptile life, the tracks they have followed are in no respect 
more diverj^ent than in re<.ard to the kind of care they receive 
m their embryonic sta^re.s. There are reptiles which incubate 
their eg^H, an<l it is this method of early protective care which 
the birds have emphasised and brou<,dit to the perfection seen 
in^ weaver-bird or in parrot. There are other reptiles which 
brin|r forth their youno; alive, and the mammal has perfected 
this provision, gradually ac(iuiring the habit of attaching the 
embryo within its own body and nourishing it more and more 
perfectly with full streams of maternal blood. Roth bird and 
mammal present, as the type advances, a lengthening period 
of parental protection ; but there can be no smallest doubt that 
the latter is on the more successful track. For the egg, which 
is carrie.l about within fho body of the mother Tiid there 
developed, secures a larger and slower growth to maturity than 
that which IS deposited and hatched within the most cunnin<rly 
constructed of nests. Moreover, after birth, the mammal's* is 
the more helpful course. For though the bird may feed her 
young extremest assi.luity, she has no provision for the 
full nutrition of helpless infancy that can be compared witJi 
the rich flow of milk I'rom distended udders. 

Taking first the huiid)k.r of the two diverging roads it 
will be now our task to follow the growth of parental care 
along the advancing types of the bird class. They sl,ow on 
the average an immense amount of progress, nor 'are there 




wantin^f links that serve in a measure to connect the reptile 
forms of parental care witii those of the bird. Still there is 
also soni.'thing in the nature of a gap between the two 
cla.sses ; nothino- perhaps that can be called abrupt discontinuity, 
and yet a certain suddenness in transition wl'"<'h we nowhere 
else perceive in tlie story of developing parental care. 
Remember, however, that it is here we cross the borders from 
the cold-blooded type of animals which take their temperature 
almost entu-ely from their medium, to the warm-blooded type 
which maujtain their own characteristic degree of heat, in 
general much higher than that of their environment. 

From reptile to bird there ar : not now existing any of the 
transitional forms which we certainly know did once exist 
And the reason is evident. For the fully developed bird 
would be too formidable a rival to sufier the bird of a half- 
way stage to continue. Ec^uipped only with feathers, beak 
and claws, the l,ird might have been but a little the superior 
of many a fish or reptile , but once it acquired its aerial life, 
once It could pounce on its prey from aloft, yet secure its 
own safety in a moment by flight, supremacy was asserted ; 
the wing and the (luick pulse of heated blood, that give .so full 
an activity, proclaimed the bird the tyrant of the lower animal 
world. The humbler forms might survive by reason of ever- 
increasing fertility, but many an intermediate form must have 

For 111 the average of cases a species is always most for- 
midable to another species which is much of its own character 
but just inferior to it in efficiency. The clever doctor who 
settles in a town may ruin the practice of two or three less 
competent practitioners, while he will hardly atfect the living 
made by herbalist and patent-medicine man, much less injure 
those of other callings, the farmer, mechanic, or tradesman out 
of whom they all desire to make their living. So in the 
economy of nature. Where 3'ou find subsisting side by side, 
civilised men and uncivilised, as well as mice and rats the' 
little rodents hold their own, but it is the uncivilised man 
that disappears before the civilised. He is too near, yet not 

near enou"-h 




So must a dull and sluggish bird disappear before the 



eager competition of a more active bird, althou;^], „o doubt the 
xrogs tJuat ted them both in the same ponds have contrived to 
ho d their own. This process will not in any way interfere 
^vith the contnmance of types of varying rank whose patl.s of 
hfe have not led the.a into competition. Eacli may fill its 
own situation whet" r on sea or in lak. ; in the desert or the 
forest; upon the icy olitf or amid the sultry swamp. On its 
own ground a species may defy a superior on. not adapte.l to 
that ground, just as a negro would outlive a Newton in the 
heart of ^ew Guinea. Nay, even side by side in the same 
forest two species of birds can well exist, though nearly allied • 
some adaptation of beak or claw, of tongue or of neck, ma^ 
enable the lower species to thriv e on food which is inaccessible 
o the higher Yet all over tne world it is true that, sad 
though the havoc may be which the higher birds commit 
among lowly forms of life, they are much less likely to extir- 
pate these than they are to squeeze out of existence their own 
congeners of slightly lower rank. 

Thus we may expect a gap to have been slowly left as the 
birds asserted their marvellous supremacy. Even now it'is 
the clumsy bird of heavy flight which we see exterminated. 
The dodo and the great auk are gone ; the pinnated grouse 
and many species of partridge are going, while others such as 
the toothed pigeon are in a critical condition. Survival, there- 
tore, will always have a tendency to run in two opposing lines • 
ro implies either a great fertility which will have the etiect . 
of pinning the species down to its existing level and will for- 
bid It all hope of rising, or else a degree of smartness and 
competency which will diminish the chances of rival forms 
unless these have some accidental advantage, some dolo- 
genic peculiarity of detail, which secures their immunity 
J or this reason we find among existing forms a certain 
gulf between the highest reptile type and the lowest organism 
among birds. But the pala3ontologist finds a slow succession 
of extinct that in great measure bridge over the chasm 
of anatomic structure; and we cannot doubt, but that if these 
aiicient bones could hint the full tale of bygone habits, we 
should learn how parental care had also passe.l throu,di k,ng 
and unbroken gradations; that in the feons gone by' there 



' I 

no (liscoiitiniiity such as tlie present has to 

had been 

Aniontr existinff birds we perceive a ^^eneral evenness of 
type wliich is a prime obstacle to easy classification. Huxley, 
tor instance, finds but one anatomical feature of diti'erence on 
which to found a truly natural arrangement. Out of 2345 
genera (in the British Mvseuvi Catalogue, new edition to vol. 
XX., subse.iuent to that the old edition) i there are 2331 
whicli^ are provided with a keel-like breastbone which is 
essential for flight ; while there are only fourteen genera not 
so equipped. These are in consequence unable to fly, even 
were their wings sufficiently developed for the purpose. 
These lie calls the IMita: {Anat. of Vertebrates, p. 233) ; they 
are the Cursores of Cuvier, and include the ostiich, emu, and 
other running birds, the New Zealand apteryx being structur- 
ally the lowest of tlie class. But these birds seem to be only 
the remnant of an order once far more widely distributed. 
Those which now exist have owed their survival less to 
inherent fitness tliaii to their great size, all of tliem, with one 
exception, being the largest of birds. The kiwi or apteryx, 
which IS the exception, owes its safety to its insular home ; 
for the islands of New Zealand, wherein it dwells, are without 
a^ single beast of prey and but little troubled with ravenous 
birds. Yet in face of the advent of man, it approaches that 
extinction which has been the fate of the moa or New Zealand 
ostrich before it. These being dwellers upon earth, have dis- 
appeared before the Maori, while birtls with active powers of 
flight have held their own. We are not to be surprised 
.therefore though a gap occurs between reptile and bird; 
though we find the story of parental development as we' 
read it in our extant species to be not absolutely continuous. 

Yet is the discontinuity of progress in this respect far less 
than we might refisonably expect to find it. The parental 
care of these lowest of birds is distinctly superior to that of 
the highest reptiL., yet, as we shall shortly see, it is not 

' Tlie number of genera in various classifications is very different. St. 
George Mivart iu his Elements of Ornitholocjy gives only 1942, a much less 
number than that meutioiied above, but as it is liere only a question of pre 
portion, it scarcely matters which system is assumed for comparison, 

4 I 



I i ^i 


superior in any remarkable .le-ree. But the connectin-r link 

18 rather to be found .n a ,soni<-what hisrher fVunily, Ur inor- of 

the birds classed to-ether as Mrrjapods deal wiMi the;r e^^s in 

the crocodde fashion. They choose warm places upon a tropic 

bea^h, and there in the moist san.t they la^ tho'r eggs in holes 

wluch they scrape froni two to .kc ]Vet deep. Rapidly hatched 

u;. the humid heat, the young lie quiet for an houi or two 

then push their way upM'ards to hgiit and air, wMch ihpy 

eni.v "so fully feathererl and so independent that, thev a^; 

c,.pabK. of su^sisving without the Ic-ast assistance from *th ^r 

r"- )S'"""'' ^'''^'' "•• ^^^' ^^'-"^'^ ^''^'^ the same de- 
scription. (M ofOnM.., p, H.) That they receive no help what- 
soever 1.S the testimouy of th.t most excellent authority A R 
\\allac.. Of'da, JrcL, p. ;].)8.) But the birds thus poorly 

n?r' rn''^ *';f ^'^"'^'"^^^ *'''^*^"^' ^"^^ke only four genira out 
ot 2345 Ihey ine m comparatively innocuous regions, and 
are much above the average in fecundity, so that it is possible 
tliey are ..nly the remnants in favourable circumstances of a 
habit once i.-iore widely extended. 

But if we are to make a methodic examination of the 
developinent of parental care in birds, we shall fiiul it profitable 
to consider them in three progressive divisions: Flrsi, a grade 
p' !1 Z ^"*'"^g«"««' comprising only the running birds or 
AaUtce. Second, a grade of medium intelligence, consisting of 
the lower halt of the Carinnf^ or birds with keeled breast- 
bones, in all, four orders: An,crc., the web-footed; Gralla, the 
.tilt-legged; Galhua-, the pheasant-like; and Columhcr the 
pigeons. Third, the grade of superior intelligence, comprising 
the upper halt ot the Carinata:, that is the remaining six 
orders ot the British Museum Catalogue : Aecipitres, the birds of 
prey ; Stn,,,s, the owls ; Ficaria, the woodpecker set ; Fdttaci 
the parrots; Fassnifonncs, the sparrow-like; and 'Frinam 
/or»if5, the finch -Hke. J^nnyUli. 

To move from step to step along these three grades is ', 
advance proportionally in parental care. The birds of iA. 
interior grade never mak • ny sort of nest : the medi . ; .r^', " 
as a nile gather a rough , .ture of loose materials, v ) ;'. Il^ 
saipenor grade exhibit in ciie great majority of cases ./^.-H 
which ranges from good to exquisite in the formation of ^relU 


aecting link 
, ii'V mopi o[' 
iclr eggs if) 
pon H tropic 
ggs ill holes 
cHy hatched 
our or t\v'o, 
wlsicli they 
at they are 
frcm t!)jir 
le same de- 
lielp what- 
Jrity, .1. R. 
Iius poorly 
genera out 
Jgions, >ind 
is possible 
aiices of a 

on of the 
s(, a grade 
? birds or 
isisting of 
ed breast- 
rralla; the 
rmha; the 
ining six 
le birds of 
; Psittaci, 

des is [< 

Is of tMC 

^-i. • griii ;; 

w^ :'-),:,:' 

esi. '-:il 

of Wti\\. 



^\"veri cups and domes. True it is, there are not wanting 
n';M,-y species of high intelligence which make no nest, but 
these, like the parrot, have ecjuivalent habits, and show their 
•wisdom, as will be subseciueutiy clear, by choosing homes tliat 
are less laborious and yet e(iually efficient. 

In the lowest grade the brooding is the work of the male, 
-aid they thus recall the early dawn of parental care. But in 
IJie medium grade, it falls to the share of the female, which as 
ih rule is unassisted by the male, though in rather less than 
half of the genera he takes some small share and shows a 
certain degree of solicitude. In the superior grade of intelli- 
gence, the female undertakes the brooding, but she is fed and 
tended and occasionally relieved by the male. 

Again, in the lowest grade, the young are born well able to 
shift for themselves ; in the middle, they are more dependent, 
as in the case of duckling or chicken, yet almost always able 
to run or swim from their birth. In the superior grade, the 
young are uniformly born in naked helplessness, unable to 
walk or even to stand, and therefore dependent for every 
morsel of food upon the self-sacrificing zeal of their parents. 
They pay for the ultimate activity and competency of their 
organisms by a protracted time of preparation. In all which, 
we clearly perceive that increasing complexity is rendered 
possible only by a developing parental instinct. 

Birds of the Lower Grade. 

No running bird, neither o.strich nor emu, rhea nor 
wary, makes any pretence of a nest. The apteryx digs a hole 
in the soft earth, both male and female assisting in the excava- 
tion. But so soon as the pair of eggs are laid, the process of 
incubation is left entirely to tlie male. (Buller, Birds of New 
Zealand, ii., 311.) Mr. Bartlett observed the In-eeding habits 
of the bird in the London Zoological Gardens, and he found 
that it was the male alone which brooded. {Pwc. Zoul. Sue.., 
1868, p. 329.J So also it is the male ostrich which chiefly 
broods, hiking the long night spell, while, as Mr. Schreine 
assures us, the femah* takes a shorter spell bv <lay. {X/ffiire 
Iv., 547.) The emu scrapes a hollow in a sandy place, and 



1 '. 1 

' i 


wJk.u th. .six or oi^^ht .^^. are lai.l i„ a sa^.e-«.ron cluster, 
the male sits upon then, assiduously for many weeks 
Brehm states that "the nmle takes an activ. share in the 
busn.ess of brooclin|r - (Foyr/, iii., 689), but this is much 
too cautious a statement of the fact. For I am assured 
by Mr Le Souef, tli. director of the Melbourne Zoolomcal 
Gardens, who, from youth up, has probably had more ex- 
perience of emus than any one livin^ir, that "the share which 
the female takes m incubation is .juite inconsiderable" In 
re^^ard also to the rhea, or South American ostrich, Captain 
Musters (I'afcu,onia7is, p. 135) says that the male alone in- 
cubates, and this agrees with what Darwin heard from the 
Gauchos about the habits of this bird (iXaturalist's Vo,,anc p 
116), with the testimony of Beerbohm {Wnnderiw,s 
m Pata,jonia, p. 52). who states that the male rhea is so 
assiduous in the duty of brooding- that often he sits for six or 
seven days without rising to feed. Among the ca.ssowaries 
also the male alone is the incubating partner, as we learn on 
the authority of Dr. Sclater, who succeeded in making a pair 
ot them breed in the London Zoological Gardens. In all these the lowest order of birds recalls inferior types The 
hole scraped in the sand is reminiscent of the crocodiles and 
the great preponderance of the male parental care is on the 
one hand analogous to the habits of the fish, and on the other 
hand a sharp contrast with tho,se of every other order of birds 
And there is no other order that displays so brief a period 
of parental concern after the birth of the young. The care of 
newly-hatched emus devolves wholly on the male, the female 
being quite indifferent to them. But they soon become self- 
dependent, being little in need of a,ssistance after the second 
day of their lives. Le.s.s than a fortnight after their birth 
they are absolutely careless of the slender affection of their 
lather. As for the apteryx, Buller tells us that the young 
ones snap at the finger which breaks their shells for them, and 
that they are no sooner free than they commence a life of 
restless activity, seeming little in need of parental help The 
evidence in regard to the ostrich is in some respects conflict- 
ing. Andersson {Lah, Nyami, p. 258) tells us that he saw a 
female ostrich followed by a brood of eighteen young one* 


•I'cn cluster, 
my weeks, 
lare in the 
iH is much 
Liii assured 


more ex- 
hare which 
•able ". In 
:li, Captain 

alone in- 
l from the 

Voi/afjc, p. 
rhea is so 
I tor six or 
i learn on 
ing a pair 
n all these 
pes. The 
)(liles, and 
! is on the 
the other 
r of birds. 
'■ a period 
he care of 
le female 
ome self- 
he second 
leir birth 
I of their 
\<i young 
hem, and 
a life of 
Ip. The 

he saw a 
iiig ones 



each about the size of a barn-door fowl, while the rear was 
bnjught up by an anxi(jusly watchful male. Others, however, 
give to the ostrich paients a less amiable character, and Brehm 
from his own observations atfinns that after fourteen days the 
young ostrich can have no need of parental care, being (juite 
<aetive and self-reliant enough to shift for itself. ( Votjel, iii., p. 
098.) Musters tells us that at three days old a young rhea 
can outstrip a strong man. 

But, however active and independent a young bird may 
be, an early severance from the shelter of parental care is 
never profltable, and, in spite of the great size of these birds, 
the broods in their flrst weeks of independence suffer severely 
from many foes. According to Musters, the puma, fox, wild- 
cat, condor, eagle, and larger hawks all levy a heavy toll on 
young rheas, and the ostrich seems in its early days to fall a 
frequent prey to the predaceous animals of South Africa. It 
is only thus that we can explain the need of the great fertility 
of these birds. The average of the ostrich, rhea, and emu is 
fourteen eggs to each female, by far the largest of any order 
of birds, and nearly e(iual to the average of reptiles. The 
cassowary in its secluded island home lays but 3-5 eggs on the 
average, while the apteryx in the security of New Zealand 
lays four, in two broods of two each. (Buller's Birds of New 
Zcahrnd.) The average of the whole order of Stvnthioncs 
or Ratifcc {British Museum Cdtdlor/ue) is 12-5 eggs each year 
to every female. 

BiRixs OF THE Medium Grade. 

In the birds of a medium grade of intelligence, there is on 
the one hand a steady, increase in the quality and extent of 
the parental care, and on the other hand a decrease in the 
number of offspring. The average of the G61 genera is 7-66 
eggs per annum. Nearly forty per cent, are like the lowest 
grade in making no nt.^t: . they lay their eggs on sand or 
gravel as do the grou;^, the partridge, the quail, and the 
plover ; or else they hatch their eggs between their thighs on 
rocky ledges as do penguins .and petrels. But the majority 
make nests which, however rude and poorly formed, are 

' 'it 




! ;mir'i T ,11 . 



capHl)k. r.f proviMi,,- Honie softness a.i.l wannth to the e^'.^s 
About ei^^ht per ..nt. have the skill to make a struoture'of 
better style, such as the nests of the rail and coot, but in the 
AWiole of the 6G1 genera, there is only one fV sun-bitterns 
{A>m/p>/f,uh:), which is recorded to n:,u.. a nest as good an 
those whic!i are quite common in the grade of suj^erior intelli- 
gence. But the mere fact that sixty per cent, of this lower 
grade of birds make a iiest of some sort, marks a long advance 
over the .r. erage fish, or reptile, or running bird. It may be 
taken also as a sign of progress that in all these; l,ir<ls without; 
exception, it is the femal.' which chiefly broods. Sometimes 
the male departs altogether, as in the case of duck or fowl : but 
in about forty-eight per cent, the male and female sit alter- 
nately, although in some cases the male share is only that of 
relieving the female for an hour or two in the day. There 
are about fourteen per cent, in which the female alone broods 
but the male, as in the case of the stork and swan, remains to' 
feed and protect her. Thus there are nearly two-thirds of the 
medmni grade in which both parents are at hand to help when 
the young ones break their shells, and the parental care of the 
whole grade is thus at a fairly high stan.lard, so that a low 
average of the number of offspring is compensated by tlie 
better preservation of the broods. 

In this medium grade, we tin<l a less d. -ree of precocity ia 
tlie newly hatched little ones, ye. in comparison with those of 
the higher grade they are remarkably nimble and well 
e(iuipi3ed to manage for tb^T.-selves. It is true that the 
chicken or duckling requires for a time tlie warmth and 
frequent shelter of the mother's wing, yet how active it is 
from the first! Compared with the young ,,ake or turtle 
or iizard, how dependent, yet comp ->d with the newly 
hatched crow or eagle, how strik,. • ive at birth' 
Among the swimming birds, lowest h,. de, the youn.. 

are from the first hour able to swim and dive. Slight except 
tioi/:. occur; the newly hatched cormorant, penguin, or pelican 
hves for a day or two under its mother's wing before it trusts 
Itself to the water, and the grebes, though able to swim at 
birth, have to be taught to dive. Yet as a rule the swimming 
bn-d.s are like ducklings, and from the very first day of their 


the e^gH. 
trupture of 

but in the 
in -bitterns 
iH gMxl as 
•ior iiitolli- 
tliis lower 
1^4" advance 
.t may be 
Is witliuut 
fowl : but 
! Hit alter- 
ly tliat of 
V. Tliore 
16 brootls, 
3main,s to 
i-ds of the 
elp when 
ire of the 
liat a low 

1 by tlie 

'locity in 
those of 
ud Well 
ihiit the 
nth and 
ve it is 
r turtle, 


birth 1 
i young 

t trusts 
will! at 
f their 



hve.s may l)e seen in active .juest of food upon the mar.qns 
ot their pond as though they luid known a long experience of 
Ide. Those swimming hirds which hatch their youn-r at an 
elevation, such as petrels, alI)atrosses, gannets, pulHns, pen- 
guins, and pelicans, always feed their young foi- a week or 
sometimes two, either with a Hsliy oil which exudes from 'the 
glandular membrane of their crops, the first appearance of the 
milky diet, or else with tish which they have partly .ligested 
Among the swimming birds, parental care lists for iwo or 
three weeks, but never more than a moniii ; nor is it ever 
absolutely essential after the first four or five days. Observe 
how well a i rood of ducklings at a week old will thri\ .•, if the 
hen which has hatched them should desert her charge. 

In the stilt-legged birds, the period of dependence is on 
the average longer. A few of them, the coots and gallinules, 
have no -ooner broken their shells than they roll into the 
water and ' >gin to gather their food. A very large number, 
such as th bustard, curlew, snipe, woodcock, godwit, an.l 
sandpiper, are --tive at birth, running like mice among the 
grass or brus' v. ; ■-l. Yet they all cling for a month at least 
to their mother's wan Hi and shelter, an.l there is a section of 
this grade of intellig, ■ which approaches tlie higher birds 
in the helplessness of its young. The newly hatched heron, 
or stork, or crane, or ibis is .soft and putty and incapable of 
leaving the nest. This is probably enough the necessary 
sequence of the high-nesting habits of these birds ; for inas- 
much as no birds whatever an l)orn with a capacity for flight, 
it is clear that when the nests are lofty there will be great 
gain in a helpless infancy. Without that safeguard the rest- 
less young would be tempted to ^tir about, and their first 
excursion would be their last. Hence they are utterly 
dependent on their parents for all their food, and it is a likely 
thing that elevated nests were concomitant with helpless 
youth, [ irental aftection, and an increasing scope for the 
growth of intelligence. But this association, which is tolerably 
uniform in the superior grade of intelligence, is rare among 
birds of t' >• medium grade. 

In the order next in asc(!iiding ^(-alo. tb.e pheasant-'ke 
birds {a.dlinai), nests are always either upon the ground or at 



I Mil 

T ; 


' I 

I If' 



the nn^h of low hmueho.s in a tluekot, and tlio new-born 
y<)un^^ us with the chick,,n or infant turkey, either scamper 
after the mother upon level {,'roun.l, or hop from twijj to 
twi^r, as the chicks of the penelope do, till they reach tlie sdid 
earth. In any case the youn>r of all speei.>s are (juick and 
self-reliant from the first, they {,rather their own food, yet, as 
we see in the chicken and the turkey, they remain for a long 
tune with their mother, from six to eifrht weeks bein<r the 
rule. ^ 

The pi<reons form the next order, and show a very decided 
advance of parental care. The whole order represents the 
same standard which is reached by oidy a fraction of thestilt- 
le^'^ired I)irds, for the youn^r are hatched out in naked helpless- 
ness, utterly dependent and passive. Both parents feed them 
at first with a milk-white secretion, flowing,' from what Prof. 
Waymouth Reid has recently shown to be modified sebaceous 
glands in the lateral pouches of the crop. {BrUish J.^soriafiou, 
1894.) The fat exuding from these glands appears as a 
white but viscid fluid which has all the constituents of milk, 
excepting sugar. This, which is called " pigeon's milk," sustain.s 
the young bird for a week or two, and then the parents begin 
to feed it with seed carefully softened within their own crops. 
By the time the fledglings are a month old, their feather.s 
have grown, and the parents take them out for a le,s,son in 
flying, but when an age of six weeks is attained the young 
ones are at no to provide for themselves. 

Birds of the Hiuheu Grade. 

And yet this notable degree of parental care is always 
equalled and generally exceeded among the birds of the 
superior grade of intelligence. Of 1670 genera there is none 
in which the young are not the objects of intense devotion. 
The intelligence of smart and (piick-witted creatures has 
m truth been built up on a foundation of parental love, with- 
out which each new accretion to brain and nerves would have 
been only a trap for the destruction of the young The birds, 
therefore, of the six most gifted orders— the birds f prey, the 
owls, the parrots, the woodpecker order {Pkariaj, the 501 


I nuw-boni 
er HcainjK'r 
m twijr to 
ill tho solid 
<|uick ami 
n)d, yet, an 
for a long 
being the 

ry decided 
esents the 
if the stilt- 
feed them 
i^hat Prof. 

earn as a 
H of milk, 
," sustains 
*nts Ijogiii 
ivvn crops. 
' feathers 
lesson in 
he young 



s always 
s of the 
e is none 
itures has 
ive, with- 
mld have 
^he birds, 
prey, the 
the 507 

gonora which mak," up the sparrow-like order, and the 642 
winch form tlw Mnch-like order-all hatch out young ones of 
a .ject helplessness, and the continuance of each species is 
absolutely dependent ui.on that parental love which is poured 
out in floods of unmeasured self-sacriHce. 

Aniong these binls the gracious charm of family life is first 
made lu ly known, and it is no mere chance that, concomitant 
therewith, comes that delight in throbbing melody which pro- 
claims the fullest tide of joyous life. In all these genera 
with their multitudinous species, male and female unite in 
their care for the tender brood, and show, as a rule, a steady 
attacunent each for the other. Sometimes the male and 
female brood on the eggs alternately; while one is sitting the 
other ,s not far off; but this occurs only in twenty-eight per 
cent, ot the genera, and these are on the whole of somewhat 
interior type. In sixty-Mve per cent., the female alone under- 
takes the brooding, but the male is, throughout, her faithful 
attendant, feeding her a,ssiduously, driving away intruders 
and cheering h.^r with the joy of his tumultuous song. In 
acconlanee with the teachings of economics, we must re-rnrd 
this .hvision of employment as a sign of progress " It 
favours not only the growth of soft solicitude in the female 
but also that of courage in the male; it not only provides for 
the periection of incubation, but it promotes the development 
ot those conjugal ties that are so rich in possibilities. And 
the whole-hearted luiion of the loving pair in the care and 
protection of their young has its ample etiect, for we find that 
on the average of all this superior grade of birds, less than 
tour and a half eggs per year for each female are sufficient to 
maintain their numbers. 

In every respect these birds occupy the highest level that 
IS reached by incubating creatures. Of the 741 genera which 
are recorded by leading ornithologist;^ (Brehm, M'Gillivray 
Audubon, Wilson, Wood, Buller, Morris, Meyer, Jerdon, Gould,' 
Gray, Coues, Newton, Vennor, Le Messurier, Hume, Sir a! 
Smith, and A. J. Campbell) to construct remarkably b'eautifui 
nests, all but one belong to these birds of superior intelligence 
It IS true that there are 134 other geneva of this more Trifted 
division which make no nests at all, and of these, no less'' than 

V yJxjt X. g 








oiglity-one are to be reckoned among the most intelligent of all 
birds, consisting of parrots, cockatoos, and owls. Yet in the 
majority of cases they show their discretion by doing better 
for their brood than building nests. The cockatoo, for instance, 
chooses a hollow gum-tree, the roomy interior of Avhich is 
visible only by a narrow hole; this entrance it enlarges 
v/ith its beak till just sufficient to admit its body ; then on a 
bed of soft bark-fibre and small chips, it lays its eggs at the 
bottom of the hollow, in a home of absolute security, seeing 
that the male is there to guard the entrance. (A. J. Campbell, 
Audralnsian, 9th June, 1894.) The same sort of adaptive 
intelligence must be ascribed to the twenty-six genera of birds, 
wJiich, like the kingfisher, the sand-martin, the bee-eater, and 
others, dig long burrows in the .sand, or even into soft stone, and 
lay their eggs at the secure end of a three or four feet tunnel. 
For it is now amply recognised that the practice of nest-building 
and all its details cannot be simply relegated to the class of in- 
explicable instincts, but that in spite of its apparent fixity, it is 
plastic before strong and continuous strains, answering in a 
dimly reasonable way to the pressure of external circumstances. 
Gray, in his Birds of (he North-West of Scotland, 
and Bishop Stanley (Hisfori/ of Birds) relate many in- 
stances of the wisely adaptive alteration of the form, situa- 
tion, and composition of nests. Curious incidents of the 
kind are abundant in ornithologic literature, and it is 
almost always in reference to the most intelligent species that 
they occur. It is no mere coincidence that the liird which 
makes the most wonderful of all nests is precisely the one 
which the Hindoo chooses to train in tlie way of pretty tricks, 
the firing of cannon, the kissing of ladies, and ladies only, in 
a mixed company, and so on. (Jerdon, Birds of India, ii., 348.) 
These weaver birds, as they are appropriately called, construct 
a most surprisingly beautiful nest, the male without, and tlie 
female within, passing the straws and fil)res in their plaiting 
process backwards and forwards one to the other. They thatch 
a roof or dome, and the male has a room to himself in which 
to wait upon the female while she broods. A row of thorns 
adroitly fixed in the narrow entraiici!, keeps out the sn.ake 
and the thievish hands of monkeys. 


great „,a.. „eod only ^ j.^, f ^ '-"! ^--«. -ul the 

clever man may inLtt^ if ""'',' ""'*"*''• ^"'"'^ ^ 
later, n.illion.s of Jn Lf '"'""' l"'^*^'^' -^'J' ^ generation 

then.soIve,s instincJhel eUnT ^ ''^^"^^^'' ""^ ^•- 

they need a U^H. So „' ,1 , ''', ^'''^''''^ ^"^^^ *^ '''''^ ^^'^en 
"^•'^^'•^'"al biz.l which Ir d I "'f^ """"«'^^ '''^PP^» t''^^t an 
-all profitable dll ^ ^ Jl^' ^ . t^ 'T r'^ ^^'^^^' ^" -'- 
Not twenty years a.^othof ~ .^^'^ '^^'^^.s of a species. 

l>a.l nested upon Z ^^tln \''---^ «P-- It 
^^•anquil centuries of th n \ ■ ^ ■ ''"""^' "^^ '""^^ ^"'^^ 

■state through the woods p.otrn ■''""' .;" ^'" ^^"^^ 

prey. But when the sp ies H ^ \ "\' "'''''' '^"'l"*^^''^^^ 
according- to the Rev. T S WM .f " '"''^^^' P""^<^' 

affairs was chan«-e,l The hi. if '' ^ '"^'°'^ ^^'^P^'^*^ «f 
building rude nctts ' on the ^ " '" "^'^"'' ^^'' "^^^ ^abit of 
the fertility of U.e sne ief, .^•' '"r'/"'>" '' ^^^'^ trees, and 
existence. So, also;' Clu;"'' ^ ?7 ^^ '^ -- tenn of 
n^outh of the Bay oi Fund """^ 

-Bts of some se4ulls Sd o^ ^ T'T' '' '^' ^'- 
while others were ^n tlL^on^ ^ '^T''" °' '' '^'^^' 
th,s habit had be,n formed wi • ^l\' ^'^'^'''^'^'^ «aid that 
ori,anally the birds had b^to^" T ^-eo"ection ; for 
as the e,.,ns weve ro.nd 1 ,°" 'T "•"'' °P^" ^•^•«""''- '^ut 
be,.an to'put their^nests'ln t ? " "?'^^ ""''' *'^« •^'<' '-''^^ 
the woods. Then tl^;!"' .^^i:/';;^ f ^^l^^est parts of 
week after being luitcled ^^^ / . , '"'''"^^ *''" "^'^^^^ a 

logical Bio,ra,4, iifTsN) < n' f''^' *" «^- (^>'->/- 
possessed by the whitetlli,,, l^^ '"l^^^^ 
ff^ster) of adapting its nest ^o , "^ {Hahmtm leuco- 

bo of slower growth to ni.t.n.Jf, .i , ""^ '"telligence must 

I -^ 





t I 


I* 5 

.- - Hi. 

J 4 


travel. The developinout t'roui frerminal point to full brain 
size and to the full intricacy of their complex nerve ad- 
juKtnient.s, is a lon<;er stoiy and will occupy a ^n-eater time. 
But I find that no part of this increase of time occurs within 
the eg(^. For the period occupied in tlie hatching process 
bears no relation to the type of l)ird but only to its size. For 
further discussion sec the appendix to this chapter. 

Ail the additional time reijuired for f>'rowth, therefore, will 
prolong the immature period suhNe(iuent to emergence from the 
shell, and thus we tin<l the rule, so far as I know, (paite uniform, 
that the more highly dcividoped the bird the more helpless its 
young at birth. All birds of the superior grade of intelligence 
are born naked, many of them blind, all of them utterly 
dependent on their parents for support. When the period of 
incubation is ended, the bird of inferior type emerges in a 
condition to be fairly indepen<lent ; but one of the higher 
type has to pass through an additional period, ecpially long, 
of utter helplessness before it can do much for itself. A 
hunnning-bird, hatched in nine days, is ready nine or ten days 
thereaftei- to leave the nest ; a lark, hatched in fifteen days, is 
ready to lly in a fortnight, and an owl, which takes twenty-one 
days to hatch, will leave tlie niist in about three weeks. But 
always in the most intelligent of the grade there is a temlency 
yet mor. to lengthen out this helpless period ; a raven oi- mag* 
pie is nest-bouii<l for a longei- time ; while the parrot, which is 
very properly desci-ibed by I'rofessor Rymer Jones as the most 
intelligent of birds, is born the most immature of all. It 
emerges from the shell a flaccid mass of bare and formless 
limbs, from which a gaping beak protrudes. Eight days 
elapse before it can see, and three weeks before it can main- 
tain its own temperature ; nor does it become capable of 
leaving the nest till the expiration of thirty, forty, or fifty 
days, accoi'ding to the size of the species. All this time it is 
fed and tended and kepi vvarm with a singularly assiduous love : 
and even wjien it is able to fly, it is long f(!d only with seeds 
that have been softened in the crops of the parents. Figuier 
assorts {l!,'ptih:ii av<l liirih, p. 458) that ninety days on the 
average must pass away bcfovi' \\w youssg one to be 





Among those more advanced birds, wo nmy observe in- 
creasing tendencies to the i^rolongation of family life. The 
3'oung l)irds very fre(iuently stay with their parents through- 
out the year, departing only when the time comes for them to 
mate and form new homes. That family life, which T. H. 
Green, in his J'rolcf/omrna to Wiics, so justly regards as the 
ultnnate basis of moral ideals (p. 257), first makes itself 
apparent among the l)irds, but in its lovelier aspects more 
particularly among the'-e birds of superior intelligence. It 
IS fanitly seen in a few fish ; it is not wholly absent among 
reptiles, but it is for the first time distinctly observable among 
the lower bu-ds, increasing ever as the type advances, till we 
hnd the nest-life of one of these higher birds to be marked 
by many graces of an indubital^lv moral character. The con- 
jugal tenderness of the mated pair, and their unwearied self- 
sacrifice in ministering to the wants of tlieir oiispring are 
ethically beautiful. Where these appear in an equal degree in 
the human couple, we reckon them as a solid fundamental 
element ol goodness. Much else is required of man and 
woman but it is no slight praise to say "he was a kind 
husband and a devoted father," or that "she was a tender 
wite and a mother of unwearie.l love and self-sacrifice ". 

The family life, which we see so beautifully developed in 
these birds, is like the seed, enclosing within itself the full 
potentiality of all the ethic good to be developed in yet later 
stages, wherein a growing intelligence makes theyoun.- always 
more and more dependent upon family and social union. 


The time required for tlie hatching „f the eggs of cold-blooded 
animals will he shown in chapter x.xiii. to depend firstly ou the 
temperature at which they are kept, and .secondly ou tiie sik- of the 
niature animal. In the case of bird,s, however, the temperature at 
winch the eggs are kept is practically uniform, and the perio.l of 
incubation vanes only with the ,i,, of the animal. The law is that 
the tune is directly proportional to the si.xth root of the weight of the 
full-grown bird. The formula which expresses this relation is that 



'1 11 

i! I m 


i I 

where T is the time in d, 

lys and W the weitrht 

u ounces. 




The following short tabic will illustrate this relation ; those who 

would wish to see tables more complete will find them m a paper I 

contrd^uted in 1894 to the l'ransact>o... of the Royal S<^iHy of 

yictorm with the specific names in full of 100 birds, and authorities 

for weight and times. 

Obseiveii Time of Caleiilateil Time of 

Humming-bird . 
Wren . 
Chaftiuch . 
Owlet . • . 
Lark . 
Snipe . 

Canadian Grouse 
Woodcock . 
Piping Crow 
Teal . 

Oyster-catcher . 
Owl . 

Jungle Fowl 
Ibis . 
Wild Duck . 
Snow-cock . 
Cormorant . 
Stork . 
Guineahen . 
Flamingo . 
Turkey . , 
Goose . . , 
Eagle . 
Swan . 

Indian Bustard . 
lihea . 

. i oz. (E) 

• i oz. (W) 

• 1 oz. (E) 
. IJ oz. 

. ll oz. (A) 
. 2* oz. (J) 
. 2i oz. (A) 
. 4 oz. (J) 
. 4 oz. (A) 
. 4J oz. (J) 

• 17 oz. (A) 
■ 32 oz. (J) 

. 12 oz. (E) 

• 12.i- oz. (D) 

• 13 oz. (E) 
. 1 lb. (A) 

. lilb.(L) 

l}lb. (J) 

2.^ lb. (J) 

2| lb. (L) 

40 oz. (J) 

^ lb. (J) 

4 lb. (E) 
2J lb. (B) 
Oi lb. (J) 

n !''• (A) 
8 lb. (L) 
^ lb. (L) 
y lb. (E) 

lb. (J) 

lb. (E) 

lb. (,J) 

lb. (J) 

il). (J) 

l^ lb. (A) 

25 lb. (,J) 
27 lb. (J) 


10 days (B) 
10 days (M) 
12 days (B) 
12 days (B) 

17 days (B) 
14 days (J) 

14 days (N) 

15 days (B) 
15 days (N) 
15 days (B) 
19 days 

18 days (B) 
18 days (B) 

18 days (B) 

21 days (B) 

22 days (A) 
21 days (B) 
21 days (B) 
21 days (B) 
21 days (B) 

19 days (B) 
25 days (B) 
24 days (B) 
24 days (B) 
28 days (B) 

28 days (B) 

29 days (B) 
29 days (B) 

28 days (E) 
32 days (B) 

29 days (B) 
32 days (B) 

30 days (B) 
32 days (B) 
35 days (Be) 

38 days (B) 
35 days (B) 

39 days (B) 
49 day.s (A) 


9 '5 days 

9 8 days 

12 days 

127 days 

16-8 days 

14 days 

14 days 

15-1 days 

15-1 days 

15 '4 days 

19 '2 day^ 

18-2 days 

18 2 days 
18-3 days 
18-4 days 

19 ■! days 
20 '4 days 
19 '8 days 
21 '9 days 
21-8 days 
22-7 days 
23 '2 days 

24 days 
22-2 days 

26 days 
26 C days 

27 days 
27-2 days 
27-5 days 

28 days 
28-9 days 
28 '9 days 
28-9 days 
31 "1 days 
31-3 days 
32 '6 days 

33 days 

37 daj's 

47-8 days 

« ' 

. 54 lb. (D) 
.250 lb, (A) 

(W) Wh'irc"'rD;T>^''^ Breluu; (Be, Beehstein ; (J, Jerdon , (A) Audubon; 
Experiment/ ^""'"' *^» ^"'^ ^^^--■-' i C^I) Mivart . (N) Newton ; (E^ 



All birds, save only the apteryx, and, if we can trust the received 
figures, the enui also, agree with the law as closely as we can expect, 
considering the roughness of the observations on which we have to 
rely Most naturalists are concent to state the incubation period of 
a bird in weeks ; a trogon we are told takes two or three weeks to 
hatch Its eggs, and in the case of very many birds, the best informa- 
tion we can get is that they take " about a fortnight » or "about 
three weeks " to hatch their eggs. 

The law that T = 12 ^'W ni..y be simplified to a certain e.-^ent. 
V\ hen birds are of tlie same shape their weight will be proportional 
to the cubes of their lengths, so that in this case we may write 

T = K vl; 

where L is the length and K a constant. But this may also be 
written •' 

L = g"2 T- or L 


the well-known e(,uation which expresses a uniformly accelerated 
motion. It shows us that when any egg begins to hatch, . we 
regard the process as o„e of motion outwards from the germinal 
spot to the periphery, the rate is always the same to begin with, and 
that however long it lasts it always continues to increase with 
uniform acceleration. We shall subsequently see that the sa^ 
law probably holds for the gestation of mammals. 





' 'Aim 


I IB' 






The Viviparous Habit. 

Among the viviparous kinds of fish we perceive the prime 
importance to a race of the system wliich retains the egg 
witliin the mother till it is hatched. Twenty otisiiring then 
can make the race as secure as 20,000 without this provision. 
So too we can perceive that whenever a reptile is viviparous, 
it thereby derives two great advantages— first in the lessened 
number of otispring that are needed, and second in the 
increased size and capacity of the few that are born. 

In dealing now with the mammals, we find that this vivi- 
parous habit becomes the normal condition. It is now the 
newer level from which are to arise long series of upward- 
reaching types, with provisions of increasing delicacy and 
efficiency; most notable of these, the system of lactation, 
unknown in fish or reptile, though hinted at in pigeon and in 

Here, as in birds, we find a gap between the reptile and 
the mammal, and yet it is but sliglit. It would have been 
considerable but that in the biologic shelter of Australia there 
have continued to exist suggestive link.^ of connection. The 
Monofrcnus now consist but of two genera, every co;(nate race 
having yielded long ago to tlie competition of more capable 
creatures. Neither platypus nor echidna is favoured with 
much more than reptilian activity: and Ijoth can find their 
preservation only in an excessive shyness. Tl:c platypus di])8 
in silent river bends where a gently spreading circle alone 
betrays that the moonlit watei-s have closed over him : for Jiis 
nest is undergroun-s reached only by subaqueous t-ntrance 



from the_ river bank. The echidna or Australian ant-eater 
spends his day lienoath the .sand, into which his shovel-like 
fore feet enal)le him to descend with speed; he roams abroad 
by ni-rlit hckni^r up the ants from their nests witii his loner 
adhesive ton^rue. but ai the sli<rlitest sound he rolls hiniscU' 
up in a ball like a liedjrehog, and sinks bodily in less than 
lialt a minute downward through the sand. 

It is in this lowest and most reptile-like order, the Mono- 
trenics ih^i we shall naturally look for the first sta^^e in the 
ascending mammalian scale. In these animals the eggs in the 
right ovary are all functionles,s. Of those in the left ovary, 
two, in the case of the platypus, one, in the case of the echidna' 
become ripe when about an eighth of an inch m length. 
I hey then descend the oviduct to a place where this tube 
expands into a sort of primitive uterus. Here each of them is 
covered over with a smooth translucent tunic, and floats in a 
clear fluid analogous to the albumen of a bird's egg. Whilst 
the embryo is forming, the egg steadily in volume, 
tor after the yolk of the egg is exhausted, this highly nutritious 
fluid IS absorbed through the tunic, and provides for the 
growth of the embryos, which are expelled either while still 
enveloped in the tunic or shell, or else as naked little jelly-like 
masses with short and flexible bills. As a rule, the ^oun- 
seem to be expelle.l with the dirty grey tunic still enfolding 
them. (Dr. W. Haacke. Royal Society of South Australia, 
1884.) But it often happens to those who <li;ssect out the 
emales of these forms that they And the voung disengacred 
roin their coverings some little time befoie expulsion seemed 
likely to take place. (Artliur Nicols' Zoolouical lYntcs, p. 

There is much in this that recalls the reptile type, hut 
wlnle m all cases the youn- reptile is born active and fully 
capable ol managing for itself, the young platypus comes into 
the world soft, blin.l, and only half-^hapen. (See flgur*> <on 
p. 25 of Parker's Mammal inn Zfrnv-y?/,) Left to itself it 
wouhl die in a few hours. But materual care of a humbte 
sort IS present, for the mother has a milk .land on «ach 
side of her i)ody, in the depih.s oi a pair of pouch-like folds 
which, she can make by drawing in certain longitudinal 


musclos of lier cibd 

omon so as to form a hollow in the ak- 


Into one or both of these she lifts the yoim^ with her bill-like 
mouth. The small creature clings with the claws of its tiny 
shovel-shaped feet to the soft skin and to the thinly-sprinkled 
hairs. Beyond this it seems to be gifted with but one other 
capacity, that of burying its little bill into the aperture at the 
bottom of the pouch. For the Monofirun's have mammary 
ghmds by no means on the ordinary plan. They have no 
nipple ; Gegenbauer says {Knihii.'is Mamviaronjanc der A/ono- 
trcmcu, p. 33) that, unlike all the similar organs of other 
mammalia, the milk glands of the Momtrrmcs are only modifi- 
cations of the sweat glands of that part of the skin ; Creighton 
on the other hand {Phi/^ohyy and Patholog,/ of the Breast, p. 
112) is certain that, like other milk glands, they are essentially 
fat glands which are adapted for a period of peculiar activity 
after the expulsion of the young. However that may be, it i,s 
certain that the milky secretion flows out by about fifty 
tubes. (Owen, Phil. Trans., 18(J5, p. 673 ; Creighton numbered 
100, and other observers speak of 120.) They all {K)ur their 
contents into a little areola or cup-like depression of dark but 
hairless skin, and it is in this little cup that the young animal 
keeps its beak impressed. The mother, by the unconscious 
pressure of a pair of slender muscles, causes drop by drop the 
flow of the milk which is inunediately absorbed by the little 
beak. This milk is poor and somewhat rudimentary compared 
with that of the higher mammals. (Richard Semon, Forschungs- 
rclsni In Anstrallen.) 

The MARsrriALs. 

The next step in advance most certainly carries us into 
tlie order of the marsupials. When the ovum descends from 
the ovary, it is provided with a comparatively large yolk-sac, 
from which at first the growing embryo must derive its 
nutriment as in the case of bird or reptile. (Owen, Anat. nf 
Vrrfrhrafes, p. 7 1 8, ) At its appearance in the oviduct, the egg 
IS provided with a rudimentary shell, which, however, soon 
dissoh-es away. In the marsupial, however, there occurs none 
of that connection between the egg and the walls of the uterus 


Plac. ifci .",; i^""' '^ ^""y ■^''«'>t eonnection over takes 

never to h. f f , "''' " ''" '^'l^ance.] provision such a.s is 
s ab oi! ";r /" '•"'■ "■ ^"P*''- «« «-- -^ t'- -nbryo 

bathes it '^" '"»^/""«t,o„s, an.l the fluid which abundantly 

analt!?lVT^^^'^' ^^''^t^'"'^ which, size for size, is fairly 
C nTbtt" ?,"''*"" ''"^'^ «^' '"-^■^- ^'-^'h in the 

lucent iel V W .> '^^'?"*"^ "' '' ^'^^^' '"^'^'^ °^' P"'k, trans- 
OS mca/ior/i ;"'';;'' *'"' ^"^^' ^'-'^ --^'l -'vanced in 
I' tlv f sit^^H 1'' f'"""^'"'' ""'"'"'' P- ^'^-^ ^^^he n.other 
Jie :Vl ^'. /'' ''^'•'^' '^"'' 'J^-«P'^ it "^to t'^e pouch upon 

osel^dr; ^^'"^; •.'-"^'"«- ^"^'^"^ ^'-' "^P'^^^bic bones" 
of an ""^^ . .''^ '""'^ ^^''^''°"^' '^"* -ithi". the ski, is 

unicious observations, is warmer than any other portion of 
t^^e surface of the F.o,n the abdominal waR tire 

W t:: rV?^"- ''''•' "^' ^'"'^ P«-'^ tl- .nannnary'swd! 

n^ . hx3,n which han,. lon^. slender teats numberin,- fLn two 

to sixteen according to the species. The embryonic niarsup^^l 

sbu^^ie automatic function to porforni. It fucks a teatt o 

the inamma^ ... rr^;::;!r:2^t!^^^^^^ 

crei.aster muscle, no thin cord as in otl.. maminal bu \ 
.^c^ ^1. w ich, V its automatic pressure. s,uee jlliJ^ ,k 
^h a ceaseless drip into the little stomach. ,Huxle 
yinaf. 0/ I n-frhnttrs, p. 278.) k-ix"xie^ , 

the hrvifrr^' 1;hs a special though temporary adaptation of 
he laiynx, by which the passage from the nose to the luiio-s 
IS kept open, so that, still sleeping and feeding, it may easi'?; 
bn^the the warm air of that secure retreat. So tende- is it's 
bod^.so deep the absorption of the teat, that it Is > nost 
difficult thmiv to detach tl ,. -.,- r. \i, , 
,, , . ., r . ^^^"-^^ "'^ one irom the other vMiiout 
breaking it in pieces. 


. i. 

I I 


.So it jfi-owH till the fur appeiirs and the cIhwh dovelop, luid 
at hiHt it ^a-aduully relaxo.s its hold and rolls up sim^^'ly at tho 
bottom of the pouch, wakin<,' up, liowever, every ten minutes 
or HO for a small meal of milk. Those who have broujrht up 
by hand very youn^-- marsupials taken from the pouches of 
their dead mothers will remendjer the extreme difficulty of 
imitatin^r the frequency of those tiny meals. At a certain 
Hta<,'e of its <,'rowth the youn^' animal poj^s its head out of the 
mouth of the pouch, but for a lon^- time it contents itself with 
a mere inspection of the world without ; for it is as yet (juite 
unprepared to run or walk. Yet there is a singular provision 
for its safety, for if by any means it should fall out, it is 
always able to clamber back, even while it is incapable of 
standing or walking. I remember feeding a young kangaioo, 
not yet able to balance itself. Wrapped up in a waiin shawl, 
placed in a box by v . -mfortable fire, it never was restful or 
happy in any sue!- urtiacial arrangement ; but after its meal 
always scraped ab--it' -uy knees to find a pouch. If I slung 
the shawl round my ,-aist, like a carpenter's nail-pouch, the 
little thing would grip the edge with its fore claws, and then, 
though unable to stand alone, it would vault like a professional 
pole-jumper, and just clearing the edge of the shawl, would 
fall to the bottom of the pouch, after which it could be trans- 
ferred to its box in placid contentment. Without this, 
performance, its happiness was always incomplete. Nicols in 
his Zwiloifical Xofr.-i (p. 100) speaks of a young wallaby which 
could vault with equal ease from his lap into the pockets of 
his shooting-jacket. It made its habitual lair in the pocket, 
of a lady's dress, from which its little black head could be 
seen peeping all day long. If taken out it hopped back again 
with graceful ease. 

This life in the warm retreat of a pouch is an innnense 
step in the progress of parental care. Nothing could be more 
protective to the young, for they spend many months in 
warmth and security, and with an abundance of the most, 
easily assimilated nutriment. The Virginian opo.ssum carries. 
Its ten or twelve young ones in its pouch all over the forest 
for two months, according to Audubon; for four or five 
months according to Professor Rymer Jones. A little koala. 



{Phctscohirclox rinrmis) whieli I bred in continomont was about 
four months constantly in tho pouch, and, for two months 
more, retreated tliither from time to time. The Virginian 
opossum 'Diilrlphix ri, yi Ilia ii'i) win suffer any torture rather 
than allow her brooil to be touched, and I have sever"' 
tunes seen a female koala, in ^jeueral the most timi 
creatures, when a ijroijp of children were dancin^^ round her 
newly-captured little one, descend from her tree, maternal 
love triumphin<r over fear, face the crowd and leap into tho 
middle of it, whereupon the younu; one mounted its 
moth(;r's shoulder and the two went off up the gum-trees. 
I remember ^^[ettin^- from a boy two young ring-tailed 
phalangers whicli T carried home two miles, ami placed in 
a cage in the open air. Every night for a month thereafter 
their mothca- came to visit them, and sar all night long upon 
the cage till I let them go. 

Brehm say.s (Sciuf/dinr, iii., G43) chat the kangaroo carries 
its young for six or eight months, but he might have said 
from eight to ttm without exaggeration, for it is by no means 
uncommon to find a well-gi-own "joey," as it is called, in the 
pouch, while an embryo ready almost for birth lies in the 
womb. This, however, may be in a great part due to self- 
indulgent laziness of the young rogue ; for when the mother, 
pursued by dogs, and finding herself overburdened with the 
weight in her pouch, has cast the youui; one to manage for 
him.self, he can generally give the dogs a good run: often 
enough he escapes. (Nicols' Zooloyical Notes, p. 106.) The 
young kangaroo at this age lives on grass, and only spunges 
for warm sleeping (quarter.- on the good-humoured fondness of 
his mother, whose patience must seem to us great when we 
think of the sharp fore claws, and the long spear-tipped hind- 
legs within the heavily down-dragged pouch. Even when 
the instinct of self-preservation triumphs over a foolish 
maternal indulgence, she exhibits the reluctant lingering of 
devotion seen in the human mother in such a case. G. W. 
Rusden, in his Hidori/ of Ansfralia, relates how he himself 
saw a female kangaroo, when hard pressed by the hounds, 
take a v/ell-grown joey from her pouch and throw it into some 
bushes, yet when she had led the hunt long miles astray, she 










^ /^/. 




.|itf Ilia 

If- i- 12.2 





6" — 


^m A 







(716) 872-4503 





^\^\. ^\ WrS 

rt"^\ ^^ 





W : [ 


.sub,so.,uently was seen to return slily in a circuit, place the 

there IS „. the love of the niarsupial n.other little of that 
yjl^nun^^nmivenesssohn,r.stin^tooU^^^^^^ in cow or cat 
althou,.h there is a certain ,uiet, dull, inexpansive happiness. 
.Not a.l „,arsup,als. however, are upon this level; they 
. uw a gradation upwards from a standard but poorly 
-lowed. All of them have, so far as is known, the'san,e 
kind of gestation, their eggs being hatched in a uterus, without 
attachnient to its walls : but when the young is expelled manv 
species have no pouch in which to reclve it Tl^T^ZZ 
the an -eating species ^/.nnrcolnus, one of the very lowest of 
the order and so isolated that it forms not only a genus but 
a sub-family by itself. Then there are PAascoloU, a\. nus of 

—.1:'""^ 'f""^'^^ '^ '''^ ^l-yures'^r^ai^ivl^ 
rnaisupial ; and also one or two species of the American 
opa^ums in which the pouch is wanting. (Flower and l" 
dekker, LdmlucUon to the Stmt;, of Mammalia, p. 130 ) The 

ZJ 1 T T^"^ '"''' ''''''' "' *'- ^^P« «f the mother to 
her teas, winch they suck into their stomachs: they are 

pa ly by the teat, growing there as does the young kangaroo 

they travel down again to suckle. These amount to some 
twe ve per cent, of the whole marsupial species, and arel^ 
neai the bo tom of it. In seventeen per cent, though there is 
no pouch, here is a shallow fold of skin sufficient^ part y to ^ 

n yV«««,,, the so-called Tasmanian wolf, and its closely 

colonists. It occurs likewise in both the genera of flyino- 
P^l^^ngers /././.. or flying squirrels, and 1....^ or ^^ 
n .ce as well as in the genus phalanger or Australian opossui^? 
It o curs also in the genus Peramclrs, known in AusLli s 
bandicoots, but in this as well as in Las^urus and n^^L" 
the incipient pouch is turned with its opening to tl e ba k 
ins e.l of to the front. (F. E. Beddard. L. Ll. 2 ^^ 


lit, place the 
for all this, 
ttle ol:" that 
cow or cat^ 
' liappincHH. 
level; they 
but poorly 
1, tlie same 
■UH, without 
el led, many 
' occurs in 
■ lowest of 
genus, but 
a {,'enus of 
t" and Ly- 
30.) The 
mother to 
they are 
' that and 
iinb upon 
ess wJien 
to some 
d are all 
h there is 
partly to 
is occurs 
s closely 
i flying- 
3r flying- 


;ralia as 
le back 
•., 1891, 



But fully lialf the marsupials, especially those species 
vh,ch are at the head of the order, are furnlhed with'del 
uarm, s^ecure poaches of the kind already described. The 

rcpxesent the ternunal pomt alon^. their own line of progress 
They generally have a single young one, very rarely wo in a 
year, yet they hold their own in wonderful fashion. It was 
noticed m the early days of the colonists that if the dingoes 
we e shot and reduced in nund.ers upon a run. the kangat-oos 
and vallabes nmlt.phed a thousand-fold in twenty yetrs, so 
hat the grass was eaten by then, to the hare earth Most of 
the colonial governments had to offer rewards for their 
destruction; ana as many as 250,000 have thus been paid for 
by one restricted district in a year. 

and^^itnnT'l' -^'''r "^-f" "^^^^ ^'^-^ '""Oh more prolific ; 
and though It IS not uniformly the case tliat where thi pouch 
s good the number of offspring is small, yet a decided ma^rity 
of cases run tluit way. There are so many disturbing elements 
that we cannot expect anything more dehnite. The American 
opo.ssums are much more prolific than any Australian species. 
We understand this wlien the severity of the winter, and the 
number of enemies, are taken into consideration. In Australia 
the ti-ee-chmbing species have little to fear and never have' 
more than one or two young ones in a year, those which live 
upon the ground more frequently liave from two to four 
ih, large species sometimes suffer from drought and dingoes' 
and Gould relates how he once saw a wedge-tailed etle 
persistently watch all day to snap up a young kangaroo the 
moment it should emerge from its mother's pouch The 
experience of squatters with Iambs has shown that eagles mav 
easily have been formidable enemies of young marsitpials o^ 
some species But as a rule, drought and dingoes an.l eagles 
would do ittle harm to the young of large-sized animals which 
could be transported fifty miles in a day within so secure a 
retreat. It seems not unreasonable to conclude that the 
kang^aroo represents in a measure the perfection of that system 
which makes up for a short and imperfect uterine life by i 
long period of lactation carried on within a deep and fur-dad 



' € 



ii. ' 


And yet the niarsuplal.s nowliere reach a hi^rh standard of 
brain development. They have been too secure, too little 
presse. by the strii<rj,de for existence. With beasts, as with 
man the better (iualitios come out when dan^rer has to be 
, faced, and whatever be the drawbacks of competition, it at 
any rate forces a race out of a conservative into a proLa-essive 
life. ^ '^ 

The Placentalia. 
And so the mammalia find the upward track in other less 
sheltered lands. The rodents, for instance, begin the develop- 
ment of the young in the same fashion as the marsupial The 
egg descends from the ovary well equipped with yolk, which 
forms the sole nutriment during early stages of growth. But 
at a certain point a wholly new expedient occurs. rDr Arthur 
Robinson, Journ.. of Aunt, and Fhydo., with which compare 
he enka.) Ihe ^^nr, from a disc-like area of its surface, sends 
out little root-hke proce.sses called villi, which extend till thev 
touch the walls of the womb. There they dip into little 
crypts or liollows, round which are curled the arteries that 
carry the maternal bloo.l. From the walls of these • ^es 
and their attendant capillaries, the watery fluids of t'- xl 

exude into each crypt or sinus as it is called, and the villi or 
rootlets absorb this nutritious liqui.l for the use of the 
embryo There is no real interchange of blood. It is not 
truly the mother's blood which courses in the veins of the 
embr^^; no corpuscle is transferred; the young animal has to 
make its own corpuscles then as always throughout its life. 
Al that the mother does is to supply from her blood a richly 
nutritious fluid which the young one absorbs as its food 

^achot the orders above the monotremes and marsupials 
follows this order of development, though with manifold 
divergencies of detail. As the area of attachment between 
f<etus an.l uterus is calle.l the placenta, these higher orders of 
mammalia are known as the placnaalia. According to 
Balfour {hmhr,olo,j!,, n., 227), they are all derived from 
ance.stors, whose eggs, like those of the marsupials, were pos- 
sessed of yolk-sacs sufficient to provide for all or nearly all 
their growth until expulsion. But the yolk-sac, as we a.scend 


tiindard of 
too little 
ts, as with 
lias to be 
ition, it at 

other less 
e develop- 
pial. The 
oik, which 
^vtli. But 
Dr. Arthur 
1 compare 
'ace, sends 
d till they 
into little 
eries that 
e ' =es 
th Dd 

le villi or 
e of the 
It is not 
ns of the 
lal has to 
t its life. 

a richly 


orders of 
•din^r to 
ed from 
.'ere pos- 
early all 
e ascend 



tiMt incons,deral)le form known as the umbilical vesicle it 

attechment area has been completed. (Michael Foster, bk. iv., 

for h"^ ^h "T'"' '" '''' '""'''' "P^^'^"-^^'^> ^^« fi"'^ the provision 

01 this attachment of f,.tus to uterus walls increasL,. both to the area of contact, and to the con.plexity of the 

see n o be the Insectivores. I„ the mole, the shrew, and the 

till nea the close of fcetal life, the small extent of placental 
connection beino- only an aid, not the chief support, 'xe the 
the edentates nor the bats are much in ad'^nce, but tl" 

contacl. '" ''' """ '''""^^^^ ^"'"P'-'*^' «^' tl^^^t 

A consideration of the nature of this contact will lea.l to a 
^-K>n of the i^acentalia into two ,reat types, the ti^^ 
and the non-deciduate. In the former, the e.-^., on the one 
hand, grows shag-gy with multitudes of ^•illi which reach out 
to penetrate the womb, and, on the other hand, the wal l! 
womb prepare themselves to receive these villi, growing thick 
sott, ami spongy, and closing round the villi ,so as to embed th!m 
in a fleshy mass. This thickened skin does its work " 
noun.slunent till the embryo is expelled; then it aw 
from the mside of the wond, forming the "aLr-birt'' 
whence the name deciduate. 

But among the non-deciduates, there is no sucli elaborate 
response of the walls of the womb to the needs of the villi 
In he pig, for instance, each villus is only a simple rounded 
p.o.,ection which pushes its way into a hollow in the Xhi 
wall. In he ruminants the shape of the villus is much more 
elaborate, but there is the same comparative simplicity in th 
vascular .structure of the walls. These do not niterially .^ 
to their, and do not to any considerable extent fall 
away when th(> f,,.tus is exp.-II,.,!. 

Of^ two classes, the cleciduate represents the aristo- 



ii: 4 


genie track : it leads steadily up to the highest types. But 
the non-deciduate reache.s a point of considerable perfection 
in its own line. The whole of tliis division is of a singular 
uniformity of level, tlie linking species of bygone ages having 
pi-obably met extinction in the competition with tlie finest 
races of their kind. All the terrestrial animals of the non- 
deciduate class are herbivorous, inchidiug the families of the 
liippopotamus, peccary, pig, camel, girati'e, chevrotain, deer, 
ox, antelope, goat, tapir, horse, and rhinoceros. The marine 
members of the group form the two orders of the whales and 

It' ■' 

Non-Deciduate Placextalia. 

These animals, forming the great orders of the ungulates, 
the whales (Ccfaccn) and the dugongs (Slrcnin), exclusive of 
only two families, the hyrax and the elephant, agree among 
themselves in manj' peculiarities of detail. Their period of 
gestation is remarkably long, ranging from 150 days in the 
slieep, goat, and ibex to 280 days in the cow, bison, stag, 
and yak. It would seem to be roughly proportional to the 
sixth root of the weight, but it is in all cases five or six 
times as long as in bi"d or marsupial of the same weight, 
and twice as long as in the carnivores. Thus a lion and 
a stag are of approximately the same weight, but the ope 
has a gestation of 110 days, the other of 280 days; the 
wolverene and the sheep are of about the same weight, but 
the one carries its young only ninety days, the other 150 
days ; the polar bear, 440 'lbs., takes 210 days ; but a horse of 
the same weight would take 3;30 days, and so on. (See 
Appendix B to this chapter.) 

The effect of this long gestation period is to bring the 
young one into the world in a remarkably complete condition. 
Contrast the young rodent, carnivore, or monkey with the 
calf, the kid, the lamb, or the fawn. The young of all the 
deciduate group are born feeble, helpless, incapable of main- 
taining their own temperature, while the young of all this 
non-deciduate group in an hour or two after birth can trot at 
a fair speed alongside of the mother, and have no need to be 


■pes. But 
a sino'ular 
;es liaviiifif 
tlie tinest 
tlu' non- 
ies of the 
;iiin, (leer, 
he marine 
hales and 

elusive of 
ree among 

period of 
lys in the 
isoii, stag, 
lal to the 
ve or six 
le weight, 

lion and 
t the oi?e 
lays ; the 
eight, but 
other 150 
a horse of 
on. (See 

bring the 

with the 
of all the 

of main- 
if all this 
in trot at 
eed to be 


covered over by her to secure their heat Tin" • „ .^ 
more remarkable inasmuch ■,. fi • . ^'ns is all the 

average of twenty-^" .^.^f 'o'-'^'f"" ^^ '"^''' *'^« 

tise occurs among the 

'"^^"""alia that you„<- born t T °''"'" '""""^' ^'^^ 

->ot without value there foi-e i^ fK 
gestation period of the non-de ^luates A T^'^'T^^y '^^'S 
a^o they are singularly well m:^t su^lt; ' 'H^^" ^^^^^^1: 
of very consderablc si/e .,,„] ..i. , ,, . ' ^ '''''>' a»"^' all 

»i.i. by oti... Ian,! ;;:f''o:::," "T' ■'""'''''■"''*- 

"<> l™» than lV,„ ""' ''"-''-™» J-"-'"«ra. 

-apo,„, .„,, „'',:,. ^ir";,'"' """ '■•"■»■■''»'''« 

a.m,„, camel. ,t , X Z !, ■' "'' *™"' ''''" '"W'P"'- 

to fe easily overtake,,. .So,^ ",1 '' ''•■° '"" ""■"'' 

fea,-le», life „„ tl„. le,|„„ ° , T ""■.,>„„ty by ti.eir 

.i-"inKi„ti,o,i„„ti, Vwie :;,r' '"-"IT' -- '-^ 

"'"i<l 'I'ynes,, of the ci«e,t o , .r"""' ''°'^' "«-'"'■ f""'' 

the .a„Ki«l f„,-e,t. ' '''■'' '" "" l''""''-'' "'"'■"Ik-'.s of 

parental affection aln,„,„t-el Z' "'"V'™*" °f 
of thi., cmalitv in bf„k V . " '""''"■•* 'li»l''av 

».».-,» ?».„/,,>., n 7.5, lee"*; , """"" (-^"S'""" '"to 

a newly calvej c^w h 1, " t T,' "" °™ "'""'"'"» "'»' 
and the males of aTl thet t • ^r t '"' : "T'* ''"■ "'» "^ ^ 
the young as the mothl ' "*'''' "'"■>■ '■"'•'^'y fon-l'e 

t^e,n«elve!, „.,„„.;::'::,:': -J»--.- to e.e..t 

only on-e o^XiTZr:^;:.,:''-^'-!^'" ^^^^^ 

«« each yea... ButTr^f^f ITT '"^''■* ^^°"' 
1-''9 ^ , u , . """t-iagi- or tne who r trroun i« n«u. 

' -^, a number which of ifooif i i . " "P ''^ oo^y 

relationship i. here ^f a hi^ ordef "^ '"' ^'^ "'^*^^'-^ 

11 r 




■4 3: 



84 'J HE ()iu(;i\ AM) GnowTii OF Tin; mohai, instimt. 

And tliis inatenial ivliitioiisliip, tlioui^li it may sprin^r 
from a 1) (jf pliysical iiL-cds on hotli sides, is the souroo of 
many charming capacities oi' affection destined in o.ther races 
to lofty developments. These physical need.s depend on the 
fact that the youn<f, thou<;h so complete in other respects, are 
(juite unable to live on the same class of food that their 
pai-eiits riMpiire. They are born with inadeiiuate tooth supply, 
and their di^^^estive or<fanH are incapable of derivin<r nutrition 
from orass or leaves. But in the mother's or<ranism, after tlie 
f(t'tus has reached a certain staoe in the womb, a stran<;e 
reflex action beijins to develop the mamniie or millv-secretin<r 
or<rans. By a mechanism to be described in the last chapter 
but one of this book, the sympathetic nervous system, takiu"- 
its stimulus from the altered condition of the womb, presides 
over a slow but continuous chancre in the fat-secretinj,^ ^dands 
of the mannnary re^nons, and when the youn^r one is expelled, 
the woml) no lon<;-er needing'' its i^reviously hw^e supplies of 
blood, shrinks back into inactivity, while the same nerves of 
the vasu-motor system which shut (jtf the blood supply from 
the womb, turn it on to the mannnre. From that time 
forward the mother yives consciously lier nourishment to the 
youno- one just as she hail formerly ^'iven it unconsciimsly. 
Her udders are now full of nutriment, just as her woml) had 
formerly been, and she craves for the lips of her ort:si)rinn- to 
relieve their distended condition. Throu^-h a dozen ducts, 
prolono-ed into the projectin-.- nipples, the rich Huid, holding- 
in solution suo'ar, and in suspension fat f,dol)ules and the 
cheesemaking albumen called casein, pours as a flood of nutri- 
ment into the delicate stomach. And yet, if the relationship 
on both si.les were wholly of this selfish kind, its efliciency 
would be greatly lessened. If the mother had no thought but 
the emptying of hei- udder ; if the young had no feeling but 
that of hunger, the process would fail in much that now con- 
tributes to its influence. But the mate.rnal and fllial relations 
foster tlie growth of emotional conditions such as are eminently 
favourable to the emergence of liigher types. Not only do the 
nerves of the senses grow more delicate to the touch of fainter 
stimuli : but the nerves that control blood currents in what 
will be shown to be emotional channels become more and more 


lay spi'iii^jj 
' source of 
AtluT races 
11(1 on the 
■spt'ct.s, are 
timt their 
)th supply, 
J nutrition 
1, after tlie 
a straiif^o 
ist chapter 
im, takinj; 
h, presides 
n<;' ^'lands 
■f expelled, 
upplies of 
nerves of 
iply from 
that time 
lit to the 
voiiih had 
si)riiio- to 
'Ml duets, 
1, holdiii<j 
and the 
of nutri- 
)uj>iit but 
-'liii^' but 
now con- 
ly do the 
)f fainter 
' in what 
md more 

l>ABEN-r.«. issTiNcT IX ii,un,Ar.s. 85 

M^'lit, scent, and voice of ts vouii.r ,,.„. I,, ■ , 

t ■ !■!• 

1 1^'t 

' i V 

U ;i 

I f 



,: I 



oase; and Healc, who as a sur^-'coii for many years in wlialinj,' 
ships had ample means of observation, states that if a younjr 
one he attacked, its mother will stay by its side, urp'n^r its 
fli^'ht and assisting-' its escape. On the other hand, if^the 
niotlier l)e killed, the yonuv; one will follow lier carcase for 
many liours after lier death. (T. Beale, .Vaf. Hist „f Snn 
Whale, p. 51.) 


Deciduate Placentalia. 

But the deciduate division of tlie placental mammals repre- 
sents tlie last and hijrhest branch we liave to follow. They 
be<;in with tlie Insectivores, the mole representiiif^ the lowest 
type of this class of placenta. Then come the rodents and the 
bats. (Balfour, ii., 241.) Of the 2.30 ^renera composino' these 
orders, all that have been fully examined show a comparatively 
larj-'e yolk-sac for tlie early nutritior. of the embryo, but soon 
there appears a disc-like area of villi dipping,' into the walls of 
the womb, which over that limited area becomes extremely 
vascular, thick, and soft. " The intermin^dinf,^ of the fuetal 
and maternal parts becomes very close" (Balfoui-, ii.. 242), and 
the discoidal placenta thus formed falls away soon after the 
expulsion of the fo-tus. The .same description is applicable to 
a majority of the edentates; the armadillos and sloths wiiich 
constitute nine out of the fourteen genera of this ill-a.ssorted 
order beino- similar to rodent or insectivore ; but the scaly ant- 
eaters are uon-deeiduate, while that monstrosity called the 
aard-vark or Cape ant-eater goes rather with the group to be 
next described. 

In all these animals the scale of intelligence runs from 
moderate to fairly high. Their period of gestation relative to 
their size is long compared with that of marsupial, short com- 
pared with that of ungulate forms, being rather more than 
double the one and less than half the other. (See Appendix B to 
this chapter.) In all cases the young come into the world quite 
helpless. The mother prepares in good time a nest or sheltered 
lair wherein she may cover her little ones. In all the Insecti- 
vores the young are born naked, blind, and deaf; and the 
mother suckles them and tends them during a relatively long 


in wlmliii^ 
t' 11 you 11^' 
urj^'iii^ its 
11.1, if tlie for 



iiiUs ivpre- 
i\v. Tliuy 
the lowojst 
ts [uid the 
siii^' these 
, hut soon 
e walls of 
the f(utal 
242), and 
after the 
:)licable to 
ths wiiich 
scaly ant- 
alled the 
3up to lie 

uns from 

•elative to 
lioi-t ooni- 
lore than 
lulix B to 
3rld (]uite 
e Insecti- 
and the 
t^ely long 

perio<l: a pericjd in excess of the time of care shown among 
birds of the same siz.'. TIu- young re-piiiv three weeks before 
they can stand or walk, and at least a month before they can 
properly maintain their spuciHe temperature. Among the 
Chriroptvni, or bats, the female is .said (Vogt, Mamvudiu,!, 09) 
to form a sort of pouch with her curved-up tail and its 
attached membrane. Into this the young one drops at birth, 
but it has strength enough to climb by the hair of the mothers' 
body to the teats upon her breast, and there it clings for 
several weeks, tenderly suckled and protected. 

Among the rodents there are wide variations, from the 

guinea-pig which comes into the world already furred and 

with open eyes, prepared to reach maturity in six or eight 

weeks, up to the beaver, which is long dependent and does 

not attain to its full size for a couple of years, remaining in 

the parental lodge until its third summer. (L. H. Morgan.'yyir.' 

American Beaver ami Ids Works, p. 3()., In the s(iuirrel', rat, 

marmot, and generally the larger part of the rodents, the 

young are born blind, but their eyes open when they are from 

three to thirteen days old. Their fur generally begins to 

grow soon after birth, and is a fairly warni covering before a 

foi-tnight is over. The young mouse, as Aristotle long ago 

observed, is able to shift for itself in about Mfteen days : the 

rabl)it or hare is suckled for three weeks; porcupines are 

suckled for a month, according tc Butibn, but remain with 

their mother .some time later. 

Of the orders thus united by the po.ssession of a small placenta, all are more or less diminutive: the very 
largest being less than a small sheep, while the great majority 
are smaller than a hare. There are none of them formidable, 
even though the rat and the mole are Herce, and the hedgehog,' 
porcupine, and armadillo are defensively armed. Their main 
security lies in hiding ; they never move far from their lurking 
places, and such speed as they may display is always subsidi- 
ary to the in.stinct of concealment. Their rate of propagation 
IS therefore generally high ; the average of rodents being 11 -1 
young per annum ; of the insectivores 11-4. The bats though 
feeble have the immense advantage of an ai^ri.a! lif.-; 3-et it is 
hard to understand how this alone could account for a fertility 

I M 

^ Si ! 


so low tliiit spocifs lu'iiin; rortli Init a siii^ki yoiiii;;' one 
in tlio ywir iiiitl iioiu! of tlu-iii niori\ than two. 

A Ht'cond Huh-ifroup of the <liici(luato placi'iitulia consists of 

the carnivores, the I'li'phant.aml the anoinulons iittk- pach^-dcrni 

t'alk'(l thi' liyrax. These all stall with a ^-olk-sac of fair dinien- 

sions for the early nutrition of the embryo ; then they foi-ni a 

• lisc-like attachment after the fasliion of the last ffroup; lait 

steadily this spi-eads till it surroumls the whole e<,'j,Mn a broad 

riiif,^ or zo!ie of villi, dippinif in ver}' intimate union into an 

exceedinirly vascular wall. Each villus b) out, and 

every branch contains its own little artery and its little veins, 

the whole embedded in the tissue of the motlier wall throuidi 

which the blood Hows, coursin<^ freely in arteri 's and cajiil- 

laries that cui-l round and round eacli rootlet, while throuifji 

their porous coats the life stream soaks to nourish the j-ounc 

one. The thickened wall thus formed is no essential part of 

the mother's ordinary structure. Havin<f served its special 

purpose it falls oH'and is expelled. 

This is on the whole the most complete maternal provision 

we have yet reached in our upward course. That of the 

un^-ulate or non-deciduate j.a-oup is in most ways fairly to be 

compared with it, inasmuch as thouifh their placental system 

is not so fully adapted to minister to the wants of the embryo, 

yet the period of gestation is lonj^, and the one advantage may 

be regarded as the e(|uivalent of the other. But apparently 

tlie balance in some way lies in favour of the deciduate group, 

prolmbly because the long period of nurture which its youno- 

enjoy makes up for a shortened gestation, and the promotion 

of emotional life which accompanies a conscious protection 

may be more than an ecjuivalent for the extra security of a 

mechanical and unconscious protection. But any diminution 

in protective efficiency must be slight, for this group of the 

zonary deciduates consists practically of the carnivores whose 

means of defence must make their young unusually secure. 

The comparison leads us into some uncertainty', for while 
we have seen invariably along all the line that an increase of 
intelligence is accompanied by a decrease in fertility, it is not 
so when we compare the carnivores with the ungulates. The 
latter, as we saw, average 122 young per annum, but the 



carnivoiys on tlio Hvomj,'e of thirty-niiio .siR'cius product- lu'url^' 
four. Vet then! ciui he no ,|o,il)t that these are the moro 
intellifr,.nt onler of the two. Tlwy inehide the cat trihe au.l 
all the (lo^^s, the h.-ars. civets, racoons, weasels, l.adj^vrs, otters, 
seals, and walruses, and if we add the elephants, as the only 
important family with zonary placentas outside of the carni- 
vores, we have a ^'roup hrain development exceeds tho 
best we have yet discusseil. 

15ut it is easily to he conceived that stern necessity may 
have compelled the unoulates to a lonjr j^cstation, not to pro- 
duce a more Intel li^a-nt type, hut mcely to place in tho 
world a well-matured otlsprin^r. if there ever had been races 
of deer whose fawns were born as helpless as a kitten, 
they nuLst have perished ott' the face of the earth as the 
carnivores became stron^jer and more rapacious. The species 
whose yoiui^^ were soonest ready to trot by their mothers 
would survive, and in their case the ntni^^h for existence 
would render it of the utmost impoi-tance th.t the mother 
should carry her younj^ till it was of the j,'reatest size com- 
patible with her own .safety at its birth. In such a case those 
races would be favourably situated which produced but the 
one otlisprinir at a time. 

No such necessity ur<.-cd the carnivore. There is no daufrer 
to the ti^rer-cub in its bein^- Ijorn blind and helpless. The 
mother can atlbrd to have three or four at a time, small and 
nnperfectly developed, for she has l)oth the power and tlie 
wdl to protect them. The fawn, the calf, the kid fall a prey 
to her wily stren<(th, but her own youn<,^ ones are inviolate. 

In proportion to their size the candvores have a prestation 
period no more than half tlie len^rth of that uniformly seen in 
the untrulates, but the elephant, thou^rJi of zonary placenta, 
seems to be in many respects of the other class. Its {testation 
period greatly exceeds even that of the ungulate ; it has but a 
single otispring in five or six years, and the young are born in 
a condition to trot about as thougli long experienced in the 
ways of life. 

But on the -vhole we shall not be wrong in assigning to 
the carnivores the b.igher place in regard not only to intelli- 
gence but also to parental care. In every case a long period 



'■' ; ■ it 




d ':=t< 


' l^i 


of suckliiio- i.s followed by many months of family life in 
which tile mother (lelii^'hts to have her youn>( ones around her, 
encourao'es their games, and fiercely protects them from all 
dano-LT. The she- wolf suckles her cubs for eii,dit weeks within 
the lair, but thouo-h they then go abroad with lier, she suckles 
them for a couple of months longer, and until they are nearly 
a 3^ear old they are her constant companions. E(iually solici- 
tous is the mother fox, or hyj^na, and all the feline race are 
more devoted still. The she-bear appeals to find an inexpres- 
sible (leliglit in lier thre» or four naked little cubs which 
remain blind for at least a month. Long after that time, how- 
ever, she contines lierself to the den, keeping them warm, 
suckling them, sporting with them, her autunni fat supporting 
her so that she need never (juit them an instant. (Vogt, 
MamuwUa, i., 207.) The weasel and the badger are l)lind 
for a fortnight, and stay within the mother's nest for two 
months ; the otter, according to Bufibn, is depemlent on its 
mother for nine months, and the racoon, according to Vogt, 
for a full year. 

Seals also are most affectionate mothers, and in an innnense 

herd where acres of rock are a moving mass of bleating young 

ones, each mother recognises the cry of her own ; her satisfac"^ 

tion is great if it comes to " " her; then ,ihe turns over to 

give it suck. {U.S. Fislwrir^ L'rporf, 1884.) The elephant is 

also of an extreme maternal devotion. Sir Emerson Tennent 

in his classic work on Ceylon observes that the smaller herds 

as a rule consist of a mother and her four or five successive 

offspring, while Blandford, a most competent authority, states 

that a herd killed at Kokai consisted of a female and her four 

young of various ages, a fact which would indicate a very 

long period of maternal care. (Blandford, Geohiji/ and Zoo/o,/// 

of A/>>/s.sinif(, p. 8.59.) Andersson relates both of' the elephant 

and of the rhinoceros (L>/,r X<inmi, p. 889) how tenderly 

afiectionate are their motherly instincts, and how pathetic it 

IS to see a young one haunting for days the spot where its 

mother has been slain. 

The Monkey.s. 
Finally we have to turn down that branch of developing 


ily life in 
iround her, 
11 from all 
elsH within 
ihe .suckles 
are nearly 
lily solici- 
le race are 

ibs which 
time, how- 
Jiii warm, 
t. (Vo^rt, 
are blind 
t for two 
:nt on its 

to Vo^t, 

I immense 
"«■ young 
[• satisfac- 
ns over to 
ephant is 

ler herds 
ty, states 
. her four 
e a very 
d Zooloijj/ 

athetic it 
where its 




maternal provision which leads through the lenun-s and 
monkeys to the apes, and culminates in mankind. These still 
belong- to the group of deciduate placentalia. But they pre- 
sent, in the uncoTiscious provisions of maternal care, the two 
advances of the (hrldu,, rrjtr.m and the clKirion fnmdusnm, as 
well as a very great proportional increase in the period of 
gestation. As regards the conscious provisions of the mother 
after the birth of the young one, there is a lengthened period 
of suckling, combined with an intensity of atiection exceeding 
any as yet descri])ed. The tlcriihn, rrjlcm is Hrst met with in 
slight and primitive form fimong the rat ... mily and some of 
the insectivores, but it attains a large development only at the 
level of the apes. It is a long fold of the walls of the womb 
which forms a capsule for the ovum, embedding it securely 
in anticipation of subsequent changes. During the first fort- 
night of development, villi grow out over the greater part of 
the surface of the chorion or enclosing membrane so thickly 
that a fo'tus removed at this stage appears as if covered 
by a shaggy fell. This, however, ceases to increase on the 
lower parts round which the ilmdna irflexa is wrappeil. Un 
the upper end of the womb, these villi, to use the words 
of Balfour (ii., 240), "become more and more complicated 
and assume an extremely arborescent form," giving rise to 
the fhoriun. fnmdosHi,,. They dip far into the walls, and 
each terminates in a sinus or reservoir into which the 
"'curling artery" of the mother's womb pours the nutritious 
iluid.^ The villi hang freely in this fluid : each of them has 
a vein and an artery " connected by a rich anastomosis of 
ramitications " into which the maternal Huid soaks to be 
thence drawn into the fo-tal circulation. It is clear from the 
works of Turner, Huxley, and Balfour that the connection of 
the tissues of the mother and offspring is more intimate and 
highly developed in (luadrumanous and human species, 
than in any other animahs. 

Add to this that the periotl of gestation is the longest 
known, and we certainly- recognise the highest standard as yet 
•developed in this earth of ours of that uneonseious prolimimirv 
maternal care which can do so much to render possible tlie 
loftiest types of intelligence. The monkey, even the little 



((1 • 





i' 'ir \ 



'i- ■ 


! ,1 


• ; 



9-2 Tin: oiuoix and ghowtii of tiih moral ixstinx't. 
i»aca.,tie, acor.liH. to Flower and Ly.Iekker (Sfu<n, uf M, 


ian-ies her youiio- for 196 days. This is f 

loii^- as a cat, six tin 

tunes as lono^ as any bird of tlic 

nes as lon^- as a hare is gravid, and 

"our times as 



same wei^^-ht would inculwite 

oxa^^o-ei-ation, yet it 

V\i.' may reasonably susjiect some mistake or 
', yet It remains true that for a monkey the 
ponod ,s ot extraordinary len^^th. An ape takes lono,,. than 
lu. lar.-est bears, and as lon^. as the lar^^est runnnants, the 
period bemj,. twice as lono- i„ proportion to its size as in any 
other annual, save only the horse and the elephant. In man- 
kmd there ,s a-ain an increase in this period of yvstation 
ni comparison with that of the hi<,diest apes. 

Th.. lemurs an.l other prosimians form the link that leads 
from rodents and insectivores to this hif-hest OTOup Thev 
have no Mua rrflcra, thouj^h in essential features a.lumbrant 
of the hnal system of placenta. As we should expect from 
tlieu- position, relatively low, thou^di with the promise of 
^,a-eat thin«.s to follow, their youn^. are born able to see, and 
not altoj^ether naked of hair. In all cases they climb immedi- 
ately a ter birth up the mother's l,ody to her teats, which are 
situated on the breast. 

This pectoral situation of the teats, rare in lower forms 
but uniformly characteristic of all the quadrumana, except the' 
one species which is lowest of all, is well adapte.l to utilise the 
protective care of the, which now, for the first time in 
our upward review, form the termination of the fore limbs 
Ihe fond mother is able to carry her little suckliiHr in lovin-^ 
arms, and clasp its head to her bosom. The American 
monkeys (6'././,/,,), the lowest of the <iuadrumana, in spite of 
a lon^. ^a^station, brin^r forth their youn^r i„ a somewhat 
nnmature form. As they dwell only in tropic forests, little 
provision needs to be for their warmth, but they are 
carried continuously in the mother's arm, she employing the 
three other limbs in Hi^ht or in the search for food, whil^ the 
little one never for a moment in its early life leaves her 
breast. When it is old enough it climbs upon the mother'.s 
back, where it lives for months, still suckled from time to time 
ni indulgent arms. Even when well able to shift for itself it 
returns to suckle or to ride on the maternal shoulders By 



<leoTc.L.,s the life of the funiily becomes inei'n-e.l in the life of the 
tnhe, and the youn<r derive the advantao-e j^iven l)y the pro- 
tection of the united males. 

The Old World Jiioidveys {Ccrwpilhn-i,hv) disi^lay the same 
«Iass of provisions, but in accordance with their o-reater 
mtellioence, niatui-ity is still lon^^or in arrivino-. Smatl as a 
iiiaca-iue or entellus monkey may be, it is not mature till the 
a^'e of four or five 3-ea.-s. It is suckled (juite twelve months 
<uid, lon<r after that, is watche.l over with some decree of 
maternal care. The method of carrying, the youn^. in the 
arms bnn^.s us back to the level of protective care seen in the 
marsupial pouch, but then the youn^' monkey has ha.l six 
times as lon«- a testation, an.l a very much superior oppor- 
tunity of development ,hirino. that period. And the conscious 
care of the .subse.,uent time is very ,litierent. As Vo-ft says 
{Miunmnlia, En«-lish trans., i., 44), "The monkey brin..s im 
Jier youn^v very much in the same way as man, ..ften with 
oxce.s.sive and care, shown especially in combin- 

and searchino- for parasites. Males and I 



defend the youn^ with bravei^ bot'liox their' eaiT or 'cilil!^ 
them, if they have failed to render obedience. They lead tbem 
about 1,1 their tender years, and afterwards ^mide them in 
climbing, running, and leaping." 

But it is only in the anthropoid apes that everything points 
most conclusively to the coming perfection of parental care in 
tlie human species. All the details of propagation are for the 
tirst time entirely similar. The male organs are entirely 
analogous, an.l in the female there is seen the first indication 
of the menstrual flow. (Hartmann, Anthmimd Ape. p 1«)1 • 
compare also Bland Sutton's observations, Jonrn. nf Inat „n<l 
Ihiisiol xxvii., p. 872. J All the details of placenta and of 
milk-gland are for the first time entirely analogous, and the 
parental care that is exhibite.l approximates closely to that of 
the savage man. There is within the ape family, as every- 
where else, a certain .legree of gradation, l)ut in the lowest 
genus, the gibbons, the young ones cling to the mother for 
seven months, then gradually merge in the family life of tiie 
tnbe. (rrof. Duncan, CasseW, Nat. Hist., i., 7«.) 'prof. Rynua- 
Jones, however, asserts that they do not reach maturity till 





. ,! 

■ J 


1' ' it 






! 1 


tl.. ao-e of ten, while Hartn.ann places it as hi.h as fourteen 
or hi teen years. (Anthropoid Apr^ p 055 ^ 

The youn. at birth in all apes are tak^n into the anus of 
the mothers, a„.l there claspe<! with a fon.l pri.le : the si-ht of tenderness in gibbon or is a to.;;hin^ 
one, tl e lono. h,,,,, „, t,,e n.other stroking- back the sha-.y 
|un. o the brow wlHle she looks down with yearning- a 111.^0. 
to tlu. . epths of the brown eyes, is su^.^^stive of 
^e worl. oi nu.It,n. syn.pathies dawnin. there.lut risin. 
touauls then- nu.n.han n. a nobler species. Bock, in his book 
on Borneo, declares that the .y-ibbon washes and dries the 
ace of her otispnn,.. Next to the hu.nan babe, the infant ape 
h most helpless of all new-born creatures; most helpleL. 
V , • '-r '^'^"■^•:'?r.*''^' '^""'^^^'^ «f the period of helplessness 
he Iv TnnT" ' ' ""'^''^ '^'"^^" '' youn/maca,,ne 

11 01 "1 '"!:^^:r"*'";^^ -' t'- --- ^^^-> the n^onkey 

ut rK b ;" ," " ' ' ''''''' '^' """^' '^y "P«» ^ts back 
utteily helplcv,, ben.^. scarcely able to ^niide its lino.e,s to the 
M-nisp of any dehnite object. (Mala,, Arch., p. 45 ) Yet his 
expenence, uswell as those of Miiller and Schlegel. show that 
at a comparatively early age the youn«- orang is quite able in 
an instmc ,ve way to take a tenacious hold of the hair on the 
jnothers bosom, and to cling there unsupported. Thou-di 
help|^Hs, therefore, it is not nearly so helpless as the hun.:n 

Wallace speaks as if the family life of the orang were very 
nicomple e, the male taking „o share in the defence of the 
young, tlie group as a rule consisting of a female, a half- 
grown young one and an infant, the father rarely participating 
n the fortunes of mate and ottspring; and Lieut. Crelgny 

Sh B^L ; '"''] "^^'" "^ '"^^""^ ^'^""^'^'y corroboritivl 
Rajah Brooke (Journals, i., 221) relates how he killed an adult 

ieniale with one young one at her breast and another a tar 

cu- two old by her side, from which it appears that the yo'u ig 

ay ong with tie mo her. But the latter authority assert! 

that the ma e makes a kind of staging of boughs and leaves 

on whicli the female sits to suckle her youi^, while from 

another similar resting-place he watches over the safety of 

the iamdy (,.. 226). Du Cliaillu (quoted Brehm, .auyi^l 



I., H2) assorts tliat the cliinipanz.-e has the same custom. 
Whatever doubts may exist as to the attention jiaid by tlie 
father, there is none as to tlie <]evotion of the motlier. Prof. 
Rymer Jones [yfamwalia, p. Kij rehites a pathetic experience 
of a Captain Hall who shot a female oran<r, and saw her spend 
lier Failino- .strenjrth in settin^r her little one in the way of 
escape, after which she herself turned round to await lier 
destiny, but even then with a fre.|Uent anxious ^rhuice at the 
progress up amony the foliage of the small creature that was 
her all on earth. 

But if the paternal atiection were dubious among the other 
apes, there seems little room to doubt its existence in the 
highest species, the gorilla; for in this case the few authorities 
ni wliom we can trust invariably describe the i'amily group as 
consisting of an old male, his consort an.l their oHsprin.r 
(Hartmann, Anthropoid Aprs, p. 282.) Koppenfels states th^t 
the Hrst family he saw consisted of the parents, a young one 
about six years old and an infant of less than a year.'' " It 
was touching." he adds, "to see with what loving care the 
female tended her baby." (Brehm, Saiujdkrc, i., 67.) 

There is no occasion for surprise, therefore, when we find 
that these are the least prolific of the animals we liave con- 
sidered. Even the prosimians, though sometimes with two or 
three young per year, are almost uniformly confined to one, 
and the monkeys, excluding the marmosets, which form an 
intervening family, aVe absolutely uniparous ; nor do any of 
the lower apes ever exceed one offspring to the year, while the 
higher apes, whose young are not born in any determinate 
season, appear from all that is known to have an interval of 
much more than a year between the birth of one offspring and 
that of the next. 


Of essentially the same type, but still more completely 
elaborated, mankind stands at the head of this highest group, 
foremost in all respects. The period of gestation is in propor- 
tion to size the longest known (see Appendix B), the union of 
maternal and foetal tissues is the most complex ; yet, after a 

\ M 


i \l\ 







' 1 


^ 1 





! I. 


loufr period of the most perfect nutrition, tlie babe is born by 
far the most helpless of infant creatures, recpiirinfj a full year 
of o-rowth ere it can stand or walk, eight years at lea:)t to make 
it capable of manaj-'inir for itself, and twenty years for maturity. 
There can be little reason to doubt that all tliis deliberate 
proo-i-uss to maturity is dependent on the greatly increased 
nerve complexity, whose foundations have to be deeply laid 
from the beginning. Muscle is easily superimposed in sub- 
.se(]uent years, and it bears in the infant a much smaller pro- 
portion to the whole body weight than it does in the adult. 
But the new-born babe has a l)rain more than eight times as 
great in proportion as the adult (Foster, Fhy&loUxjn, bk. ii., 
chap, v.), and tlie rest of the nervous system has no doubt 
more or less of analogous excess. And after all, this nervous 
.system, in the most essential way, /.s- the animal: it is the 
expressive outline which may easily be filled in ; it is tlie 
basis which settles the design, and all else grows up around it 
in accordance with that design. It is this nerve elaboration 
which demands time for its growth ; a contractor will build 
a huge factory in six weeks, l)ut if it be a palace he is to 
build, of mingled elegance and, he may require a 
year for the foundation alone. Somewhat of the same delibe- 
rate preparation appears in the growth of the nobler animals. 
The l)alie is born with a brain which averages one-seventh 
part of its body weight. ])r. Sharpey's figures give 14 oz. as 
the average of the brain, while Devergie {Medicine Le<iale, i., 
279) gives G! lb. as the average weight of the whole body. 
Nothing like this proportion is found in any of the lower 
animals, but while the body of the child is multiplied in 
weight some twenty-fold at maturity, the brain is little more 
than doubled. And yet all this brain development at birth is 
accompanied by nothing in the way of intelligence ; the new- 
born babe is incomparably less intelligent than the ducklin<»- 
fresh from the shell or the calf but newly dropped. The 
brain at this early age has great potentialities for the future, 
but no actual working power. So truly is it like the founda- 
tion which makes no appearance above the surface of the 
earth. But on that splendid basis the yeai-s are able to build 
a mighty sujjerstructure. 


i in born by 
; u full year 
!a;it to make 
)r maturity, 
i deliberate 
y increasecl 
deeply laid 
sed in sub- 
inuller pro- 
the adult, 
it times as 
><j!l, bk. ii., 
i no doubt 
lis nervous 
; it is the 
; it is the 
I around it 
will build 
!e ho is to 
recjuire a 
me delibe- 
r animals, 
14 oz. as 
IJijale, i., 
lole body, 
the lower 
tiplied in 
ittle more 
it birth is 
the new- 
led. The 
le future, 
e founda- 
3e of the 
to build 



And yet our fancy maj^ proceed too fast, for when we cross 
the border nito the confines of the human race, we have first 
to deal with the sava^^e of Negrito, Bushman, or Andaman 
type, wherein the brain, though much above that of the 
Highest apes, .s by no means the wondrous organ it is subse- 
quently to l)ecoine. Accordingly we fin.l that the babes of 
these races are not nearly so tender or so delicate to nurture 
as those of civilised man. I have heard travellers among the 
blacks of Australia describe how infants of a week old are laid 
m perfect nakedness on the sand, to endure, it may be a 
scorching sun and plague of flies, or, it may be, bitter wind 
ami a shower of rain. They come unhurt through an ordeal 
that would be certain death to the infant of a civilised race 

Nevertheless the amount of care which even the nake<l 
savage mother takes of her child exceeds that of any lower 
ainmal. It is perliaps the purest joy which is known in 
savage hfe, that emotional play of feeling when she folds 
the little head to ),er bosom, and feels its lips draw at the 
maternal stream ; when she fondles it, coaxes from it the first 
laugh, and teaches it all the little triumphs of baby life ■ when 
she assists its first staggering steps and exults in its early 
attempts to frame the tribal syllables. 

True to the general rule, we shall here discover on the one 
hand a diminution of the number of offspring and on the 
other an increase in. the period of maternal devotion The 
savage mother does not on the average reach the rate of one 
child in tw^o years, a number which steadily decreases as the 
type IS raised, until among civilised people, as statistics show 
the average is now scarcely one in four years. 

The time during which the babe is suckled by the savaire 
mother exceeds any lactation period yet mentioned ; the averac^e 
being over two years. In Featherman's five large volumes 
of anthropologic details which he calls Social Histor,, ofMmildn,] 
1 hiid scattered here and there the suckling periods given for 
twenty-nnie races. They vary from one year to four, but the 
average is 2-4 years. I have gathered from the works of 
twenty-three travellers the corresponding periods of the 
native races thoy were familiar witli ; these range from one to 
four and a half years, and the average is 2-6 years. We mav 

VOL. I, 7 

' i! I 

I .i\ 





pi ■ 


therefore fairly reckon about two and a lialf years as an 
averajfe. If this to our ideas appears excessive, we are bound 
to remember that the savaj^e babe lias no such {gradual transi- 
tion in its nutriment as we provide for our children. It 
must go straij;-ht from the mother's milk to half-cooked meat 
and uncooked roots, for its mother has no utensils in 
which to gently stew the tough food that is the daily fare of 
the tribe. The more civilisation prevails, the less need is 
there for the heavy strain of long imrsing. Farinaceous foods 
and cow's milk, with broths and ripe or well-cooked fruits, are 
then at hand to form, after the first year, a more than satis- 
factory equivalent 

But the infant savage must depend on milk alone, and 
Livingstone tells us (Mins. Travch, p. 1 26) that tlie Bechuana 
mothers not only suckle their children to the age of two or 
three years, but that he knew of cases wherein the grand- 
mothers encouraged the long discontinued flow of their milk 
in order to give plenty of sustenance to the big grand- 
children still fed at the breast. The Koran (chap, ii.) directs 
the Mohammedan mother to .suckle her child two years, but 
this is a brief period compared with the time allowed in many 
races. Dr. Robert Brown {People of the World, iv., 95) says 
that it is often enough possible to see in savage life a child of 
five or six years old stand by its mother's side and drink from 
her breast. Karl Bock {Tcvipks and Elephants, p. 261) says 
that among the Lao people it is not uncommon for a boy or 
girl to drink from the breast and then receive a cigarette to 
smoke. Meyer, Grey, Brough Smythe, and other authorities 
as to the Australian races declare that it is a usual enough 
thing for healthy boys and girls of five or six years old to 
leave their games and scamper off to suck their mothers' milk. 

Travellers generally remark upon the extreme patience and 
kindness, not to say foolish indulgence of savage parents to 
their children. The question of infanticide is one to be dealt 
with in the following chapter, but if children are suffered to 
grow up to a month or two old, they almost invariably secure 
an extraonlinary hold on the affections of their parents. In 
the lowest forms of savage life, but for this redeeming feature, 
human nature would look in the main a selfish and sordid 

i| ; 





thinff It is in love for the ehiklren, concern for their suflbr- 
in^s, .lehj,.ht m their sports, that the more beautifully luunan 
featm-es be^.n to display then.selves. Lessons of self-sacriHce 
are firs learnt m the tenderness that overflows at si-d.t or 
voice ot the httle ones. Herein lies the earliest fo^nt of 
moral eehn^., a very slender thin^. at Hrst. but destined to 

oZnv ;r"' " 'f ^^"^ '' ''^'^'^''"I^"'^^ *■"'-- ^hat will 

occupy the reniannnjr chapters of this book 

So far as we have gone, we have seen that in th. iierce 
competition of the animated forms of earth, the loftier type 
with is prolon^red nervous .rowth, and conse.juently au..' 
mented penod of helplessness, can never arise but with con- 
comitant increases of parental care. The advance from order 
to order IS gradual, and it culminates in mankind, whose help- 
less babe inust have perished had not the species aciuire.! 
alongside of its nerve development, and, in a sense alio by 
i^ason of It. an emotional tendency keeping pace with other 
hues of progress, with uterine intricacies of nutrition, with 
perfection of actation and the lengthening of its period, with 
rehnemen ts of organism such as would render the adult a 

abundance ot loving a.ssistance. 

The fount of milk which the mother bears for the nurture 
o her babe IS not more automatic in its action than the fount 
ot maternal feeling which bids her yearn over it, which 
lacerates her heart to see it dying, and gladdens her life with 
Its laughter She is no more responsible for the one than she 
IS tor he other. Both are biologic features which slowly grew 
up as the indispensable adjuncts of increasing complexity of 
type. But the fount of milk has seen its perfection and done 
Its work as sufficiently for the carnivore or for the ruminant 
a.s for the woman; as sufficiently for the negress as for the 
highest Eui-opean types. Not so with the fount of parental 
emotions What they are in ruminant or carnivore only leads 
up to higher conditions in the ape, and thence to still hi-dier 
m the savage races of man. At this stage they widen'^and 
deepen, they branch in all directions, and out of th-m m-ow 
as the sequel will show beyond a doubt, ,' he varied vfrtues 
Which form the great pre-eminence of ma. 




ti'Vi : ' 


,1 I 


Tlie followiiijr tabic t;ivL's the nito of i)ropa<jfation of the difForent 
onlors of vcrtehnite uiiiintils ; save that, in tlie fish, two are 
omitted for want of information. Tlio rise in tlie scale of intcllijience 
is, in a general way, accompanied by a manifest decline in the 
number of mTspring; and tiiis decline, as has been shown, must co- 
incide with tiiC develo[)mont of parental care if a race is to survive. 
In the later chapters of this book, I hope to show that this parental 
care is due to increasing cajjacity for emotion, which in its turn is 
due to a growing delicacy of nerve organism that augments the 
susceptibility to certain classes of external stimuli. 


Cyclostomata ■ 
Plectognathi ■ 
Pliysostomi • 

Anacanthini - 



Urodela - 

Ophidia - 

Struthione3 - 
Anseres - 
Gralltfi - 
Gallinffi - 
Psittaci - 
Picaria - 
Striges - 

(Parental Species only 1600.) 

(Parental Species 20.) 
(ParentJVl Species 356.) 

(Almost all Parental.) 

(Parental .Species 3!>.) 

(Parentil Species 10.) 


Younpper annum 


'C 200,000 


















































two are 
e in the 
must co- 
:h turn is 
icnts the 









Sironia • 

Cetacea • 







VdiitiK per nnniim. 

average 2 

„ 3'4 

„ 2-3 

„ 11-t 

„ IM 


>, Vi 

„ 1-2 


M 4 

„ 1-2 
., 1 







It lias been showi tiiat the incubation period o: birds is propor- 
tional to the sixth root of the wei-ht of the mature bird. In re-ard 
to the gestation period of ranunals the same law holds good as^the 
first of two relations, the second being that for marked increases of 
intelligence from order to order there is a lengthening of the period. 
13ut within the same order, and more accurately within th.e same 
family, we find the equation hold true that 

T = M ^/w; 

where T is the gestation period in days, and W is the weight of the 
animal in pounds, while M is a constant for the order or family, bi-t 
varies from one order to another, increasing with tlie increase of 
mtelhgence. As an example take the following list of the carnivores 
for which the equation is 

T = 41 ^W. 


Wild Cat 








Weight in 









55 days 55 to 56 days Mivart 












100 to 105 








Average of 7 







WolBht 111 











44 days 

42 days 








Polo Cat 




65 to CO 


















84 to 106 






C3 to 70 


Urown Roar 






Polar Hoar 






Land Boar 









08' 7 















Similar tfililes of HiitiMffietory approxiniatidii may be made for 
rodents and rumin.aits. In the cases of other orders, information is 
scanty, bnt such as is to be had is in general consistent witii tiie law 
suggested. (See for fuller particulars my jiaper in Tranmctions of 
Roi/dl Sorietij of Vivtnrlit, 189."), p. I'TO. ) 

Hut the (juantity M, which for birds is nearly constant, alters 
among the mammalia from order to order, increasing with increase 
of intelligence. The following table will show the kind of variation 
to which it is subject : — 

For Marsupials - . . . . 

,, Insectivores 

„ Rodents 

(But fill- Leporidre M Is 24.) 

,, Carnivores 

,, Artiodactyls 

,, Porissodactyls - . • 

,, Proboscidea - . . 

,. Apes 

,, Man >.-.., 











! ■ • :l 





In many of tlio clmptcrs thut follow, imiu in his upward caroer is 
the leiKlini;; thcnio. At eacli «tiigo of the progress of the varionH 
elements of synipiithy, the recital of the nices that stand upon each 
particular grade of advancement would lead to a hateful prolixity ; 
yet the omission of names or the insertion of one or two only as 
sjKcimens would produce a vague unsatisfying effect. Therefore 
I have made the subjoined classification as a preliminary, founded, 
however, in no respect upon racial affinities or pedigrees, but only on 
the general standard of intelligence. 


Deriving their food from wild products of nature; therefore 
always thinly scattered and in small societies ; their lives engrossed 
in the constant struggle for sustenance. 

Lower Savages.— Dwarfs in stature ; pot bellied and spindle- 
legged ; woolly-headed and flat- nosed ; wandering in families of ten 
to forty; wit". - ut dwellings, and with only a trace of clothing ; with 
the smallest cranial capacities of all mankind. (Flower, Anthro},. 
Inst., xviii., p. 72.) 

Incbuling — 

Bushmen (South Africa), average heiglit, 4 ft. 8J in. (Schwein- 

Akka (Guinea Forests), average height, 4 ft. 5 in. (Schweinfurth). 

Negritos (Philippines, etc.), average height, 4 ft. 6 in. (Earl). 

Andaman Islanders, average height, 4 ft. 7| in. (Flower). 

Semangs (Malay Penin.), average height, 4 ft. 7 in. (Wallace) ; 
5 ft. 1 in. (Bradley). 

Yeddahs (Oylon), average height, I ft. 8 in. (Bailey). 

Kimos (Madagascar), average iieight, about 4 ft. ; now e.vtinct 



Scanty aboriginal remnants of this rlwarf negroid description are 
found on the west frontiers of ( 'hina (Lockhart, Ethno. Soc, i., ] 78), 
in Formosa and Hainan ; also in Madagascar. (Little, ]). 51.) Flower 
states {Anthrop. Lmt., xviii.) that similar populations linger in the 
innermost forest ranges of Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes, Flores, and 
Ceram. The females of these races are often under 4 ft. in height ; 
Emin Pasha measured a full-grown female Akka under 3 ft. 10 in.' 
and Barrow, a Bushman woman, the mother of several children, who 
was under ,3 ft. 9 in. 

Many travellers assert of these ])eople a striking ape-like appear- 
ance, and Earl states that the pelvis of the female resembles that of 
the anthropoid apes. But all such statements are to be received 
with caution, the wish being too often the father of the thought. 
There can, however, be no doubt that they are the lowest of human 
species. Yet they are accpiainted with the means of procuring fire; 
with bow, arrow, and spear, and they all use rudely- fashioned 

Professor Kolhuan (British Assoc, 1894) showed that dwarf 
races of this class, averaging in height about 4 ft. 8 in., prevailed 
throughout Europe some thousands of years ago. The evidence, 
though far from comi)lete, is at least suggestive that a race of this 
sort formed the early human indigenes of all the Old World. 

Middle Savages.— Range up to average human height ; of finer 
physical aspect ; dwellings only screens against the wind ; use of 
clothing known, but nudity common in both sexes; canoes rudely 
fashioned ; weapons made of wood and stone ; wander in tribes of 
50 to 200 ; without ranks or social organisations, but tribal usages 
have the force of law. 
Inclwling — 

Tasmanians - - . 5 ft. 4 in. for men. 

Australians - - - 5 ft. 5 in. 

Ainus of Japan - - 5 ft. 2 in. , ' 

Hottentots - - . 5 ft. 3 in. 

Fuegians - . . 5 ft. 1 in. 

Macas and other forest tribes of Brazil and (iuiana. 
Higher Savages.— Except in frigid zone, are of average human 
stature ; dwellings always made, though in general only tents of skin ; 
clothing always possessed, though nudity common enough in both 
sexes ; good weapons of stone, bone, or copper ; wander in tribes of 
100 to 500; incipient signs of rank, chiefs have an ill-defined 
authority, but tribal usage relied on to maintain orderliness of life. 



Incliuliti;/ — 

Most of tl.c Xorth A.uriran Indians, «ucli as Eskimo, Konia^as, 
Aleuts, l,n„e,,,s, X<,.,tkas, ('hi„ooks, Dacotas, Mandans, Comanchcs. 
Chipi,eway.s, Haidal.s, Slu.shones, Californian tribes. 

^onfk American Xati.e, - Pataoonians, Abipones, Uaupes, 
Ara.ican.anH, Mund.n-ucus, Annvaks, and other coastal or river tribes 
ot Guiana and ]]razil. 

African /I'nw.s'— Daniaras. 

A^^^ic ie<fce,,-x\icobar Islanders, Kanitschadales, Saniovedes. 

kJ 7'Tl' ,:•;" ^"'''" ~ ''^•"'"^' K"™"^bas, Nagas, bhimals, 
Kukis, bantals, Bdlahs, Karens, Mishniis, Juangs. 


( 1. 

Obtain the larger part of their food by forethought in directing 
productive forces of nature; hence agrieuit.ire and breedin-^ of 
animals are notable features, but each familv secures its own 
necessaries, there being little division of occupation ; vet food bein... 
more abundant and more evenly divided through the year, arts and 
sciences become incipient. 

Lower Barbarians.-l ) wellings generally fixed, forming villages • 
clothing regularly worn, except in hot climates; nudity of women 
rare; earthenware manufactured ; good canoes built; implements of 
stone, w..od, or bone; small cultivation plots round dwellin-, • trade 
incipient; ranks determinate but founded on individual powers in 

Tl nrr'^'V'^' '•'''^' "*'•' traditionary laws; living in tribes 
of 1000 to 5000, but capable of forming larger confederacies. 

Inchuhng~In America ~\x-o.\xx.n^, Thlinkeets, (Guatemalans, 
JNicaraguans, Mosepiitos. 

In Au.trakma~^\^oxm of New Zealand, Biaras of Xew Britain 
rombaras of New Ireland, Obaos of New Caledonia, natives of New 
Hebrides, natives of Solomon Islands, natives of New Guinea. 

In 4/">-*ca— Kaffirs, Bechuanas, Basutos, AVakamba Negroes. 

In .I,sm-Dyaks of Borneo, etc., Jakums of Malay Benin., Battaks 
ot Sumatra, Tuuguz, Yakuts, Kurghiz, Ostiaks. 

Indian Ahorigine, — Hos, Mundas, Oraons, Paharias, Gouds 
Khonds, Bheels. ' 

Middle Barbarians.-Good permanent dwellings, generally of 
wood or thatch ; formed into towns of considerable size; always able 
to make clothing of moderate comeliness, but nuditv not considered 
nidecent; pottery, weaving, metal working carried on to some 
extent; commerce in its early stage; iiK.ney used; regular markets 

:'•! i 



. I 


held ; consul idatcd into states running up to 100,000 persons under 
potty kings ; traditiouiiry codes of laws administered ; ranks well 
defined, arising partly from individual, partly from family prowess 
in war. 

Indndinji—In Africa. Negro Races— Dahomey s, Ashantees, 
Fantees, Foolahs, Shillooks, Baris, Latookas, Wanyamo, Waganda, 
Wanyoro, Wanyamwezi, Bongos, Niam-niams, Dinkas, Yorubas, 
Monbuttus, Balondas, Ovampos, Foorians. 

In l'oli/n>^.v'(i—¥i]v,im, Tougans, Samoans, Marcjuesas Islanders. 
In Europe — Lapps of two centuries ago. 
In Asia — Kalmucks. 

IfixtoriraUi/ on the same level were — (ireeks of Homeric ages ; 
Romans anterior to Numa ; German races of Cfcsar's time, etc. 

Higher Barbarians.— Able to build with stone; clothing neces- 
sary in ordinary life ; weaving a constant occupation of women ; iron 
implements generally made ; metal working greatly advanced ; com- 
merce defined ; money coined ; small ships made, but propelled with 
oars ; law rudely administered in recognised courts ; people welded 
into masses up to 500,000 mider rtde of a sovereign ; writing in 
incipient stage ; ranks hereditary ; division of occupations advancing. 
Includim/ — In Africa — Abyssiuians, Zanzibar races, Somali, 

1)1 Asia — Malays of Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, Malay 
Penin., Sooloo Archipelago, etc.; Nomad Tatars, Nomad Arabs, 
Biiluclis, etc. 

In Polynesia — Tahitians, Hawaiians. 

In historic times there trere tijion the same level — Greeks of time of 
Solon ; Romans of early Republic ; Anglo-Saxons of the Hejjtarchy ; 
Mexicans at time of Spanish Conquest ; Peruvians at time of Spanish 
Conquest ; Jews under the Judges. 



Food and other needs obtained with increased facility by the 
co-operation that arises from intricate sub-division of occupations. 
This leads on to great efficiency through specialisation, and in con- 
sequence the social organism becomes extremely varied in function 
but consolidated by interde])endence. Easily attained material com- 
fort, together with great specialisation, oflPers scope to steady growth 
of arts and sciences. 

Lower Civilised. — Cities formed and surrounded by stone walls ; 
important buddings elaborately designed in stone ; the plough used ; 


rsoiis under 

ranks well 

lily prowess 

), Wiigiinda, 
s, Yorubas, 

i Islanders. 

iieric ages ; 

3, Otc. 

thing neces- 
onicn ; iron 
,nce(l ; coni- 
)l)elled with 
jple welded 
writing in 
I advancing. 
!es, Somali, 

nco, Malay 
nad Arabs, 

s of time of 
Heptarchy ; 
! of Spanish 

lity by the 
md in con- 
in function 
iterial com- 
ady growth 

itone walls ; 
oiigh used ; 



war tends to become the business of a class ; writing established ; 
law.s rudely written ; formal courts of justice established ; literature 

Includi„g—In 4/r/m— Algerines, Tunisians, Moors, Kabyles, 
Tonaregs, etc. 

In ,Ula — Turcomans, Thibetans, Bhutans, Xepalese, Laos, 
€ochinese, Anamese, (Cambodians, Coreans, Manchoorians, settled 

In hi'Moric fimfx up to thh level ,w,v— Jews of time of Solomon ; 
Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Carthaginians ; 
■(Jreeks after Marathon ; Romans in time of Hannibal ; P:nglish under 
Norman kings. 

Middle Civilised.— Temples and rich men's houses handsomely 
built in stone or lirick ; windows come into use ; trades greatly 
multiply ; ships propelled with sails ; writing grows common, and 
MS. books arc spread abroad ; the literary education of the young 
^ittended to ; war becomes an entirely distinct profession ; laws are 
framed into statutes and the class of lawyers arises. 

InduAllwj—In yl.svVt— Persians, Siamese, Burmese, Afghans. 
In Europe— Vhma, Magyars of last century. 
Ilhtorimlly on thin level ,«.,v— (Jreeks of Pericles' time ; Romans 
of later Republic ; Jews of the Macedonian Conquest ; Kngland under 
Plantagenets ; France under early Capets. 

HigherCivilised. — Stone dwellings common ; roadspaved ; canals, 
watermills, windmills, etc. ; navigation becomes scientific ; chimneys 
xised ; war no longer the occupation of people in general ; writing a 
•common acquirement ; MS. books largely used ; literature in high 
repute ; strong central government extending over tens of millions ; 
fixed codes of law reduced to writing and officially published ; courts 
■elaborate ; government officers numerous and carefully graded. 
Including — 

Chinese, Japanese, Hindoos, Turks, South American Rc{)ublics, 

//«s^»7ca^— Romans under the Empire ; Italians, French, English, 
•Germans of the fifteenth century. 


Lower Cultured. — Man's food and other wants secured in the 
•easiest possible manner, by substituting natural forces for his own 
bodily labour ; this, with increasing efficiency of organisation and 
•co-operation, leaves him free to a large extent to cultivate his mental 

i 11 

i - 

i 1^1 

I «; 


and (esthetic faculties ; printing widely employed ; education 
becomes a prime duty ; war steadily loses its pre-eminence ; rank and 
reputation depend less on prowess, and more on mental capacity ; 
laws made by representatives of the people ; national efforts begin to 
be made for promotion and general diffusion of art and science. 

Iiidndin;/ — 

The leading European nations and ofFshoots such as the people 
of the United States. 

Middle Cultured.— All people well fed and well housed ; war 
iniiversally condennied, though of occasional occurrence; small 
armies and navies of all nations co-operate as a world-iiolice ; com- 
merce and manufactures developing along sympathetic lines ;. 
liberal education general ; crime and punishment rare. 

This standard is due perhaps in another four or five centuries. 

Higher Cultured. — Too risky a subject for prophecy, being yet 
distant perhaps 1000, perhaps 2000 years. 


rank and 

cai)rtcity ; 
s begin to 

lie people 

sed ; war 





, com- 


lines ; 



life- yet 


parental care in mankind. 

Diminishing Numbers of Offspring. 

Man is in no way exempt from the law that with increasino- 
intelligence there must come a dimiiuition of otispring and an 
increase in the period of parental care. The change is still in 
projn-ess among the most civilised of nations, and it not only 
ofters to the individual increasing opportunities of improve- 
ment, but forms a deeply opeiative factor in that complicated 
tangle of causes which urge onward the course of progress. 
The man and wife with a family of three or four children, 
whom they successfully rear, educating them suitably and 
setting them forth well equipped to face the competition of 
life, are much more likely in the fourth or fifth generations to 
be represented by descendants than are a couple who have 
produced a dozen children, some to die after vainly taxing the 
strength of their moth, r in tl eir birth and nursing; others to 
pass away after a few years, having in the meantime crippled 
the family resources, and deepened for all the pinch of hungry 

In a community of the soundest hygienic conditions not 
more than twelve should die in the year out of every 1000. 
If each married couple had eight children on an average, the 
birth rate would be about sixty children every year to each 
1000 of the population, and the annual increase would thus be 
forty-eight in every 1000, a r.ite which in a century would 
multiply the population a liundred-fold. No land could 
possibly increase its food production at that rate. England, 
for instance, with its 12,000,000 of a century ago would 
have to find sustenance for more than 1,000,000,000, where 





1 1', 


'«! ii 

now there is otily eiiou^fh for 40,000,000. Hence t\\ou<!; all the- 
line there would have to be a conHtant process of weeding out, 
and every generation would see three-fourths of its number 
die before maturity. But if three had to go, and only one to 
stay, there is every reason to believe that as a rule survivors 
wouhl chiefly be found among the well-fed and carefully 
trained children of a family undei- the avei-age number, while 
those that dropped out would in the aggregate be cliiefly 
sprung from the families, less well eared for, that were con- 
siderably over the avei-age. But of course we must under- 
stand that these are general tendencies, true of masses though 
not necessarily true of individuals ; for one father may 
more successfully rear a dozen children than another a single 
child. On the whole, however, the children of the smaller 
families have the better chance ; and if, of the population 
potential at the end of a century, only four out of 100 are to 
be actually there, the unseen but merciless process of weeding 
will, in so stern a competition, give a mighty influence even to 
so slight a cause as the superior chance arising from being born 
in a small family. Thus, as it will be shown at the end of this 
chapter, the cautious people who marry late, and yet jirolong 
their tender care of their children, provide more than their 
share of each succeeding generation ; and if tliese characteristics 
of prudence and parental love be in any way hereditary there 
must arise a tendency on the one hand to lessened families, 
and on the other to a lengtliened period of education under 
the parental roof. 

That the population of England does not multiply itself 
100 times in a century is due to a heavy death rate which 
carries ott' a third of the children before the age of five, and a 
sixth of the remainder before the age of twenty. This is a sad 
safety-valve, and one which under the influence of sanitary im- 
provement is steadily growing less and less operative. Yet some 
sort of safety-valve there must be, and it is being found more 
and more in a steady increase of the age at which people marry, 
with other prudential checks such as reduce the number of chil- 
dren on an average to a small trifle over four to each marriage. 

But all this is the eflect of intelligent self-restraint, and it 
appears in man only as the slow result of mental progress.. 



Sava^ri. niiin has hi.s own dim ideaH on tho subject, and, as we 
aliall see, he is not without his o;rini measures of prevention, 
but self-restraint is no part of liis nature. In a cultured 
people of nuxlern tinies, a tenth of the adult people live and 
die unmarried, a state of thin<rs inconceivable to the lower 
races, with whom every j.-irl is appropriated, and every man 
takes as many wives as he can j^et. 

In the humblest j-Tade of all, among those whom we have 
classed as lower savajres, there are no checks save those alone 
which are found in the lower animals. By reason of their 
position above the apes, they are of slower rate in propa<,mtinff 
than any of the inferior animals, except the elephant alone, 
whose huge size, however, demands a sort of comparison which 
would still leave the savage the superior. A negrito or Bush- 
man girl is not of age to he a mother until her tenth year, 
which is late compared with the lower animals: she has to go' 
with child for nine months, a long period, and suckle her 
hifant a couple of years. Nature therefore limits her increase 
in a way which is only the extension of checks already 
observed along the ascending scaie. 

In these races, remnants of a once widely spread dawn of 
humanity, there is no suggestion of a marriage ceremony, 
though the males and females unite in tolerably stable and 
monogamous union. The girls are ready to mate while still 
of tender years, and the average of all these lower savages 
shows tliat the men appropriate them at the age of eleven 
years, the negritos of the Philippines being high at twelve, and 
the Andaman Islanders highest of all at thirteen. As a rule 
the girl in these prhnitive races is a mother at the age of 
twelve, and the children recur after that time as often as 
nature will permit. Never beautiful, she is old and hideous 
at twenty-five, though she may continue to bear children yet 
a while longer ; to bear children, but not to increase her family, 
for they die oft' too steadily to allow her ever to have much in 
the way of a circle round her. Yet both father and mother 
are good to their offspring Mouat says that the Andanianers 
treat their children exceedingly well (AVv/. Gm/. Soc, 1802, p. 
123), and the missionary Casalis bears emphatic testimony to 
the tender affection and mutual devotion of mother and infant 






amonj;' tlic Bushincn (J/// Lifi' in llumtfo Laml, p. 158), while 
Sir C. B. Flower Hays in treneral that in the no^rito races 
parental atiection is strong. (Anfhrop. Tmf., xviii., p. 81.) But 
its ihu-ation, though great in comparison with that of animals, 
is the shortest found in mankind. Lichtenstein tells us that 
among the Bushmen, boys take their regular share of the 
tasks of the tribe at the age of seven {South A/rim in 1803, i., 
2(50), and are thenceforward no doubt tolerably independent ; 
girls married at eleven pass away from the parental care, 
but, proliably, before that age, both boys and girls are dis- 
placed l)y newer babies from much share in their parents' 

These inferior races are so little known that oidy vague 
and a'cneral statements can be made as to their habits. If, for 
instance, we wished to form an estimate of the nuniber of 
children born to each woman, the design would be hopeless. A 
missionary or traveller may count the surviving children and 
record the average as three or four, but for the nund)er born 
he would have to to the women themselves. These 
people, ho'''ever, are uniformly unable to count more than 
four, most of them have no word for any number above 
three. They could not tell, therefore, even if they knew ; 
but it is hopelessly beyond their powers of remembrance 
to tell of births and deaths that happened twenty years ago. 
If we average each woman as having in all ten children, 
it is on a j^i'iori grounds, and not as a matter of actual 

The Fuegians and the Ainus or hairy aborigines of Japan 
are among the rudest of savages, yet their atiection for their 
children is strong and tender. (Snow, Ethnol. Sor., i., 2G4; 
Batchelor, T/ic Ainu ofJupan ; Savage Landor, T/ie ITairi/ A inn, 
p. 29G.) True they are subject to violent gusts of passion, 
such as that which Dai-win describes, when a father, whose 
little boy had dropped some shell-fish, seized him by the leg 
and dashed his brains out upon the rock ; but, in general, they 
spoil the young when infants by over-indulgence ; their 
tenderness, however, declining in marked degrees as the years 
of babyhood pass away. Three-fourths of the children born 
seem to die in infancy. 


Rise of Infanticide. 


Ah reason be^rins to miirk its a.scemlancy in the higlier 
ranks of savajre man, it tends to modify the ordinary opera- 
tions of natural selection, and the first imlications of its 
activity are of an unlovely kind. Abortion, infanticide, and 
still ufrher methods, not here to be described, are adopted to 
check the y-rowth of population. Such things never cross the 
mind of the lowest savajre, for he has not the intelligence to 
devise the means for securing a distant end. The stron." 
instinct of parental care is with him, as with the lower animal^ 
a prnnal impulse never interfered with. But whenever men' 
. begin to reason about things, this question of redundant 
births arrests in a vague way their attention. If nature 
had been left to her own slow course, the tribes that wasted 
their strength in producing and half-rearing ten children to 
each woman would have disappeared in the competition with 
others who as a chance variety had the advantageous property 
of not producing more than half a dozen to each. But in the 
age-long process, what a dreary procession of starvation and 
sorrow would this imply ! The savage, moved by the first 
glimmer of reasoning selfishness, takes the matter to some 
extent into his own control. Yet he no way restrains his 
passions. When the sexual instinct and the parental instinct 
are perceived to be at variance, it is the latter which has to 
give way. Accordingly the middle-grade savage makes use 
of the girls of his tribe to gratify his desire while they are 
still at a very tender age. Mr. J. M. Davis and other 
writers of repute declare, as the result of long acquaintance 
with Australian savages, that the girls were made use of for 
promiscuous intercourse when they were only nine or ten 
years old. (Brough Smythe's Ahorvjincs of Victoria, p. 319.) 
Brough Smythe himself asserts that the Australian women 
commenced to have children when still under twelve years of 
age, and that in their early life they were very prolific, a total 
of ten to twelve children being the rule among women who 
lived to full maturity. I have obtained for twenty ditierent 
tribes of these middle savages the ages at which the girls are 
appropriated by men, and find the average to be 11-53 years 
VOL. I. 8 

i <il ! 



Tftke then the case of the avortio-,. Anstrah'uii oirl of sixteen 
with her third haby in her arms, the second only two ynivn 
old and tlie first hut four. Tliere is no patent infant food to 
be had ; two of tliese children have to be suckled and carried 
on Ion;,' marches ; as for the eldest, it is impossible that his 
little four-year-old feet can accomplish the lon^r ti-amps in 
search of food and water which the necessities of the tribe 
demand. His father will have to carry him. Now if the 
family is increased ere lon^r by another infant, oi- perliaps a 
pair of twins, the resources of food and transport are strained 
to their utmost. Many a lon<,' and j^rumblinf; march, while 
the father bears one child in his arms and dray's another worn- 
out whimperer behind him under a blazin(r heaven, will 
weary the never extraordinary patience of the sava<,fe. His 
parental cares are so different from those of the animal, and 
yet he himself is not .sufficiently lifted above the inimal to be 
equal to the Inirden laid upon him. 

Moreover he becomes aware that, in spite of his hardships, 
two-thirds of the children pine and die. He has then enouoh 
of cunnin{( wit to see his way out of many a difficulty, and he 
l^roceeds to limit the number of children. Very rarely does he 
operate upon himself, much more frequently upon the women, 
but most f^enerally he works by means of infanticide. In 
most parts of Australia there were tribes in which the 
men so mutilated themselves that while still able to (,'ratify 
their desires, they were incapable of be<(etting children. 
{I^ntive TriJm of South Amfmlia, p. xiv. ; rf. Dawson, Rusden, 
etc.) Lieutenant-General Fytche describes an analoo'ous 
custom amonf,' the Nai^as of Burraah. (Burmah, Past and 
Present, i., 350.) Abortion is a practice rather beyond the 
skill of the middle savage, but it becomes prevalent among 
the higher savages and very prevalent among barbarians. 
But at least some of the middle savage x-aces were acquainted 
with rude and violent means of producing it. (Bonwick's 
Daib/ Life of the Tasmnnians, p. 76.) 

It is very evident then that people on this level of develop- 
ment would naturally have recourse to infanticide. It is a 
practice unknown in the lower savages, though there is the 
somewhat doubtful exception of the Bushmen; nor does it 



oF .sixtoon 
two y.'iiVH 
lit food to 
11(1 curried 
e tliiit liis 
tnuiips ill 
F tlu' tribe 
ow if the 
perhaps a 
■e straiiu'd 
rch, while 
ther worn- 
iveii, will 
■a^e. His 
liiiial, and 
imal to be 

m eiioito-h 
by, and he 
ly does he 
le women, 
icide. In 
I'hicli the 
to tf ratify 
1, Rusden, 
Pasf and 
yond the 
it ainon£f 

' develop- 
. It is a 
jre is the 
r does it 




occur in Fuen;ian or Ainu tribes. IJut above that level it is 
universal, increasinj^' in prevalence with the increasin;; doniiii- 
ance of reason, reaehin;^^ a iiia.Kiiiiuni anioiij; the Idw.'I- and 
middle barbarians and thereafter slowly dyin<,^ out, but not 
really e.\tini,niished as a lawFul practice mucli before the le\el 
of the higher civilised races. 

And yet it is not to be too readily assume I that there is 
liere a failure of the parental instinct. There is very indica- 
tioii that botii father and mother in <;-oneral put a .severe 
strain upon themselves to do what the usa<,'es of the tribe 
consider ri^dit. If killed at all, the child is almost invariably 
destroyed immediately after its birth; for, as the testimony of 
scores of obper/ers amply certifies, ii' the babe is allowed to live 
for only a few weeks, it in(,a-atiates itself into the hearts of the 
community to such an extent that its life is safe. Ainoni;- the 
Australians, women are Imjuoht up to re(,'ard it as a wicked 
thiiif;- to burden their tribe with more than three or four 
children, and a mark cjf selfishness to ,1,'ratiFy inordinately the 
maternal aftectioas. Undoubtedly the parents understand 
that they are likewise consultin<;' their own ease ; as men and 
women looking before and after, they j,'au(,'e the pains of the 
future by the sufferings of the past; but whiL they save 
themselves trouble they have undoubtedly a perception that it 
is less cruel to destroy the still unconscious life, when a single 
pang is the only su tiering, than to permit an excess of 
children to cause for all of them the cravings of unsatisfied 
needs, while the re(piisite number of deaths will as surely 
come one way as the other, but in longer, drearier, more heart- 
breaking fashion if deferred. Hence we may heartily agree 
with E. B. Tylor, when, in his excellent little work on 
Anthropoloijii,h(i tells us that "infanticide comes from hardness 
of life rather than from hardness of heart" (p. 427). For, as 
he says, " the parents will often go through fire antl water to 
save the very child as to whom they were doubting a few 
weeks before wliether it should live or die ". 

Brough Smythe tells us (p. 51) that " a third of the infants 
of Victorian aboriginals v/ere killed at birth," yet he says 
these people were " affectionate and generally judicious in the 
management of children, who were never beaten or ill-used ". 


Tin: (jiirdiN and (iunwrii oi- riii; mokal instinct. 

And ill the suiiit! work {A/><,rlffitirs„/ Vlrinrin, ii., 2!»0), Mr. 

Lo Soiicf states tlmt uiii..ii;r tii.'s.' filx's " iiifiintici.I.' is not 

pmctis.'.l so niucli IVom \v,ii,t ..I' ulUTtioii for their otrsprin^^. 

On til.! contrary, those they rear they are very fon.l of. In- 

fantici.h. is a matter of convenience. If a woman has a second 

baby before tlie previous one can take care of itself, it stands 

but a poor chance of its life." ^Fr. Taplin {Xutln: Trih,; „f 

S. Aiislralia, p. lo), after describinu' the ;r,.eat prevalence (if 

intanticide, continues: "Only let it be determined that an 

infant's life shall be saved, and there arc no bounds to tlie 

fondness and indulo-ence with which it is treated: its little 

winnin^r ways are noticed with delight, and it is the object of 

the teiiderest care ". 

E. Af. Curr, the leading authority as to the natives of 
\ ictoria, states of the tribe with which he was intimate ibr 
nearly twenty years that " nearly half of the children born fell 
victims to infanticide, a practice resulting principally from the 
(hrticnlty, if not the impossibility, of transporting several 
children of ten.ler age from place to place on their fre-pient 
inarches ". Yet further on, he says, " parents were much 
attached to their children, and rarely punished or corrected 
tliem. They were habitually indulged in every wliim," and 
" their parents supplied them with food till they were ten or 
eleven years of age ". {lircullcdiuns of Squattimj in Victoria, p. 
252.) Exactly similar is the testimony of Woods, Eyre 
Schurmann, and Lang, as to what Angas calls the '' almost 
idolatrous affection which the parents show their children," 
even though infanticide is common. 

Kolben (i., 142) says that the Hottentots fre.iuently buried 
their new-born female infants, and Sparrman (p. 358), 
that they always buried a young infant if its mother was 
dead ; yet both speak of parental affection as being very strong 
among this people. Wallace {Amnzon, p. 361) says of tlie 
savage Brazilian tribe.s that they invariably kill their first- 
born babies, yet when a child is suffered to live they have an 
affection for it so intense that nothing will induce them to 
part from it. Indeed those wlio liave tried to buy a child 
from these nations have always failed to do so. Tlie Rev. Mr. 
Brett says of the tribes of Guiana, among whom, from other 




2!)0), Mr. 
L'iilc is not 
• <jtf!sprin{^. 
(I of. In- 
iH II second 
, it stands 
; 7'ri/ifs (if 
vfik'nct' of 
d that an 
ids to the 
; its little 

object of 

lative.s of 
jniate for 
I boi-n fell 
,' h-om the 
<j several 
■ fre(juent 
L'ro nnu'h 
liim," and 
ii'e ten or 
icforid, Y>. 
Is, Eyre, 
'' almost 

ly buried 
p. 358), 
ther was 
ly strong- 
H of the 
eir first- 
have an 
them to 
a child 
Rev. Mr. 
m other 


PARKNTAf, ( AUi: r\- .M.XNKINl), 


Hources.we know that iid'anticide prevails, 'they are verv fond 
of their children, aixl so in.lul^r,,„t that they never chastise 
them". [Iiitliiin Trihf^ nfdiiidiid, y,. 98.) 

Infanticide must therefore in n.. d.-oree be aseribed to a 
failure of parental instinct, but rather to the ciude working's 
of that instinct in races whos.- lives are hard, and whose 
natures are not yet und.'r the habitual control of any but 
coarser sympathies. While nature would impose- on a man 
who tinds it dillieult to win from the forest food enou^di even 
for himself, the necessity of tindin^r fo„d for half a dozen, he 
takes his own way of escapin^r |V„m th ■ impossible task, not 
alto^'ether untouched by the cruelty of the innnediate means, 
but compen.sated in his own dim way by the thoufrht of suH'er- 
ni^r avoided. In short, whil,. natui-e would introduce four 
clul.lren only to starve and e.xtin<,mish three of them, the 
savaj,^' kills two an<I makes an eHbrt to rear the other'two. 
W hile we condemn his means, we may fairly enou<,di see many 
extemiatin^r circumstances if we only endeavour to bok at 
tlun^'s from his point of view. 

Amonjr the hi^dier f,a-ade of aava{,a's, an increase of intelli- 
gence of a somewhat cunning .sort causes abortion to liecome 
more prevalent and diminishes to the same extent the 
reliance placed on infanticide. The girls are not so greedily 
appropriated in their tendercst years, only one out'^of the 
thirty-four races enumerated on page 105 forcing the girls 
into sexual unions at so early an age as ten \i^'&v^. of 
them leave the girls in nuiiden state to the age of twelve or 
thirteen, the average of seventeen races being the merest 
trifle under thirteen years. This gives the women a better 
chance of health and comeliness, and reduces a little the ' 
temptation to the destruction of the tirst-born, who, in 
the more .savage races, spring from their girl-mothers' as 
nnserable little creatures, almost certain to die in any case. 
Much more than a century ago, Dr. Robertson, the famous 
historian of America, stated as a general rule that the Indian 
tribes of that continent were well accjuainted with the means 
of procuring abortion (vol. iv., p. 7.'}), and Darwin cjuotes the 
Jact as one well known. Of late years, while increasing 
knowledge of details leads us to exempt a few tribes from the 

' [' 




chai-t^o, we are absolutely certain that the practice was indi- 
^^eiioiis amon<;- the oreat majority. Lewis and Clarke, who in 
IHO'i and several succeeding- years lived among tribes of the 
Pacific slope that had until then seen the face of no white 
man, assert as a matter never in any way concealed, that a 
certain plant was freely used by the women with the appro- 
bation of the men in order to reduce the number of births. 
( Travels tu the Pacific, p. 49.) There is no need to specify the 
various tribes addicted to the custom, for Bancroft in his 
Nafivr /i(ar8 of America adds to almost every description 
of a tribe tlie words " abortion and infanticide are 


Schoolcraft in his huo'e work on the /«</ 


Tribes of Norfli Ameriea (i., 252) incluiiu.s a paper by Dr. 
Williamson, who was for several years a physician among the 
Dacotas, In this we are assured that these people were well 
ac(piainj.'d with the jiroperties of .some of the plants around 
them, which prevented the women from being encumbered 
with more children, when they already had as many as they 
could carry with them. Similar information from respectable 
sources can be had in the case of Chinooks, the Nootkas, the 
Haidahs of the Queen Charlotte Islands, the Calif ornian 
tribes, and others. 

But the use of these plants was never certain, and very 
often it was fatal to the women themselves. Hence in- 
fantici<l(j still prevailed, though without indicating any real 
failure of the parental instinct. For Robertson {Hint, of 
America, iv., 108), while he (juotes abundantly from the old 
Spanish, French, and English wi'iters to show how universal 
throughout both Xortli and South America was the practice 
of destroying new-born infants, is also impartial enough to 
quote their statements, which show that they nevertheless felt 
the full force of the parental instinct, and that " as long as 
their 23i'oycny continue feeble and helpless no people can 
exceed them in tenderness and care ". Lewis and Clarke, 
while describing their habits of infanticide, as.sert that " noth- 
ing can exceed the tenderness shown by them to their oti- 
spring ". (Travels to the Pacific in 1804, p. 1 2ll) When Buolianan 
(X. A. Indians, p. 66) wished in 1824 to get an Indian child to 
adopt and rear, no bribe ho could ofier would tempt a mother 

} , 


was iiidi- 
ke, who in 
bcH of the 

no white 
led, that a 
;he appi'O- 

of births, 
pecify the 
oft ill his 
icide are 
lie I mil an 
(;r by Dr. 
iinong the 

were well 
its around 
;iy as they 
lotkas, the 

, and very 
Hence in- 
f any real 

{Hi^. of 
tn the old 

le practice 
enough to 
Jieless felt 
as loii"' as 
leople can 
id Clarke, 
lat " noth- 

their ofi- 
an child to 

a mother 



to part with one. If a babe lived liut a week or two sc as to 
find a place in the family ati'ections, it was safe. Schoolcraft 
tells us (v., 272) that " to destroy a new-born hifant is not 
uncouinion in families that are grown too numerous, but the 
right of destroying a child lasted only till it was a month old. 
After that time the feeling of the tribe was against its death." 

Bancroft states that the natives of Central America were, 
and still to some extent are, addicted to infanticide, yet the 
children that live are well cared for; "they almost always 
remain with their parents till married, and a fond affection for 
their early homes prevails among them ". The same author 
(Xxfire J,'(((;c.% I, 81) tells us that the Eskimo abandon some 
of their babies, especially the girls, to perish in the snow, yet he 
states that to those they rear the women are kind and patient 
mothers, and that the possession of children is much esteemed 
so long as they are not too numerous. Hartwig in his J'ular 
World praises highly the kindness of the Eskimo women to 
their children, " whose docility and gentleness are such as to 
occasion their parents little trouble ". 

Precisely the same contrast exists in all the more advanced 
savage races of South America. Guinnard, speaking of the 
Patagonian, or rather perhaps the Araucanian tribes, with 
whom he was a slave for three years, states (p. 143) that the 
existence of the new-born child is always at the judgment of 
the father and mother; but " if the little creature is considered 
worthy to live, it becomes from that instant the object of the 
whole love of the parents, who will submit themselves to the 
greatest privation to satisfy its slightest wants or exactions "• 
Captain IVIusters states of the Patagonians, that the children 
are indulged in every wa}', ride the best horses and are not 
corrected for any misbehaviour. (At Home irifk the Fafayoninn>i , 
p. 197.) 

Thus of savages as a whole it may be said that they 
represent on the one hand the culmination of the purely 
animal side of parental love, liut that on the other, there is 
seen the intrusion of the eifects of reason, sometimes for good, 
sometimes for evil. Their ati'ection for their children is an 
instinct of race preservation analogous to that of the lower 
animals, and gratifying itself without restraint. The savage 

\' U.1 


i" !i 

V ■ 


knows little of that higher atfectioa subsequently developed 
vyhich luLs a worthier purpose than merely to disport itself in 
the irarth of childhood, and at all hazards to avoid the annoy- 
anceof seeing its tears. During those very early years when 
the infant is his idol, he tends it with a foolish indulgence 
gratifies himself by humouring its whims and compelling as 
far as possible all others to do the same. We know among 
ourselves what a spoiled child is, and how he grows up where 
parents are restrained by no sense of the responsibilities of tlie 
future, no appreciation of the rights of other people The 
animal instinct which binds the parents to their otlspring 
imperiously satisfies itself; it spares them no expense no 
trouble to win a single smile from a sulky tyrant. Such in 
the mam is the savage love of otlspring, and many defects in 
savage life may be traced to the want of parental restraint in 
the plastic days of childhood. 


I lii; 


The Disappearance of the Lower Races. 

The steady decay of savage races when in contact with 
superior civilisation is too often set down as an instance of a 
want of humanity even in the most cultured nations. Musket 
and pistol are supposed to execute the fatal work. But this 
IS 111 large measure a misconception; the decay of the savage 
IS due almost entirely to the failure of reproduction. It is 
true that the Spanish conquerors of America were somewhat 
ruthless; it is true that all colonising nations before this 
century were high-handed, often callous, and sometimes cruel 
±Jut we may most cordially agree with Oscar Peschel {Jiaccs of 
Man, p. 150, English trans.), when he says that "the idea of 
sanguinary suppression of aboriginals must not be entertained" 
as tl,. cause of their decay. The reasons he himself gives are 
too fantastic to be taken seriously, but the face itself is 
certain. The colony of Victoria was not occupied at all 
by white men till 1835; and the early founders had among 
their articles of association most humane rules in regard to 
the blacks, rules which were strictlv carried ani Witli the 
exception of 147 iu the first two years of its existence, no 


I ■HI 


convicts over darkoned tlie sliores of the colony, and inmu'di- 
ately after imniioTation bo-an, tlie autlioritie.s appointed five 
protectors of abori^dnes who lived amon^r the l.lacks and 
reported once a year as to their condition, and who were 
especially commissioned to report on any outrag-e committed 
by white men. These reports may still be read and are con- 
clusive proof of the absence of violence. Seven or ei^ht years 
later when a Wesleyan clergyman resident in Tasmania told a 
romantic tale of the evil treatment of blacks in Victoria, an 
English Parliamentary Commission took the case up, and in 
the House of Commons papers will be found the most satis- 
factory evidence that with one exception involving the death of 
two aboriginals, the white men had wrought no conscious evil 
to the natives. The conflicts whic\ occurred caused, it is true, 
fewer deaths among the whites than among the blacks, but the 
numbers were on neither side considerable. Yet the aborigines 
of Victoria are practically a vanished race. If we ask why it 
should be so, we must in the first place remark that they never 
were numerous. Seven thousand were but a handful in a 
land now containing 1,250,000 and capable of maintaining 
50,000,000. It took ten square miles to atibrd a miserable 
sustenance to every savage. Any increase in their numbers 
under their way of living was impossible. Their habits had 
become very exactly adapted to maintain their numbers and 
no more. The balance had grown to a very nice adjustment 
and the existence of tho race hung on a very precarious thread! 
Ihen came the white men to disturb that balance. Among 
savages the chastity of the women is never valued : as we shall 
subsequently see, the promiscuous intercourse of unmarried 
girls, or general promiscuity at certain seasons, always prevails ; 
a man visiting a friendly tribe is generally provided with a 
female. In almost every case the father or husband niU dis- 
pose of the girl's virtue for a small price. When whi^.e men 
came they found these habits prevailing. The overwhelmin<r 
testimony proves it absurd to say that they demoralised the 
unsophisticated savages, but th.e average white man is no way 
raised above the sordid level which will readily embrace a 
sensual opportunity. In return for knives, tobacco, spirits or 
other inducements, the lower classes of the pioneers, men often 

I X 

:i ■■ .:i|;T;l 

I ■( hj 


S Li 


tainted witli venereal diseases, hail i'ree intereoni'so with native 
women, and two tliin<j;s happened. (Jn tiie one lumd wliatever 
lialt'-caste cliilih-en were born were ahnost invariably destroyed, 
on the other the large number of unniated white men, their 
comparatively extensive means of enticement, and the acijuired 
cravint^ of the blacks for drink and tobacco placed their wonu'U 
very mucli in the position of prostitutes. Tlieir fertility fell 
oti", and the race rapidly failed to reproduce itself. 

Darwin is inclined to think that a general loss of fertility 
occurs when the habits of a race are too suddenly altered, and 
this he ascribes to unknown causes. (Daticad of Man, chap, vii.) 
But to those who have .studied the history of our colonies, the 
causes can scarcely be considered unknown. Carl Vogt, it is 
true, declares that the infei'tility of the Mamelukes in Egypt, 
of the Dutch in Java, and the English in India points to the 
ett'ects of altered climate. But his facts, not in themselves 
beyond cavil, would onl^^ prove the ett'ects of a change of 
climate, as in the case of .Maori peoi)le brought to England, 
and failing to maintain their numbers Ijy reason of .shattered 

In the case, however, of aboriginals left in their own 
climate no such violently operative cause can be alleged. 
Their decay can be shown by an<ple testimony to be due to 
the fact that no ideal of cha.stity exists in any form within a 
savage race, and that the arrival of large bodies of unmarried 
white men converts the sctaity native women into habitual 
prostitutes, who rapidly learn to minister to the wants of the 
tribe by using their person.s to attract the superior wealth of 
the new-comers. 

Bonwick and Calder, our two chief authorities on the 
Tasmanians, both agree that this cause accounts for ^he disap- 
pearance (jf that absolutely vanished race. Bonwick says tiiat 
their decay was much more due to infrequency of births than 
to frequency of deaths, and that this sterility was due to the 
habits of the women. {Lisi nff/ic 'Jasnidniidifi, p. 880.) Calder 
estimates that a total of 500 far exceeds the nund^er of blacks 
killed by the whites in Tasmania during the whole thirty 
years of th.eir collisions. This woulil increase the do, h-rate 
of the population less than four in the 1000, which in a vigorous 



race \vi>uh\ ]>e unimportant. Durin^r tlu'.so saiiif year,s, luio'o 
M-ars were (le\'astatiiifr Europe and iiicirasino- the deatli- 
rate (juite as much, in some nations oven moi-e, yet no European 
race has vanished in conse(iuence. Calder "ives as the reiison 
" the infertility of tlie women, produced by licentious habits ". 
(X(i/lvi' 'J'rihifi of T(iHiiii(ni((, p. 114.) 

The North American Indians owe their decline in a lai-o-e 
measure to tlie same cause. It is true tliat Catlin attril)utes 
their decline to whisky and smallpox. But whisky is very 
deadly also to white men, and no epidemics could liave been 
more severe than tlie plaoues which in byj^-ono centuries 
swept across Europe, Catlin gives a sentimental description 
of the virtue of the In(h"an women (i., 120), but his own ijages 
show liow easy it was for the trappers and white traders" to 
have as nmch comniei-ce as they wished with tlie women if 
onl3' they paid the usual price to the men, and in a sul)se(iuent 
chapter we shall see how unanimous are the leading authorities 
in denying that the Indians had any idea of chastity other than 
the exclusive control of the husband over his wife's person. 

Schoolcraft's tables of statisties show that among Indian 
tribes numbering 35,000 souls, the birth-rate was over forty- 
two per 1000, a rate (juite healthy enough, and probably 
capable of just maintaining the race when the casualties of 
war and want of medical knowledge are considered. But the 
table at the end of his tirst volume shows only 17 children 
living for each woman between the age of sixteen and sixty. 
In Europe, a population remains stationary if there are only 
three children to each marriage, so that we can easily under- 
stand how inevitable is the di.suppearance of the Indian. Such 
a race as the .Mo.s(|uito Indians is rapidly approaching extinc- 
tion "not from strong drink and imported di.seases, but as the 
natural result of the proHigacy of both sexes". (Boll, Ilinful 
Gemf. Soc, 1862, p. 2()1.; The -inie statements may be made 
■of South American tribes. Boggiani says {Xafior, liii., ,547) 
that abortion and infanticide are exterminating the Paraguay 
tribes, the women rearing only one child each. 

The Registrar-General of Now Zealand states in several of 
his annual reports, that the decline in the number of Maoris is 
to be attributed to tlie " sterility of the females due to their 

;■ i! 


I?; I " 

I if 




Si u 


iiniuonility before iu!UTiii;:;-e ". Tlioinson (S/or// «/ y,w 
Zi'(h(iul, ii., 2«5) o'ivfs jis tlie six caust's ol" tlieir declim — 
sU'i-ility, inrantieide, inattention to cliildren, breedin-,^ in and 
in, new habits, new diseases. Four of these six are connected 
witli the faihire to reprochice the race. Nor is this surprisin>;- 
when we learn (Thomson, i., 28.5) tliat for many lono- years tlie 
cliiefs Hved in affluence hy lettino- out the women of the tribes 
for the use of the crews of whaler and tradinj,^ ships. Pomare 
had ninety-.six ^rirls so employed, a most serious social condition, 
when we consider that these formed at least a third of the 
child-bearing women of liis tribe. Figures given by Thomson 
(ii., 287) show that after the arrival of white men, a third of 
the Maori women became .sterile. 

Ellis {Polipicsian Riscarclws, i., 105) attributes the decline of 
the Tahitians to " libertinage and infanticide". The disap- 
pearance of the Hawaiians he attributes to " want of cliastity 
among the women ". It is undoubtedly true that these causes, 
along with wars and human sacrifices before the advent of the 
white men, were keeping the population in check .so that it 
was slowly declining : but the appearance of numbers of dis- 
solute sailors, with the means of purchasing gratification, greatly 
increased the rapidity of the decay. On tlie Nicobar Islands, 
in 1886 the G21 women had only 722 children, little more 
than one each, a rate quite certain to lead to the extermina- 
tion of the race. (E. H. Man, Antkrop. Inxf., xviii., p. 368.) 

If these, being specimens of abundant testimony, are 
accepted as fairly conclusive, we may pass on from an un- 
pleasant subject, which afiects our inquiry only in so far as it. 
shows the manner in which the survival of the littest occurs. 
The low class of white men who are the instruments of this 
decay themselves die out. The " beach-comber," the trapper, 
the convict boundary-rider leave few progeny in spite of their 
strong sexual impulses. But we do not readily perceive 
among the protligate of our own great cities that they either 
fail to leave any progeny, or at least do not leave enough to 
ensure that the strain will reach a fourth generation. It is 
only in a ilistinct race that we observe in any noteworthy 
way the etiects of intemperance and unchastity in dismissing 
the inferior specimens of mankind. 



V't all the it is a im.cess that o-oos ,„. i„ th.. slums 
ot .mr ,nyn o-reat cities just as much as on the shores of 
Paohc isles, an.l it calls our attention to the appearance <,!' a 
new tac or ii, the o-,.,nvth <.!' parental care. The chaste mother 
IS more ikely to liave chil.lren, more likely to value them, an.l 
to rear them ten.lerly than the unchaste. The man who knows 
a chil.l to he of a certainty his own, whoso attentions are 
not pai.l to .so many women that out of half a hun.h-e.l children 
J)e could not easily say which wore truly his, must on the 
avera^'e make the hotter father. And thus the causes to be 
detailed in a subse(,uont chapter, which make the ideal of 
chastity rise ^mulually out of moral chaos so as to J.ecomo an 
immense factor in liuman progress, have tlieir influence 
strongly marked also on the subject now under discussion the 
growth of parental care. Wo shall frequently have occasion to 
note how httlo our progress depends on the improvement of 
the individual, and how much on the elimination of inferior 
individuals. So it is in the case we now discuss. Parental 
care among mankind is always on the average tendin.r up- 
wards. For all the races or portions of races which make 
themselves sterile through immoral habits, which practis.^ 
infanticide and abortion, and whose parental love is shown 
on y in the purely animal way of fondling their children and 
indulging their wishes, but without any of the higher prompt- 
ings of chastity and self-restraint, are doomed to disappear and 
leave room for others. 

Lower Barbarian Parents. 

Savages are everywhere thwughout the world passin<r on 
to extinction. Soon the gap that divides the animal from'' the 
man will bo increased by the loss of these still existent links 
And yet other links soon afterwards must go, for those of the 
lower barbarian standard are nowhere able to maintain them- 
selves. Among these races the growing power of intelligence 
IS made subservie7,t in fl,« .„... „».] comfort of the individual 

not to the good of the race. Abor 

and infanticide becon 

If? I*' 

I 11 


• .1 

1 1 .» n 


more common, while licentiousness deepens and grows mor 





systenuitic. But at tlie level of the middle barbariuns tlie- 
nadir at last is reached. Abortion and infanticide thence- 
iorward greatly decline, till they ilie out in the ^nulcs of 
higher civilisation : cliastity meantime bey-ins to be regarded as 
an ideal among women, though not, for yet a long time, among 

Nevertheless, along all the line, progi-ess in ])arental care 
is seen, even though at first that progress is ratlier of an 
animal than of a moral .lature. We regard a man as on the 
barbarian level when he ceases to be a wanderer, dependent 
upon untamed nature. If he builds him.self a fixed, even 
thougli hundjie dwelling, and breaks up a little soil to provide 
himself with food : or, if the nature of his land fit it rather for 
pasturage than for tillage, and in consecjuence he be still a 
rover, when he asserts his higher intelligence bj' taming 
and utilising herds of cattle, of sheep, of goats, of camels, (jf 
reindeer, his life is less afflicted with recurring famines, his- 
dwelling is improved in conveniences and comforts. In con- 
sefjuencc there is an increase of home-life and all its warm 
associations, with multiplied parental afiection. 

Here, at this level, the educational care of the young begins 
to assert itself as a leading feature in parental regard, a feature 
destined to phw the notable part of all in tlie humanising 
influence of progress. A Fi-ench or English child allowed 
to grow up absolutely devoid of training or e<lucation would 
be to all intents and purposes a savage, not much higher than 
an Australian black, and possibly lower than a North American 
Indian. The subsequent story of parental care is moi-e and 
more bound up in that afi'ectionate forethought whicli is at the 
basis of systematic education. 

Not that this principle here comes into play absolutely for 
the first time. We know that manv birds teach their younjr 
to fiy, to dive, to catch their prey. Many of the caniivora 
train their young to some extent. Cats are often seen to da 
so with kittens, and older dogs take an intelligent interest in 
the training of puppies. Monkeys, too, cufi" and scold the 
mischievous urchins of the troop till they are taught good 
manners. But with the dawning intelligence of man the 
practice of education tends to become a leading feature of 



social life. It is not so to any very marked extent in the 
lower savao-es, t\um^h even there, seein^^ tliat tlie niakino' of 
the bow and arrow, the choice of tlie propei- wood for a spear, 
the art of ol)tuinin^r lire nmst l)e handed down from father to 
son, there is of necessity something in the way of a rnde 
education ^nven to tlie youn^r. But with the middle savajre, 
the proc(>ss assumes a more conscious nature even thouf;'h yet 
only end)ryonie. The Australian takes some little interest in 
briiifrin^r up his children to the ways of the tribe ; shows tiieui 
how to play its ^ames, to make its favourite implements, and 
hunt in the style approved in tradition. A similar training-, 
thou(,di more elaborate, is common enou<,di amono' the North' 
American Indians, an.l practically amoui;- all the racs on the 
upper savage level. 

But with the settled life which marks the transition to the 
barl)arian stage there come increased facilities for education. 
That which is given by an Iro(iUois, a IMaori, a Papuan, a 
Kaffir, a Yakut, or by most of the Hindoo aboriginals exhiljits 
the beginning of a systematic attempt to form the character. 
The child is no longer left to pick up merely wliat he can on 
liis own account ; nor is it enough that the parent should 
.iimply, when the whim arises, amuse himself in a passing way 
by showing what he happens to know. The Ma ori, for instance, 
though witli little or no division of employment, had many 
arts and trades in which the young were systematically 
instructed. The nuiking of the canoe, the building of the 
house, the fortification of a pah, the breaking up of the soil 
and the planting of taro, the cleaning of fibres, the spinning of 
them and the weaving of mats— all these and other or e(|uiva- 
lent tilings are taught throughout the whole of the lower 
barbarian level ; and, as we may be sure, advancing civilisation 
with its greater complexity of arts and products demanded an 
ever-increasing care of education. But this training is at first 
always of an almost exclusively domestic character. That 
form of parental care which establishes the school and employs 
the schoolmaster is a feature which dawns for the first time in 
the lower civilisation ; at least, I liave met with no authentic 
traces of it at an earlier level. 

The settled life which renders existence so much easier to 




I ;. ( 



the barbarian, and gives so much irore facility for the training 
of the young, ought, as one would tliinlc, to diminish greatly 
the temptation to abortion and infanticide. And so eventually 
it does, l)ut not inunediately. It is only when we reach the 
higher standard of the barbarian group that these things are 
disapproved and distinctly ilecline, though many i-aces in a 
rrther lower stage; are honourably distinguished in this 
respect. Of the lower barbarian races there is not one which 
condemns these practices, though Kaffirs and some negro 
races perpetrate them but little. So, also the Dyaks, and 
Malay races on the same level, are uniformly reported to be 
only slightly addicted to them. In all the others, both of 
these practices are very common, not more common perhaps 
on the average than among savages, but the fact is more 
striking among a settled population, and it then is more easily 

The Rev. Mr. Taylor says tha^ infanticide was extremely 
common among tlie Maoris. He knew of one woman who had 
destro^'ed seven of her infants because, as she said, she would 
otherwise have been unable to follow the war-march. Yet he 
tells us that the Maoris show extreme affection for their 
children, who indeed were spoiled by over-indulgence. {N<no 
Zmland and if.s Inhuhitanis, p. 338.) Dr. Steele, speaking of 
the natives of the New Hebrides, states that they have an 
extraordinary disposition to bury their new-born infants ;ilive, 
very few women being allowed to keep more than three at the 
utmost ; yet he says that " we often saw the men nursing little 
children and carrying them about in their arms most tenderly ". 
{New Hehridcfi, p. 219.) Codrington says that everywhere 
throughout Melanesia infanticide greatly prevails, yet "gener- 
ally man and wife get on well together and are joined by the 
great love they bear their children ". {Mdancsians, p. 229.) H. 
Brooke Low tells us that among the Dyaks, offspring of 
regular unions are not often killed ; elsewhere we learn, how- 
ever, that illegitimate infants are generally destroyed. Yet 
he declares that these peojjle are so inordinately fond of 
children as to wholly spoil them, and Karl Bock (p. 210) 
describes how the men of the village are to be seen taking it 
in turn to fondly nurse the infants. Among the Tunguz and 

'; t 


otlier Sibemu l^arharian. -parental afloction is a passionate 
henzy . \et the parents luivc the rioht, which they not 
untre4uently exercise, of deci.lin-. whether the new-born babe 
iH to be .testroyed (^'imiojownki, Siherian I^idun: i p 09) 


Middle Barbarian Parents. 

A step in a.lvance brinfr.s us in front of an anomaly, for 
while the ^a-eat majority of the middle barbarians, tlu.u.di 
expre.^sin^. no disapprobation of infanticide, practise it but 
It le there are a few races on the same level in which the 
habit IS a. inveterate as amon^r any of the sava^^es. Amon.r 
the nep-o peop e who form by far the greater part of thi: 
giade, infanticide is rare, bein^. confined to the case of twins 
and sometimes to occasions when a mother has died leavinc) 
behnid ner a tender nursling.. Lapps and Kalmucks were not 

thoujrh tie lon^-ans and Samoans commonly practised 
abortion, they very rarely were guilty of infanticide. (Turner 
Scnnoa,^. 79.) And yet the Fijians, who were on the same 
evel oi progress were greatly addicted to both practices 
although as we learn from several authorities, fathers and 
mothers had a strong attachment to such children as they 
suffered to live. "^ 

On the level of tin. higher barbarians, it may be said in 
general that infanticide is a waning practice, little customary, 
though only feebly condemned by public opinion. An.l yet 
two of the races on the same level are still as much addicted 
It as any. In Tahiti, as Ellis tells us (Polynesian Researches, 
.,2ol) two-thirds ot the children were destroyed, only about 
tliee being spared to each mother; yet if the baby was 
allowed to live a few days its life was safe. In Hawaii how- 
ever, the child was liable to be slain until a year old. Yet in 
the case of both these peoples, he speaks of the fond indulgence 
which they show to the children actually reared two isolated regions probably .show a persistent 
survival old customs. For in all the other peoples of this 
grade, we know as a matter ot^ certainty that infanticide was 


1; ' 



Wi ' 

once of the widest prevalence, but that the modern infreijuoncy 
of the practice is the result of proj^ress. For instance, in 
Mada^niscar, as we are told by the Rev. H. W. Little (Mada- 
gascar, p. 60), it formerly prevailed to a pitiful extent: but for 
centuries l)ack the practice has been dyin},' out. Ellis {/fist, 
of Mailaf/asmr, i., 101) says that it was still connnon enouj^h 
amonj,' the lower orders when the missionaries fii-st went 
there, but condemned amonj^ the better classes. The latter 
author says that " nothinjf can exceed the atfection with 
which the infant is j(enerally t'-eated," while Little describes 
a pretty custom accordinjf to whicli the j^rown-up sons and 
dauj^diters return at New Year time to present their mother 
with some small f^ift known !is "the incense of the back," a 
j^rateful allusion to the time wh(..i they were carried on their 
mother's shouldei's (p. 04). 

The Arabs are not now addicted to infanticide, yet we 
know how very common was the practice at one time amonj^ 
them. At the bcffinninj,' of our era, it was rej,'arded as a 
virtuous and patriotic deed to bury a dau<rhter at her birth, 
the natural instincts of the parent being a weakness to be 
sternly repressed in the interests of the tribe (Robertson 
Smith, Kinship ami Marriage in Earltj Araiiia, p. 2<S:? , for, as 
the learned author remarks, these tribes durin*; a considerable 
part of the year suffered severely from hungei'. They were 
under the opposin<f influences of two stern necessities ; on the 
one hand the tribe had to keep itself lari^e enoigh to meet its 
enemies in combat, yet on the other hand it \\ as bound to be 
small enouj^h not to exceed the subsistence offered by a limited 
area. In these circumstances, death fell generally on the 
daughters. The grave was dug within the tent by the 
mother's bedside, and when the babe was born, if seen to be a 
female, it was at once dropped into the gulf before it had 
properly drawn a breath. Yet strange enough such girls as were 
allowed to live were greatly prized, perhaps all the more so in- 
asmuch as the struggle was great to rear them. Lady Blunt in 
her book on the Bedouin Tribes of the Euphrates (ii., 214) says 
that " no people are so kind to their children, who are never 
scolded or ill-treated," and this parental love must have been 
of an olden date, to judge from Robertson Smith's legends of 





\ i 



th»; rao.\ which show how iniuiy (jutirrelH arose about tho's.s''()!i of ehildrt'ii. 

Anion^r all Imrbariau pcopk's abortion is coiuiikjii, but 
(Ifcliriiiifr towards tho hi^dicr ii'vcls, Papuans use the croton 
plant i'or this dan^'orous purpose ( Kosonberj,', Drr Malnjiische 
A ir/i if >,■/.), and Codrin;,'ton declares that the custom is common 
throu<rhout Melanesia, either the juices of certain plants or 
else mechanical violence bein^' used. {MrJancsm, p 22f).) The 
Kev. B. Danks says that in New Caledonia newly-married 
women are rarely allowed to have children for some years 
after marriai>;e, mechatiical means bein<r chiefly used to procure 
abortion. (Anfkrop., xviii., ji. 2!) I.) The Rev. Lorimer 
Fison tells me that the same practice was common in Fiji. In 
New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, and so on, abortion is 
known from the statements of missionaries to have been freely 
practised. iNmonjf the Tatar races of Siberia it is a well- 
known custom which public opinion in iio way condemns. 
(Niemojowski, Sihrrinii Plrtiircs, i., lUl.) In Tahiti it was 
practised without concealment, altbon::li by the manner in 
which Ellis refers to it, we may ,pose that a sense of some 
slight shame was growing uj. m reference to it at the time 
when missionaries first to(.k u[i their residence there. (Po///- 
ncsicui Mesearclics, ii., 72.) 

Decline of Infanticide. 

Indeed it is a matter of tolerable certainty that every race 
in its progress to civilisation passes through the stage of 
infanticide and uncondemned abortion. The Aztecs used to 
ettect the latter purpose by means of decoctions of herbs, while 
it was a general custom to kill one of a pair of twins. (Ban- 
croft, Natuc Races, ii., 269.) Biickle in his Cunimonplacc Book 
(ii., 340) agrees with Warburton in the belief that the 
Egyptians were once greatly addicted to infanticide ; the slay- 
ing of all the Jewish male children (Exod. i. 1(3) shows that 
no sort of guilt was attached to the killing of infants, and 
though Wilkinson tells us that the laws forbade the practice, 
yet these very laws themselves hint at its former prevalence 


U V 



(chap. viii.). For wliile the punisliment for killinjf the 
meanoHt slave was death, all that was decreed against the 
slayer of his own child was that he should carry the corpse 
for three days fastened round his neck, an enactment which 
shows that the current of public feelinif, though it ran against 
the practice of infanticide., was by no means strong. 

The words of the Koran are graphic : " when any of the 
Arabs is told the news of the birth of a female, his face 
becometh black, and he is deeply afflicted. He hideth himself 
from the people, considering within himself whether he shall 
keep it h disgrace, or whether he shall bury it in the dust " 
(chap. xvi.). But the prophet speaks from a higher plane and 
says (chap, xvii.) : " Kill not your chiUlren because you fear to 
be brought to want ; we will provide for them and you. Verily 
the killing of them is a great sin." Accordingly as the Arab 
races passed from barbarism to Saracenic civilisation, infanti- 
cide steadily died out. 

Among the ancient Persians, abortion was condemned at 
an early date, for we find it treated as a serious crime by 
Zarathusthra (Martin Haug, Ussnys on the Fnrsis, p. 242), and 
the laws of ManU (iv., 208; viii., 317) strongly condemn it, 
but strongly the destruction of new-born children. The 
ancient Jews seem to have themselves practised infanticide, 
for as late as the time of Isaiah, they are reproached with the 
habit of "slaying tiie children in the valleys under the clefts 
of the rocks ". In Chronicles xxviii. 3, and xxxiii, 6, the same 
statement is made. It is true that these cases may have par- 
taken of the nature of liuman sacrifices rather than of ordinary 
infanticide, but the two generally prevail together, and we 
have express testimony that both of them existed at that time 
among all the surrounding nations, Phoenicians, Aramajans, 
Syrians, and Babylonians, as well as among their kindred the 
Carthaginians. Moreover the regulations for the sale of 
daughters in the Mosaic law (Exod. xxi. 7) render it almost 
certain that this was the period when infanticide began to be 
condennied, for we shall subseiiuently have occasion to notice 
that the change from the slaying of superabundant children to 
the selling of them is a well-marked stage in moral growth. 
Thus one of the first glimpses we have of the Jews is that of 


illiiiff tlie 
gainst tlie 
the corpse 
ent which 
an against 

my of the 
!, his face 
th himself 
r he shall 
the dust " 
plane and 
'ou fear to 
u. Verily 
the Arab 
n, infanti- 

lemned at 

crime by 

242), and 

indemn it, 

iren. The 


.1 with the 

the clefts 

1, the same 

have par- 

f ordinary 

V, and we 

) that time 


ndred the 

le sale of 

f it almost 

gan to be 

to notice 

:;hildren to 

il growth. 

is that of 



a nation which practised infanticide, yet whose leading men 
condemned it. 

They seem to have been among the earliest nations to 
abandon the practice, and to this fact may be ascribed in some 
measure their persistence, their early predominance, and their 
tendency to spread out over the world. They have had 
through long centuries a strong parental instinct, unequalled 
in any race save the negro. The passionate desire for children 
shown in the words of Abram (Gen. xvi. 2) ; in those of 
Rachel (Gen. xxx. 1); of David (Psalms cxiii. 9); of Hannah 
(1 Sam. i. 10), and other often-repeated instances suggest a 
deeply rooted instinct whose influence would at an early date 
arrest infanticide. Seeing that in brain-power they were well 
developed, the fact that they nniltiplied as the sands of the 
shore did not compel them lo swarm and starve in their own 
land, but rather to hive off and prosper in others. 

But we make our acipiaintance with the Greeks at an 
earlier period of tlieir development than with the Jews. The 
laws of Lycurgus at Sparta, and of Solon at Athens, expressly 
permit the practice of infanticide. It was a matter of every- 
day life throughout Greece, but girls were more often destroyed 
than boys. As Posidippus remarks — 

Any m.aii however poor his fortune 

lii'ini;;s up liis son, 
But a daughter is shiin even by the wealthy. 

J3uruy, in his Hut urn ''/ ^f/'"'"' (i., 559), says that the 
families were never large, and the exposure of infants, 
especially females, was very frecjuent. Abortion was a 
perfectly familiar usage. It is .strange and somewhat humiliat- 
ing to see how far on into the midst of a civilisation in some 
respects admirable, these ideals of a savage time perpetuated 
themselves. Plato's lofty soul sees no liarm in either abortion 
or infanticide. In his I'epublic, men over iifty-five and 
women over forty are not considered tit to be the parents of 
stout citizen.s. They are to be allowed \\hatever sexual inter- 
course they please, but either abortion or infanticide must 
prevent them from adding to the population. {licpKhtic, v., 9.) 
ArLstotle also in his Politics (vii., 10) says that it must " be a 
law that no imperfect or maimed child shall be brought up, 

> I I 

!"< : 


' h 


and to avoid an excess of population some children must be 
exposed, for a limit must be fixed to the population of the 
State. But if any parents have more than the prescribed 
number of childi'en, abortion must be resorted to." 

And yet Aristotle himself bears witness to the disa-strous 
results of a public opinion of this description. He relates 
(Politics, ii., 9) that at Sparta people grew too lazy to rear 
their children, and when the race threatened to die out, those 
with three children were exempted from the night watch, 
while those with four were exempted from the payment of 
taxes. Their fate was therefore quite dilierent from that of 
the Jews, and it is probable enough that little of the true 
Hellenic strain of blood was left at the beginning of the 
Christian era ; fur however imperceptible may be the wearing 
out of one strand and the gradual insertion of others into a 
populace, it is effectual enough in a few centuines to wholly 
eliminate a race. If the Greeks habitually destroyed a third 
of their daughters, while female slaves and foi'eign courtesans 
made up the deficiency, then at each generation the average 
population would be one-sixth part less Hellenic than it had 
been before. At the end of two centuries, the citizens of 
Athens under such conditions though nominally Athenian 
would have been only one-fourth Athenian, and three-fourtlis 
of extremely mixed but in the main inferior birth. Thus the 
popular idea that the particular race had in itself degenerated 
is untrue, the fact being that In four or five centuries the race 
had gone out as etiectually as if a concjueror had subjected it 
to a universal massacre. In cases such as that of Laceda^- 
monia, wherein, to be a full-blooded Spartan, a man's father 
and mother had both tn be Spartan, it was possible after a few 
centuries to see the result of the process, how the 8000 Spartan 
citizens of the time of Herodotus were reduced in the time of 
Aristotle to 1000 (Pol it ice, ii., 9), and shortly after in the time 
of the third king Agis, to no more than 700. (Midler, Durians, 
iii., 10.; 

Thus infanticide, and still worse customs of the Greeks, 
brought their own retaliation ; they suggest most clearly the 
true method in which moral progress comes about, that is by 
the elimination of races or of elements in a race whose natural 



1 must be 
ion of the 

Ele relates 
ly to rear 

out, those 
fht watch, 
ayment of 
oin that of 
I the true 
ng of the 
le wearing 
lers into a 
to wholly 
B(l a third 
le average 
lan it had 
citizens of 


Thus the 
is the race 
ibjected it 
f Lacedaj- 
m's father 
ifter a few 
)0 Spartan 
he time of 
n the time 
r, Dorians, 

le Greeks, 
clearly the 
that is by 
)ae natural 



disposition is immoral and therefore in the loner run harmful 
to society. The Greeks paid, by their subsequent extinction, for 
their prevalent infanticide and immorality. Each generation 
differed but little from the preceding, and had still much the 
same right to call itself Hellenic, more especially as 't spoke 
the same language and followed the same customs. \ et, as 
in the case of Sparta, so through all Greece, a few centuries 
would see the races which called themselves Greeks, comprising 
no more than a tenth or a twentieth part of the old strain, all 
the rest being represented by the importation of foreign 

Infanticide, therefore, which was an advantage to the 
savage, always on the bi'ink of starvation as each winter came 
round, ceased to be useful as civilisation progressed ; for the 
race which soutrht s own ease and spent its resources in 
ministering io • y, while it destroyed its infants, would be 
crushed out ^ ■ > . osorbed into the surrounding races which 
to some extent utilised their increasing resoui'ces in rearing a 
larger proportion of their children. These races must overflow, 
these must emigrate, these must become domina,nt ; while the 
other, though its name may be perpetuated, will in truth go 
out of existence. 

Infanticide in Rome. 

This was perhaps an element in the success of the early 
Romans. Infanticide had once, as we have reason to believe, 
been very general, "but when the laws of the Twelve Tables 
were promulgated, it must have been very much on the decline ; 
for, as Cicero tells us, these laws enacted that " children of 
notable deformity were at once to be slain ", {Ih Ltyihus, 
iii., 8.) Now it is well known that in the earliest institu- 
tions, the father of the family had the power " to restrain, to 
scourge, or slay any member of his family " (Carolus Ligonius, 
De Antiquo Jure Ciirinm Buinanoi iiin , i., 10), and the enactment 
of the Twelve Tables shows that the actual exercise of this 
legal right was falling somewhat into desuetude when it 
bncrtine ne«essary to legislate for the destruction of those 
notably deformed. At a later date even this most profitable 

' i?l 

i i 


. i; 
ill 'I ' 



I ■ ,; 


of all forms of infanticide became limited. The father lost the 
right to kill his new-born child if it were a male, or if it were 
the Mrst-bo: .1 daughter. He was still at liberty to destroy any 
subse(iuent daughter, if he obtained the consent of a jury of 
five of his neighbours. (Ramsay, liomnu A ntiqidtirs, chap, ix.) 
That the permission was frequently enough utilised is clear 
from Plautus and Terence, whose plots sometimes hinge upon 
the reappearance of children supposed to have been destroyed, 
though it is to be remembered that these were rather Greek 
than Koman si ries. 

It is probable that fdthough no great proportion of Roman 
infants were slain, yet as in China of the present day, among 
a large population, a small proportion would be quite suificient 
to keep the fact of infanticide strongly enough in evidence. 
Gibbon says (chap, xliv.) that "if the father could subdue 
his own feeling, he might escape, though not the censure, at 
least the chastisement of the laws, and the Roman empire was 
stained with the blood of infants ". But we have reason to 
suspect this statement of a somewhat loose and rhetorical 
tendency. The blood of infants is certainly a metaphor, 
because public sentiment was against the shedding of blood, 
and the invariable methods of destroying the new-born infant 
were either to expose or to drown it. There is I believe no 
evidence that in tlie times of which he speaks the Roman laws 
ever censured infanticide. Lecky, following Gibbon, says that 
"infanticide was forbidden, though not seriously repressed " 
(Huropemi Moral,, I, 299.) But it is fairly certain that neither 
abortion nor infanticide was condemned till the later times 
of the empire. The public sacrifice of children for religious 
purposes existed in Rome as late as the time of Hannibal. 
(Livy, xxvii., 37.) It is impossible that any law could have 
denounced the destruction of children when we find the 
most respectable writers commending the daily practice of 
the custom. Pliny says (iv., 29) that infanticide is really 
a lamentable necessity "seeing that the fertility of some 
women is so over-abundant in children that it needs some 
such practice to counterbalance it," while the lofty soul of 
Seneca saw nothing reprehcr.sible in it. In his disquisition 
Concermufj Anger (i., 15) he says: "Children also, if weak 

I I 
i 3 




and deformed, we drown, not tlirou^rli a„o-er, but tlirout,di tlie 
WLsdoni oi' i3referrin<r the sountl to tlie useless ". 

Suetonius has several inciilental allusions which prove that 
infanticide was accepted by tlie Romans in a very matter-of- 
fact spirit. For instance, in ilescribin^^ the public grief for 
the death of Germanicus, he mentions that many women 
exposed their infants. (Ca/y/nla, v.) The opening of the four- 
teenth episode of the Go/dm of Apuleius describes how a 
liusband before going forth on a journey directed his young 
wife that the coming babe if a girl was to be destroyed : the 
whole being related as a perfectly natural and common 

There is every reas:n to believe that the increasing infanti- 
cide of girls was one of the insensible causes of Rome's decay. 
Whilst their own women were kept thus in disproportionate 
numbers, beautiful slaves and attractive adventuresses 

gathered in Rome. By slow degrees, 

as in Greece, the 

foreign element inHltered itself into the Roman blood, which, 
all unconscious of the change, ceased to be truly Roman.' 
In earlier days when larger families were the rule, and a 
profligate extravagance had not as yei wasted the virile 
strength of the citizen on ceaseless intrigues which had no 
influence in perpetuating the national character, Rome 'ad 
held lier own and spread out over other lands. But e\ en so 
early as the reign of Augustus, laws against celibacy and for 
the^ encouragement of reasonably large families became 

Denis thinks tliat, according to the laws at least, a man 
could be prosecuted for slaying his infant, but not for expos- 
ing it ; still less could he be interfered with if he resorted to 
abortion. {Hixtoire (hs Idee^ Mont/es, ii., 109.) But he describes 
how a public feeling grew up against these practices. The 
declamations of Epictetus and Musonius and the quiet 
sarcasms of Tacitus suggest the growth of more merciful 
opinions. It had become a well-known custom in Rome for 
mothers to abandon their girls at the foot of .v particular 
column. Tliis was regarded as a softening of the fate of the 
little ones : for a class of men freciuented the place who, while 
they sutt'ered the least promising to die, gathered up the little 


,-1 ■ 




.. I,!! 


baby girls who suited them, and trained them to become 
attractive and often accomplished courtesans. 

But at least it salved the feelings of the mother if the babe 
had some chance of life, even if its fate was to be squalid and 
probably vile. But a difficulty arose, for when the speculator 
had gone to the trouble and expense of rearing and educating 
one of these girls, the parents sometimes claJmed her, possibly 
smitten with a late remorse, or perhaps finding that one 
daughter the more would be useful for the making of alliances. 
Then they would claim the girl and defraud the speculator of 
his gains. The result seems to have been that the number 
saved as foundlings was tending to diminish when in the 
year 331 a.d. the first of the Christian emperors, Constantine, 
passed a law giving these men the exclusive possession of such 
foundlings, and barring the parents from all future claim, 
except on adequate payment. {Codex Theodosii, v., 7, 8.) 
Not till the year 374 a.d. was infanticide made a crime, when 
the Christian emperor Valentinian punished it with death. 
Yet the progress of legislation for the remaining centuries 
of Roman power shows that though the Christian teachers 
strongly denounced it, the practice remained common enough. 

Teutonic Infanticide. 

The transition from barbarism to civilisation has in equal 
measure always witnessed a defline, though not an entire 
suppression, of infanticide. The Teutonic races all passed 
through the stage. Tacitus praises the Germans because they 
held it scandalous to limit the number of their families, but 
the followhig sentence {Gcrwanin, xix.) is very rhetorical, and 
as Lecky suggests (Mumh, ii., 340) the whole pc.ssage is to be 
taken rather as an indirect way of scolding his own people, 
than as a sober statement of truth about anothei-. Guizot 
{Civilisdtion, i., 429) regards the picture which Tacitus draws 
as being analogous to the portrait Fenimore Cooper gives 
of the Red Indians. At any rate, Tacitus is certainly v/rong 
as to the absence of infanticide among the Germans. Grimm 
declares that " all the Teutonic sagas are full of the exposure 

fi! I 



f the babe 
[ualid and 
', possibly 
that one 
2ulator of 
e number 
en in the 
5n of such 
ire claim, 
^, 7, 8.) 
me, when 
th death, 

1 teachers 
a enough. 



3 in equal 
an entire 
11 passed 
ause they 
:iilies, but 
rical, and 
e is to be 
n people, 
. Guizot 
;us draws 
per gives 
ly wrong 

of children, and thero can be no doubt that in the early days 
of heathenism it was lawful". {Hechts-A/L, p. 455.) Miiller 
says {Hist, of Ice/and, p. 146) that all the Teutonic races in 
early times had the right of exposing their children, but in 
course of centuries it came to be exercised by only the poorest, 
& man rich enough to be able to support his children incurring 
much obloquy if he destroyed them. It is related that when 
in 1000 A.D., the Norsemen of Iceland were converted to 
Christianity, they stipulated that their right of slaying their 
infants should not be removed. In spite of the agreement 
then made, the Church authorities twenty years later abolished 
it, but we may well believe that the practice, though con- 
demned, continued for a long time after. 

In the laws of the Visigoths, we read that " if anybody 
rescues and brings up an infant which had been exposed by 
its parents, and if these afterwards claim it, they must give 
either a slave or a .suitable sum of mojiey to pay for the 
trouble of the foster parent," a regulation which clearly shows 
that infanticide was not illegal among that people in the 
seventh and eighth centuries. (Lindenbrog's C'ode.i- Lapan Anti- 
qi'Mrnm, bk. iv., tit. 4.) In the .same collection, other incidental 
allusions seem to show the legality of the practice in all 
Teutonic races. But in the laws of the Burgundians, Salics, 
Ripuarians, Visigoths, AUemanns, Bavarians, Saxons, Frisians, 
and Lombards there are enactments against abortion, winch 
though by no means severe, indicate that public feeling was it. In the laws of Cnut (quoted Scephen's IIi:it. of 
Or i III. Law, i., 54) we read that a woman for adultery loses 
both nose and ears, but for abortion is subject only to the 
penance of the Church. Du Chaillu in his Viking Aye (p. 
307) quotes many sagas that show how the gods of the Norse- 
men were appeased by .sacrifices of children, and Professor E. 
G. Geiger {Hidory of the SvxdeH, p. 31) says that among all the 
Scandinavian peoples the father was without blame if he 
exposed his new-born child. If he failed to raise it up and 
.sprinkle it with water, the attendants were to infer without 
further instructions that it was to be destroyed. 

The Celtic races also were addicted to infanticide. Lub- 
bock states that the examination of the earliest tumuli of 

11 ill! 

H tp 



M r 

! f 

Great Britain has coiiviiicud tiie ablest arciueoloj^ists tliat ifc 
was practised aiuoii^- the ancient Britons. (I'rrhlsturic. Tiincs, 
p. 17().) The validity of their views has been challon<j^ed, 
and as far as Scotland is concerned, indi^niantly denieil, but 
Ciusar distinctly states of the Gauls that they liad th ■■ power 
of life and death over their chililren. {Dr Hello Gtdlico, vi., li).) 
The laws of the Welsh — Howell's code for instance — as late as 
the eif^hth and ninth centuries, thou^di very minute in the 
detailed speciMcation of otlences, contain no word as to the 
slayiiiff of new-born children, and indeed aS the only punish- 
ment for any sort of murder was a payment to the nearest 
kinsman, it follows that the murder of one's own child must 
have ^one unpunished, though it scarcely follows that it was. 

The same sort of reasoning applies to medijBval England. 
No law of the Saxons, however miimte in its details of the 
penalties for murder of various ranks and both sexes, has a 
word as to infanticide. There is reason to believe that though 
the Church set its face most .sternly against the practice, the 
milder views made but moderate headway ; for in (JSO A. I), we 
find Archbishop Theodore contenting himself with the jirohibi- 
tion of the sale of children after they had reached the age of 
seven j^eai's. Half a century later, another bishop threatened 
to excommunicate those who sold their children at any age. 
Kemble, in his Sn.jvns in Enfiland (i., 198), .says that though 
tliey were generally illegitimate children who were thus dis- 
posed of, chietly to Ireland, it is to be feared that legitimate 
children also were often enough sold into slavery. (Compare 
Hallam, Mid. Af/cs, chap, ix., note.) 

Through the middle ages, while men still had the right to 
kill their slaves and the only punishment for any murder was 
a payment of money to the relatives, it is in the last degree- 
unlikely tliat any man was interfered with for merely slaying 
his own infant. Pike, in his Histovj/ of Crime (ii., 409), states. 
that in the records of the inquests of the fourteenth century, all 
accusations of murder refer to full-grown persons, whence the 
inference clearly is that the administration of justice took no 
notice of the deaths of infants. Condemned no doubt from a 
religious point of view, infanticide was no concern of the law 



until th(; rei<,m of Juihuh I. In the year 1G23, thou^fli the 
wonliiiff oF the Act then jjUHwed .sutfj^ests that it liad been for 
some time punished, the ^'rowinfr feelin<f of the time had 
betfun to inchide it into the j^eneral term of murder, and this 
particular statute was intended to j^ive definite lej^al force to 
tlie new interpretation of old customs. As for abortion, it 
appears for the first time on our statute books at the end of 
the rei^n of George III., when it was decreed to be a felony. 

In Spain even so early as the seventh century, the influence 
of the Church secured that the murderer of his own child 
should be put to death or blinded : and under the same teach- 
inj^, Charlema<i;ne, a century later, decreed that the offence 
should be punished as homicide. Up to that time the French 
had the right of exposing their children, subject to the limita- 
tion that if the babe hatl once tasted honey it could not be 
destroyed. (Michelet, Oriji'nies, p. 8.) The right of selling 
cliildren was in full force so late as the ninth century, as 
is shown by the legislation of Charles the Bald, which was 
intended to check the practice. It is asserted that not till 
about the end of the tifteenth century did it become disreput- 
able for parents to sell their children. (Spencer's Vacriptu-e 
Sociolo(jii, France, p. 40.) 

Infanticide in i\If)DERN Civilised Races. 

All nations now in the stages of middle or advanced 
civilisation, before reaching what I have called the cultured 
standard, exhibit the same decay of infanticide as a practice 
reprehended but not punished. That, for instance, is the state 
of things in China, where the practice is unlawful though not 
generally disapproved. But whereas in a higher savage or 
lower barbarian condition some thirty or forty per cent, of the 
children who are born would thus perish in their earliest 
hours, not above three or four per cent, at the utmost are 
destroyed in China. Staunton estimated the number at 2000 
yearly for the city of Peking, which would amount to four or 
five per cent, of the total births for that city. This, however, 
was a guess, and it is almost certainly exaggerated. And yet 


I (I 







it is hard to form any just idea of the truth. Barron assertod 
that 9000 were put to death each year, but the Rev. Dr. 
Abeel {Residcnai in C/>inn, p. 109) estimates the number at 
4000. On the other hand the Rev, W. C. Milne, who lived 
ecjually long in China, declares that all this is mere nonsense 
(Lifi in China, p. 40), and that in Canton, at any rate, infanti- 
cide was rare. Dr. Williams {T/ir Middle Kim/dom, ii., 2fi2) 
states, however, that though the practice is rare in Canton it is 
more common in Amoy. He thinks that in general the pro- 
portion of children killed is not great, but mentions two 
provinces wherein the practice prevails to an atrocious extent, 
twenty or thirty per cent, of the female children, therefore 
ten to fifteen per cent, of the total number of infants born, 
being put to death. 

Perhaps we are safest to ^o with Archdeacon Moule when 
he expresses the opinion (New China and Old, p. 179) that 
" infanticide must be regarded as a local and spasmodic crime 
rather than as a chronic and national evil ". He thinks that 
in general infanticide is distinctly connected with the pressure 
of want, which arises after floods, famine, or war. Henry 
Norman, in his work The Far East, feels certain that infanti- 
cide is very prevalent in the lower and middle classes. He 
gives explicit numbers supplied by a lady who said that 160 
women she had interrogated were the mothers of 031 sons and 
588 daughters then living. No sons had been killed, but of 
daughters, 158 or twenty- three per cent, had been put out of 
the way. Professor Douglas regards such a condition as 
characteristic only of the poorer classes in times of great 
distress. Tlie extent to which infanticide prevails has, he 
says, been much exaggerated. {Society in China, p. 353.) 

There can be no doubt that the better feeling of China has 
for centuries past reprehended the practice. There have been 
in existence, for seven centuries at least, societies which gather 
funds to lessen the evil. Archdeacon Moule speaks of one he 
knew at Ning-po, and mentions how when there was a rumour 
of infanticide accomplished or threatened it pounced down 
upon the perpetrator and caused him to be punished. This 
and other societies spend large sums in ottering pecuniaiy 
assistance to parents who, in despair of feeding their children, 



are under tlie temptation of killing the latest comer. The 
misHionary Doolittle .say.s that the Chinese Governmont issues 
edicts a<rainst the practice, which is iili'<ral though still common 
enough. He thinks that all the bettor half of the people 
would disdain to slay a child, but the lower half are always 
only too ready to drown all daughters after the Hrst one or 
two. He gives details (p. 495) which clearly show that the 
practice is disreputable. Archdeacon Moule speaks of the 
protest which Buddhism and Taouism make against it as 
" feeble, suppressed, and inarticulate ". On tlu' whole, we 
may say of infanticide in China, as of gand)ling in England, 
that it is against the law, and contrary to the feeling^ and 
customs of the more respectable part of the population ; yet it 
exists and asserts its right to exist by reason of a considerable 
body of public opinion which does not condenni it. 

To a less extent the same was till recently true of the 
Japanese. The EnajcUipcvdia of India speaks of its former 
prevalence there, but of its recent decrease. Fauld in his 
Nine Years in Japan mentions infanticide as one of the several 
causes which have kept the population stationaiy. It is a 
notable fact that in countries where a struggle for the repres- 
sion of this practice is going on, the death of ciiildren is often 
commuted into the sale of them. It cannot arise till there 
comes that degree of civilisation which induces a man of means 
to look forward far enough to make a profit out of children 
so purchased. When that degree is reached, however, the 
indigent parent indulges the growing reluctance to cause the 
death of his child, and at the same time secures some sraall 
profit out of his sympathetic restraint. In Japan, the govern- 
ment carried on a profitable trade in the purchase of girls of 
from six to eight years old. Sir Henry Loch, Mr. Laurence 
Oliphant, and the Rev. Gray Dixon all describe the conditions 
of the sale, according to which some 20,000 girls used to be in 
the employment of the governmei^t as courtesans. At the age 
of twenty-five they were dismissed with a pension, but they 
spent some thirteen of their freshest prime in a life of prostitu- 
tion, thongli not necessarily of degra-'lation, parents freely 
selling their children for the purpose. Yet, as Oliphant tells 
ns{China and Japan, ii., 205), the Japanese children are kindly 

it t 

i i > 
if " \ 


treated ; they are never lieaten, aiul are jjenerally well brou<,'ht 

In Siain inFanticiili' is rare, for motherhood i.s conHidtsrcd 
hoiKjurable and dauj^hters are cherished as much as soils. 
(Mary L. Cort, Sidiii, p. I(i7.) \et the same writer (p. 216) 
states that parents readily sell their dau<(hters to th j mana{,'erH 
of tlieatres well knowing' that they are to be trained as 
courtesans. Dr. Brown, in his work on the Pfoplfs of the 
World, tells us that the Anamese, thoujrh apparently not 
addicted to infanticide, are accustomed to sell one or two of 
their children if their families threaten to become too li.i'i^o. 

It is well known that amon<^ larf^je sections of the Hindoos, 
infanticide prevaileil within recent times. Lieut-General 
Walker estimated that about 80,000 female children were 
annually put to death in Cutch and Gujerat, a rat»* amounting 
to about one-f(jurth of the total births, and therefore to about 
half of the ji'irls born. Infanticide is known to have been very 
<,'eneral in Oudh and all the Punjab as well as in Baluchistan. 
But it was probal)ly in Rajpootana that it existed in the 
jijreatest strenj^th. Watwju and Kaye assert (Peoples of India, 
vol. iii.) that " no criminality either by law or usaj^e was ever 
attached among the Rajpoots to infanticide". The child was 
smothered in milk or else opium was smeared upon the 
mother's breast in (juantity .sufficient to cause innnediate 
death. The Cjiclopa-dhi of India asserts that in one of the 
districts of this province, while there were 82,400 boys, there 
were only 35,137 girls at the 1874 enumeration, a discrepancy 
which clearly showed that more than one half of the girls had 
been destroyed. The British authorities have had to struggle 
for seventy years to suppress the practice, which is generally 
regarded as having ceased in 1868 ; but it is supposed that the 
natives still contrive to rid themselves of female children to 
a considerable extent without incurring the risk of the law. 
The census of 1871 .showed clearly that infanticide was a 
prevalent vice of only the north-west portion of India, the 
balance of males and females being natural in the Presidency 
of Bengal, and the females being only a little under their 
healthy proportion in Bombay and Madras. That census 
showed for British India as a whole, a total of 98,000,000 


ill brought 


II iVH sons. 
er (p. 216) 
) umiuifferM 
traiiHMl as 
j)liti of the 
•ently not 
I or two of 
30 1; ! '^re. 
,e Hindoos, 
it. -General 
dren were 
re to about 
i been veiy 
ted in the 
L'.s of India, 
i was ever 
child was 
upon the 
one of Uie 
boys, there 
le girls had 
to struggle 
s generally 
led that the 
children to 
)f the law^. 
side was a 
India, the 
mder their 
"hat census 



males, but only })2,r)00,00() rcniales (Hunter's Iiulifi): a dis- 
crepancy which renders it probable enough that female infanti- 
cid.' ha<l generally pivvailed, l)ut on the other liand shows 
that the proportion destroyed was on the average of nil 
India not greater than that which now prevails in China. 
In very many parts of India the former custom of selling the 
childrt;n whom a. parent was unable to support pointed to a 
process of softening an antecedent custom of infanticide. 

To pass in review all the nations ol, ssoo ,,s lower, middle, 
and upper civilised would be only to prolong it o same sort of 
somewhat indefinite evidence ; but hh genera effect wo'dd 
certainly be to show that at this stage .'n;,.ntici- 3 tends to die 
out, sometimes retaining its virulence in ^i, ticular localities by 
reason of local superstitions or necessities, but in the aggrc^'ate 
steadily decliiung. Only among the cultured races is it ranked 
with heinous ci-imes and regarded as utterly incompatible with 
respectability. Certainly at this stage, tliere is some slight 
tendency for infanticide to reassert itself in conse(iuence of the 
great development of the idea of chastity, and the extreme 
antipatliy sliown to the mothers of illegitimate children. Yet 
this is a small matter in comparison with the infanticide whose 
rise and decline we have been considering. In England, 
according to Newsholme's Vital Statiitirs, the average annual 
nund)er of cases of infanticide from 1(S58 to 1886 was only 
186 children out of every 1,000,000 born, a rate less than the 
300th part of that obtaining in China, less than the 20()0th 
part of what is common in savage life, and therefore not calling 
for attention in this connection. 

Accordingly, it is very clear that infanticide, which is 
unknown among the lowest of mankind, gains a stronger 
and still stronger footing as men grow more intelligent, 
while yet their intelligence is mainly selfish ; but that after 
reaching a maximum among the barbarians of the lower 
levels, it gradually dies out as the more syiiipathetic side of 
human nature asserts itself, till at last in the cultured races it 
vanishes, leaving its record only as a universal though ugly 
stt'ge in the prf)gi-(^HH of our race. 

It was in fact man's artificial way of effecting what would 
after all have come about in a slower and perhaps more cruel 
VOL. I. 10 

i Jl 



way. For nature must sooner or later have established the 
type which, by being less prolilic, was better suited in a 
healthful way to adapt itself to new conditions. 

! I 

H I 


Under normal circumstances, in a population of 1000 
persons there will be about 160 women of an age to bear 
children ; if each of these had a child every two and a half 
years, which is somewhere about the natural rate, tliere would 
be sixty-four births each year. According to the Statesman's 
Fear Jlook, this high rate is attained in South-East Russia, 
where from sixty to sixty-five births occur to every 1000 of 
the population With a reasonable death-rate, this would be 
sufficient to double the population every sixteen years, that is 
to multiply it seventy -six times in a century ; an increase with 
which the progress of food-production would fail to cope. A 
heavy death-rate therefore naturally accompanies a birth-rate 
so high, and it presses chietly on the children themselves, of 
whom fully one half die in their early years. Thus the 
threatened redundancy is checked by a process which ^ is 
wasteful and cruel. Each woman, by bringing forth twice 
as many children as are really needed, helps to keep the 
comnuniity poor ; she diminishes the individual care given to 
each child, and she prepares for herself an inevitable train 
of sorrowful experiences. 

In the competition of race with race there is therefore 
always a tendency to weed o'lt the strains which are too pro- 
lific just as inexorably as those which are inclined to barren- 
ness." Had man in no w; y interfered there would have arisen, 
very slowly no doubt, a race emerging from the crowd, whose 
characteristic would have been a birth-rate nicely adapted to 
yield the most favourable results. But man interfered first 
by abortion and infanticide, and afterwards by means more 
in consonance with growing sympathies : and now we see the 
cultured r :.8s of Europe etiecting the same result by pro- 
cesses of self-restraint, mainly by postponing the age ot 
marriage and by acrease of celibacy. 


cilishod the 
uited in a 

m of 1000 
ge to bear 
I aiul a half 
ihere would 
Statesman'' s 
ast Russia, 
sry 1000 of 
is would be 
iars, that is 
icrease with 
to cope. A 
a birth-rate 
emsolvea, of 
, Thus the 
5S which is 
forth twice 
to keep the 
are given to 
'itable train 

is therefore 
are too pro- 
i to barren- 
have arisen, 
rowd, whose 
T adapted to 
terfered first 
means more 
V we see tlie 
suit by pro- 
the aue of 



Among savages of ajl grades tlie average of forty-six races 
shows tluit the men appropriate to themselves tlie girls of 
their tribe at the age of 1 2-2 years. Among barbarians, girls 
go tlirough a rude marriage ceremony at 18'98, that is practi- 
cally fourteen years, this being the average of fifty-eight races. 
Among the civilised races the age of marriage reaches 16-9 
years as the average of twenty-four peoples, such as Chinese. 
Japanese,, anu so on. But in the cultured races, the 
age at which spinsters are married is very much hidier 

liie mean age at which women marry in the seven leading 
nations of Europe is given by Mulhall as being twenty-seven 
years, but as this includes a considerable proportion of second 
marriages, Newsholme, in his Vital Statistics (p. 47), has 
employed an apparently reliable adjustment which shows that 
the average age at which spinsters in these countries are 
marrie<l is 24-(j. Aloreover, the statistics of all Europe indicate 
a very perceptible and steady rise in the age of women at their 
marriage. For a long time back the brides of any year have 
been a fortnight older on tlie average than those of the pre- 
ceding yea'-. Ansel 1 has shown tliat among the more highly 
educated classes of Europe the average age of a bride at 
marriage is 2(J4 years, while the daughters of labourers and 
unskilled workers are married at 28-2. 

This increased abstention brings many benefits to the race. 
The girl who begins the strain and cares of motherhood at the 
age of thirteen will rarely attain the fine constitution oi the 
girl who is carefully nurtured in the easy charm of maiden to the age of five-and-twenty. Moreover, the child 
born of so immature a mother starts life a rickety creature a.s 
compared with the chilil of the other. There would be some 
compensation if the girl-mother were likely to live longer and 
bestow on her progeny a lengthened period of parental care. 
But the truth lies quite the other way. It is the savao;e 
mother who dies early and gives the lessened care to her 
children. In England, the average duration of the Joint lives 
of both parents from the date of their raarriage is twenty- 
seven years ; in Germany and France, it is twenty-six : a period 
(luite sufficient to do ample justice to the family. For if a 
woman is married on the average at twenty-five, and dies at 

f f 


f > 






fifty-two, slie will leave no tender infants, the youn(>'est beinjr 
perhaps eiyht f)i' nin(^ years, hut it' when the youno-est is at this 
ai;i', only one oi" liis parents is removed hy deatli, the other has 
still, as statistics show, the jwospect oi' eij^-ht or ten additional 
years, so that the elder children of tlu^ fainilj'- are mature men 
and women, while tht! y()un<;'er ai-e on the averajjje j list enter- 
in*^ on manhood or womanhood ere they suffer tlu^ entire loss 
of parental care. Amid the j^'reatly hij^her death-iate of 
savaj-'e life no sueli len<i;thening of this period can be at all 

It is true that the sava<i-e i;'ir] who has her first l)aby at the 
ago of thirteen will probably have no more after she reaches 
thirty, while the oultun^d women who begins at six-and-twenty 
will continue to inci'ease her family till she is over forty. But the 
net result is to diminish the number of the children, for (Jalton 
has shown that in England, girls who marry at the age of 
seventeen are likely to liave nine children : those who marry 
at twenty-two, an average of seven and a half: if married 
at twenty-seven they will have six children; and if they wait 
till the age of thirty-two they will have only four and a half on 
the average. These figures are tlerived from observations made 
among the poorer classes. The diminution is probal)ly greater 
when the wdiole population is considered, for if the figures 
were generally true, it would follow that in England where 
girls marry under the age of twenty-five, the average number 
of their children would be about .seven, whereas the Forfji- 
stj'th Annual Iteporf of the Registrar-General shows it to be 
less than five. In another of his repoi-ts, Dr. Farr i eckoned 
that if the mean age of women at marriage should reach thirty 
years the birth-rab' would fall to two-thirds of what it now is. 

Whatever be the exact rate, there can be no doubt that an 
increased age of marriage diminishes the number of offspring. 
The Australian woman, according to Brough Smytlie, gave 
birth on the average to about ten children ; Watson and Kaye 
consider that the hill savages of India average eight children 
to each woman, while Lieut.-Colonel IMarshall found the 
avei-age of the Todas to be G'7 as far as he could discover. 
Lichtenstein considers that Kaflir women had an 


(jm ei: 

I an average or 
>ht to ten children, and wherever travellers have taken 


X'St IH at tluH 
ho otlicr has 
11 additional 
mature men 
e just enter- 
; entire loss 
L>ath-i'ate of 
?an be at all 

t baby at the 
she reaches 
)rty. But the 
11, i'or (Jalton 
t the a^e of 
i who marry 
: if married 
if they wait 
md a half on 
nations nuide 
)ul)ly greater 
r tlie tij^ures 
Inland where 
ra;;e number 
IS the Fortji- 
jws it to be 
arr i eckoned 
1 reach thirty 
hat it now is. 
loubt that an 
of otlsprinji-. 
imythe, f;-ave 
ion and Kaye 
iglit children 
1 found the 
)uld discover, 
m average of 
rs have taken 




pains to discover, not the iiuiiibcr of children actually alive, 
but the number that had been born to a savag<j woman, the 
result comes out ;.,!)out si^ven to ten for each. Rut in Europe 
of the present day the number is only 447 as tb.e averane of the 
ten most prof^ressive nations. Tu the year 187() i-acirmarried 
woman in En<,dan(l had borne an average of <+-08 children ; in 
G(!nnany, 492; in Austria, 87.S: tht^ highest being Italy with 
5-15, and the lowesi France with ;j-41 (b gistrar-C!eneral, 
Furtji-mrtli. Annual Jlcport.) 

But the second means of reducing excess fertility is in the 
increasing number of celibates that are found in cultured 
communities. The rej-iort just (juoted shows that in England 
about one woman in every eight remains unmarrieil. It by no 
means follows that the unmarried women are not mothers, yet 
it is certain that in countries like England, the United States, 
France, and Germany a very large proportion of those who 
are never mai-ried lead strictly vii'tiu/us lives. Taiung the 
registered number of illegitimate births as a basis of calcula- 
tion, I tinil that in these countries seven-eighths of the 
unmarried women over the age of thirty have ne\'er had a 
child. This celibacy of the women in cultured races reduces 
the total numl)ei- of ofispring by about eleven per cent. 

If we join the effects of celiliacy to those of deferred age 
of marriage, which is celibacy also, though only temporary, we 
find that of women who might be married, being over the age 
of fifteen, there are in England only 490 per cent, actually 
married: in Scotland, 44-4 ; in Ireland, 40-1 : the average of all 
Europe being that only 54-7 per cent, of the women of 
marriageable age are married, and if allowance be made for 
mothers of illegitimate children, considerably less than sixty 
per cent, of those who might be mothers have actually taken 
upon themselves tlie cares of maternity. 

Celibacy is a thing unknown in savage life. Curr ...ys of 
the Australians that " no girl is allow(Ml to remain unmarried 
after the age of fourteen, and no widow who is on the sunny 
side of forty-five is allowed to wear her weeds above a fort- 
night". The same was true of the Tasmanians. and Holden 
sa^\s of the Kaffirs " there are no old maids, all women are 
either wives or concubines," and Westermarck gives a list of 

a. r 

; ,!.; 

t' i- 




IM ' 

thirty raccK in whicli celibacy is practically unheard of. (Hist, 
of Jill man Jlarrinfji;, p. 185.) Schoolcraft say.s (v., 655) that 
if an Indian is left a widower, he is supposed to sutter a year 
to pass before he marries again : but he speaks of tlie j^eneral 
prevalence of tricks to evade this customary law. In Japan 
and China, old maids are almost entirely unknown. We meet 
the same featuv in antiquity. At Rome, the j-iervice of the 
sacred lire reiiuii i that six maidens should vow themselves to 
life-loujif vir<;inity. Gibbon notices with what extreme diffi- 
culty that small number could be procured, and how often 
those who did .so devote themselves, incurred by their 
immorality the dreadful doom of being buried alive. There 
were no old maids in Greece; and in India, Manu (ix., 
p. 88) laid it down that for a girl not to be married at twelve 
was a disc-race. Among all the Aryan races, as we are told 
by Prof. Geiger, "an elderly maiden received general disrespect," 
a feeling which still lingers a little among ourselves in the 
frecpient ridicule attached to them. Even where this is not 
the case, the fate of an old maid is regarded as one deserving 
of pity. Souvestre in his Phi/osophe sous les Toils, when, in a 
fine burst of indignation, he says, " cursed be he who has been 
able to find a subject for sarcasm in an involuntary mis- 
foi^tune," gives voice himself unconsciously to this feeling. 
But the sentiment of cultured nations is ceasing to award 
punishment, ridicule, or even pity to the woman who chooses 
to lead her own life in her own way, like the great Elizabeth 
"in maiilen meditation, fancy free". It Is u.seful to the com- 
munity as a means not only of reducing the redundant birth- 
rate, but also of increasing the care for tliose who a)-e born 
for e\'ery one knows in what a large proportion of homes the 
maiden aunt or the grown-up sister is as a second mother. 

Lengthened Period of Parental Care. 

All these means of limiting the number of births are 
accompanifd by a tendency to increase the period of parental 
care. Among savages that care never is of any great efficiency 
after the age of ten ; among barbarians, girls remain in the 


of. {Hist. 
655) that 
t'er a year 
le genei'al 
In Japan 

We meet 
ice of the 
mselves to 
•erne diffi- 
low often 

bj^ their 
B. There 
[anu (ix., 

at twelve 
e are told 
ves in the 
his is not 

when, in a 
3 has been 
itary mis- 
is feeling. 

to award 
ho chooses 

the com- 
lant birth - 

are born 
homes the 



births are 
f parental 
t efficiency 
lain in tlie 


father's liome till the ajre of fourteen, and boys probauly 
avera'fe as much or more. In a civilised community, the 
young folks almost always spend about sixteen or seventeen 
years under the parents' roof, and v/hen they go out from it 
there is an amount of interest taken by the parents in them 
and in the grandchildren such as is not known in low oi- stages. 
In the cultured races of to-day, the average boy or girl is more 
or less dependent till about the age of twenty, and leaves the 
parental home perhaps at five-and-twenty. 

But it is ratlier in the matter of systematic education that 
we can more properly estimate the progress of the cultured 
races. A regular school education begins to be characteristic 
in the civilised grades ; scarcely noticeable in the lower 
civilised, but definite enough among tlie wa^althier classes of 
races ^uch as the Persians, Afghans, Siamese, or Burmese, and 
among nations of anticjuity upon the same level, the Greeks of 
the time of Pericles, the Romans of tlie later Republic, the 
English of Plantagenet days. Bancroft says that the children 
of the Aztec nobles attended school for six or seven years, but 
those of a class somewhat inferior attended other schools for a 
less Mme. Two thousand years i?.c. systematic education ap- 
peared in China, and though it has never spread to the poorer 
classes it has been a matter of mucli national solicitude. In India 
(Elphinstone, p. 18()) and in Peru (Prescott, p. 117) schools for 
the sons of the well-to-do were valued institutions, while the 
Japanese have long held them in esteem, the children of the 
nobles terminating thi?ir studies at the age of fifteen. (Stein- 
metz, Jitpaii and hrr I'copic, p. 2(33.) 

But consider how notable a feature the school has become 
in cultured races. How great are the efforts to secure for 
every one. even the very poorest, a gooil elementary education, 
and how strong is the tendency to prolong the period of school 
life. I have caicalated from the official statistics of th' 
Australasian colonies that while practically every child is 
lieing educated, the average age at which they leave the 
primary sciiool is 147 years, about one in every fifteen pro- 
ceeding to sec. _.dar3^ schools wherein they remain till the age 
of seventeen. About one out of every 100 children eventually 
proceeds to the university, where he remains till the age 

, 1 1 

. ( 


I ' 



of nearly tweiity-ono. Ami the proportioiiH of scholar.s at 
each i^ratle are ,stea(ii!y on the increase. Tf thern were the 
.same facility in obtaining statistics for Europe, wl wouM lind 
in nations such as France, Germany, En^daixl, very iiiuch tlf 
same sort of results. 

And there is room for a gront iliough not judefinite exten- 
sion of the process in the future. We perceive in nil depart- 
ments a most wonderful developmern of activity in regiud to 
etucation and {i determination never before seen that e ich sex 
shall sliare .'n vAixml nie..,sure all its advantages. In a few 
-•enturies it y/UI proi'sbly be an almost universal custom for 
the youth of both si xeK to continue their school and college 
educanon to the H'-. ••age ago of twenty years or more ; for it 
is clear viiat the j,'ic\'.'th of labour-saving machinery, and the 
many ingenious ways in which man is learning to satisfy his 
needs with lessened toil, will greatly reduce the amoinit of 
labour required of the average life. Steady, well-di..-cted 
etibrt of twenty or thirty years may secure all that the average 
man requires for a lifetime ; the huge (piantities of capital 
which every generation is now leaving behind it must lighten 
the cost of production in the future, and though it is true that 
man's scale of comfort is on the increase, yet there is a balance 
in favour of shorter periods of labour. Now if the tjuestion 
be asked, How will the increasing leisure thus secured be 
utilised ? we may with certainty reply that a considerable 
portion of it will be used for extending the preparatory period 
of youth, that men will not only retire from labour earlier but 
begin it later, and that, when they do begin it, they will be 
increasingly prepared for it. Because on the one hand, the 
body of knowledge required for proficiency in an/ trade or 
profession is always augmenting, and competition will be 
impossible to those whose information will not seem encyclo- 
pgedic in comparison with that now common in the same lines 
of activity ; on the other hand, there is an increasing ten^' ^7Tcy 
to take pleasure in learning : there never has been an i i 

which the passion fo: If-improvement has been "--o ma- ias 
in this. Should the , sent progress continue, a • iMn-yor 
two must see the average youth and maiden edii toii more 
highly than the honour graduates now turned out =. :i our 



holars at 

were tbe 

roul'l liiul 

much t):t' 

te exten- 
11 (k-n;irt- 
re^nu'd to 
b H'li sex 
In ii few 
nstoin for 
id college 
re : for it 
', and the 
atii-'iy his 
mount of 
le average 
of capital 
st lighten 

true that 
1 a balance 
! (juestion 
ecured be 
wy period 
sarlier but 
ey will be 
hand, the 
f trade or 
1 will be 
1 encyclo- 
■iame Hues 
; ten' -^^.y 
an ( 1 

ina, ! as 
".■u:m y or 

.tod uiore 
; \'v< :'. our 






universities. All of which means that with increasing intelli- 
geMce and diminishing mnnbers of oiispring there wilT come a 
prolonged period of parental care. 

Elimination of the Tyi'es. 

Meanwhile all the savage races will have gone, and the 
barbarian will have been extinguished or merged in tlie cultured 
populations now dominant in every quarter of the world. As for 
those who are now in the lower stages of civilisation their doom 
will depend on their capacity to accept the new conditions ; for 
of a certainty, the more competent race will slowly but surely 
supplant the incompetent, and in nothing will the superiority 
of the victorious strain be shown so clearly as in its display of 
parental care. For it is in the schoolroom and the wisely 
ordered home-life that tlie foundation is laid for all the 
industrial and military triumphs of the future. 

Antl the same process wiiich will purge mankind of its 
inferior races will in much the same \yay purge the cultured 
races of the less desirable elements which at present they con- 
tain. There have been those of late years who have expressed 
a fear that the trend of evolutionary processes in cultured 
society is now against the survival of the better types. It is 
the educated class, they .say, which exhibits whatever there is 
of self-restraint and which propagates slowly, while the less 
educated exercises but little control over its rapid multipli- 
cation, the criminal and improvident classes being particularly 
likely to swamp the others by their uiu-estrained licence of 
reproduction. But if this were true, then in the same way 
the savage who reproduces his kind so much more freeiy than 
the civilised man ought to multiply at a rapid rate. The 
element of parental care, however, counts for a very great 
deal in the process, and just as the want of it eliminates the 
lower races, so does it eliminate the inferior elements of each 
race. According to an estimate made by Mulhall, 100 wealthy 
and professional families in England produce on an average 313 
childicn, 100 middle class families have 300, while 100 of the 
poorer families have 370. Here we find a very distinct pre- 

' r- 







i I 

111 1;^' 

ponderance in favour of the poorer cIushoh. But considi'r the 
fleath-rate. Only 8"9 per cent, of the chil(h'en of the wealthy 
die before their fifth year, while of the children of the poor, 
35' 17 per cent, die ere they reach that aj^e. The fijrureH are 
suhject to Home adju.stnients beiny- unil'oriidy too low, but tl»e 
principle is sound, and the net result leaves a mortality among 
the children of the wealthy which is not more than one-tliird 
of that which prevails among the poor. Hence while 100 
families of the poorer classes will rear 240 children over the 
age of five, the same number of wealthy families will rear at 
least 280. 

Thus the law that progress lies with less ofispring and 
greater parental care obtains to the very highest domain of 
the animal kingdom, and works a beneficent change in the 
constitution of society. For if we suppose that the well- 
educated classes are now some ten per cent, of the whole, and 
that the present rates as above described will continue 
unchanged for three centuries, the offspring of the present well- 
educated classes would then constitute thirty-five per cent, of 
the whole, while the offspring of the present less-educated 
classes, instead of being ninety per cent., would be only 
sixty-five per cent, of the whole. A thousand years of this 
process would leave the descendants of the inferior strains at 
less than six per cent, of the whole population. 

But the case is really much stronger than this. We are 
speaking as if the wealthier classes were all good parents, and 
as if the poorer people uniformly failed in this respect. 
Suppose, however, that we could make a division more to the 
purpose ami keep the statistics of two great classes, the people 
of orderly lives and those of disorderly lives : on one hand the 
good fathers and mothers; on the other hand parents who 
bring children into the world with little sense of any responsi- 
bility therein implied. The latter we would find the more 
prolific, and that to no small degree : but then the mortality of 
their ofispring would be so great as to deprive them of all 
advantage, and the moral class would supplant them at a rate 
much more rapid than that of the case for which I have just 
calculated the result. 

Ru-skin says {Time and Tide, letter 18): "The marvel is 





always to me how tlie raeo rvmstn, at least in its childhood, 
influences of ill-re^rulate.l birth, poisoned food, poisoned air 
and soul nejriect". But is it very certain that the race does 
really resist them ? Is it not rather the truth that in the 
course of half a dozen ^generations tlie excessive mortality 
whicn occurs where there is least care will by invisible decrrees 
make the less desirable elements of our populations a steadily 
vanishing (juantity ? 

On the whole, therefore, we find that the pro^a-ess of 
society depends less on education an.l the transmission of 
ac(iuired charactei-istics from one generation to the next, than 
on a steady progress of elimination of inferior sti'ains. ' It is 
not that the criminal is educated and trained to be a good 
citizen and becomes the father of children better than himself. 
This may occur under very favourable circumstances, but in 
general the advance that is made depends much more upon the 
heavy mortality of the criminal's children and grandchildren. 

There are various ways in which we may check this con- 
clusion. For instance, in a cultured community, those whose 
passions are ill-regulated and whose lives are ba.lly ordered 
will supply the larger part of the illegitimate children. Now 
the Registrar-General's reports show that 38-8 per cent, of 
illegitimate children die before they are a year old, while only 
19-2 per cent, of legitimate children so drop out. The 
ditierence is not so great on the Continent as in England, but 
in Bavaria, where it is least, Kolb states that of legitimate 
chiklren cwenty-three per cent., and of illegitimate thirty-five 
per cent, die before the close of their first year. For the 
average of all Europe, it is probable that nearly twice as large 
a proportion of illegitimate children die as of legitimat'l 
Moreover, as Mulhall tells us, the childbed mortality of 
unmarried mothers is about double that of those who are 
married. If we regard that class of the population which 
propagates illegitimate children as being on the whole a class 
of inferior morality, it f.'lows from these and other accumu- 
lated reasons not hry. ij be enumerated, that the inferior 
strains will be always in steady process of vanisliino-. 

One more statistical fact may be mentioned as a"sample of 
many of the same class which all work in the direction of 

'• ii: 



ii K 

i ' 

oHminat,if)ii of the niKksirable. Koll)'s researches show tliat of 
children suckled by liieir own mothers, IH"2 per cent, die in their 
first year ; of those .suckled by wet nurses, 29"38 per cent. ; 
while of those artiMcially fed in their own homes, sixty per 
cent, die ere the ajfe of twelve moii'" Vv an initaenso 
preponderance for the kind and natural mother over the 
unnatural ! How evident it is that a want of maternal love 
will work its own disappearance, and that the unnatural 
strain wiij die out before the more natural. Moreover, Kolb 
assures lis that eighty per cent, of the infaiits reared in 
instit'itions die before they are a year old, a fact which shows 
that those wholly lumatural mothers who abandon their 
babes lo be brought up in foundling hospitals, even though 
they were three times as prolific as the average, would leave 
less than the average of offspring. For 'n the highest races of 
men as in the lowest species of fish a little parental love and 
devotion is of more efficacy than a great fertility. 

Thus have wo traced the operation of the .same great law 
along all the line, and perceived that parental sympathy ha.s- 
steadily developed because it has always been a notable 
element in securing the survival of a species or of a superior 
strain within a given species. S} lupathy is as much depen- 
dent on nerve development of one kind as intelligence is on 
nerve development of 'nother: but at ; times the two have 
been strictly bracketed togetuer, for increasing intelligence 
always implies a more prolonged period of immaturity, and 
this demands an hicreasn,^ parental sympathy. Thus the 
English child which should receive no more parental care than 
the Australian piccaninny would almost certainly die in i+s 
infancy. If it chanced to survive, the w.t l of schooling and 
home training would leave it to f ■ a hopeless struggle in 
the competition of rivals better eq" (d 

It will be subsequently percei\ tha irental sympathy 
is the basis of all other sj'mpathy, and that sympathy in 
general is the ultimate basis of all moral feeling, so that we 
regard th'3 five chapters here ended as having been 
' in lavinp" the foundations of a theory of all ethical 
No time in the life of a woman is so purely happy 






as that when she has her babe to tend and fondle : 

no feeling 



ill all the oxpei'ioiK'c of a man is more ilelii;htt'ul than tliat 
called forth by the .sifrht of his little children waitin-r by the 
gate to Joyously greet his return. In these prima! pleasures, 
in these deep-seated springs of natural emotion are to be 
traced all the subse((Uent developments of our moral nature, 
which are always the truer and more profound in proportion 
as they approximate in character tu the simplicity of their 

original source 

I i ■:;i 1 




\i\ * 



The Sympathetic Type Leaves the Gueatek Puooexy. 

How j^roat is the power of parental sympathy in preservin^r 
the worthier types nmst now be abundantly clear: but there 
is a sfcond form of sympathy— that of tl\e mated pair, whose 
jrrowth is of wondrous ai.l, almost doublin^^ the efficacy of the 
mother's love or the father's alone. Thouj^h the one be 
devoted to her otl'sprinjr, and the other full of solicitude for 
them, yet if they two be out of sympathy so as to fail in a 
harmonious and permanent co-operation, the family is torn 
asunder with disruptive forces. Never can it be that the 
finest training; of the young will spring,' from a wedded pair 
who are unkind or unsuited to one another. It must often 
happen perhaps that parents ill enou(,di matched are kept 
totrether by their love for their children, a bond of potent 
union : but better far it is when the union is already there, and 
the solid strength of accordant t-ttbrt is bent harmoniously to 
the furtherance of the life-long task. 

And thus it comes that conjugal sympathy is an adjunct 
of notable power in respect to parental care. But it has 
another and on the whole an earlier aspect. The lower an 
animal is in the scale, the more simply does its propagation 
rest upon short outbursts of sexual passion. But those of 
higher intelligence are won as much by mental graces as by 
visible charms. The season's outburst becomes converted by 
degrees into a companionship for life, and this is very strongly 
^gp^.„,](.,,t. on kindness of manner and a capai '^y for single- 
hearted love. 

Sweetness and graciousness of disposition, whether in 





woman or in man, an? tlccisivi' ok'mi'nt.s in the si'cnrin;j of a 
mate. The morose ami Hulky I'ellcjw is ransly a favourite witli 
the fjirlH, an<l in never the Huitor who can make tiie first choice 
amon{( them. The woman whose beauty is marred with an 
evil temper, an unffraeious manner, will, like Katliarine. the 
shrew so madly tamed, luive always the prospect of beinjj 
nej^dected by wooers and of seeinjf her kindlier sisters wedded 
in preference. Katharine ^dves her advice to those who wish 
to be liappily mated — 

Fyo, fyo ! unknit tliat tlin'iit'niiit; unkind Imiw, 
And dart not Hcornful ^'linu'cs from those eyes, 
It l)Iots thy lieaiity, us fi'osts hite the int'Mds. 

In every conniuniity there will Ix; always a tendency to 
breed by preference from the more .sympathetic, from those 
males and females whose manners are most kindly and 
attractive to each other. It is true tliat the selective action of 
this law will be far more operative in a hi^-ldy cultureil com- 
munity tlian in one that is ruder. Its efficiency in tlie Europe 
of to-da}' must be several times f;'reater than in the Eurojje of 
ten centuries ago, and many times greater than in the average 
tribe of savages. Yet even in this it must have an influence of 
its own. For courtship everywliere is efficacious, and court- 
sliip, with its insinuativeness, its caresses, its vows of devotion, 
depends largely on a capacity for sympathy. 

It miglit seem as if, in a tribe wherein the suitor bought 
his bride, or knocked- her down with a club and dragged her 
fiercely to his fireside, there would be small room for the 
efficacy of courtship; but as we progress with the present 
chapter, and view the loose life of races upon the lower 
levels, we shall find more and more of reason to suspect that 
the bright and popular young fellow who wins the regard of 
the women will contribute far more than his due share to the 
paternity of the following generation ; wiiile, in regard to the 
sympathetic tendencies of the girls themselves, even in respect 
to their marriages, those who are winning in maimer as well 
as comely in person will be mated to the best of the tribe and 
secure a somewhat better chance of leaving progeny in distant 

Thus even though other causes somewhat interfere with its 

.: If' 


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i' 1 '■'« 





U ,x;, 

f-t ^ ' - V } ' 


action, a c-TaciousiicsH of disposition will be an element in 
lu'lpin^' to secure the survival of any special strain. The 
superior sympathy of the weaker sex is due to the fact that 
with them no counteracting force has been permanently ni 
operation ; at all times the gentle and loving disposition has 
been most readily and most permanently mated. Among men, 
the need of courage and strength in the hopeful bridegroom, 
courage to win and strength to keep his bride, must have 
given to these qualities an importance which would of 
necessity mask to some extent the undoubted growth of 
sympathy. Yet none the less the emerging type of manhood 
would be like that of young Lochinvar, a mixture of both— 

So gallant in love and so dauntless in war. 

The soldier has always been a favourite with the fair, if 
OTdy he showed himself as apt at wooing a maid in a corner as 
at smiting the foe on an open field. And so, even among the 
ruder sex, we find the growth of sympathy playing an 
important part, first, in securing for the man his mate, and 
second, in uniting him with her in the task of rearing his 

We need look for very little indication of this conjugal 
sympathy in the lower scale of animals. For it was in the 
parental relation that the general disposition to sympathy 
found its slow development. Thus not until this primal 
capacity of emotion had adapted the animal svstem to feel 
external impulses of the kind would the selective principle 
begin to lay a new stress upon it, and slowly divert it into the 
more indirectly preservative influence of conjugal sympathy. 

No instance of anything of the kind is to be found among 
cold-blooded animals. It is true that conjugal attections, as 
disthiguished from the sexual impulse, have been ascribed to 
fish and reptiles. But these undoubtedly belong to the class 
of sentimental misinterpretations of unusual incidents. A 
mal(i iUh is seen to hover for three days round the spot where 
a female was caught, and he is pitied by soft human hearts as 
a disconsolate widower, A snake is found not far f/om the 
spot where some days Ijefore its mate liad been killed, and 
Pliny ascribes the circumstance to its desire for revenge. 





Conjugal Feeling in the Lowek Mammals. 

In trutli it is not till wo reach the domain of the warni- 
bloode.l animal that we see any true development of con- 
juo-al sympathies. Even tlion, along both of the diverging 
tracks, its progress is but slow, though among birds as a class, 
the extant species show more of development in this respect 
than the average mannnal. For indeed the lowest orders of 
the mammalia are little removed in conjugal sympathy above 
the fish or the reptile. During a brief period the male desires 
the female, and she is nowise disinclined to receive him. But 
so soon a., their instinct is satisfied, no sort of sympathy 
un-tes them. I have kept the monotremes, sometimes eight 
togetlier in the same enclosure for months at a stretch, and 
never saw the remotest hint that one derived a pleasure from 
the society of the other. 

The lower marsupials are equally dull to the tender 
emotions. The koala and the wombat pair for the briefest 
period once a year, and roam thenceforward in isolation and 
hostility. ^Jlie female is devoted to her ofikpring, but knows 
nothing of the of conjugal life. Nor is there any- 
thnig i,i the life of kangaroo or opossum to indicate that 
a ienderer bond than mere sexual desire ever draws the male 
and fr'riale together. There are species, however, of which 
this is by no means true. The phalangers are always seen in 
pairs, and when kept in capcivity they show undoubted satis- 
faction each in the society of the other, long after the brief 
period of excitement is over ; when they are kept as domestic 
pets it is often somewhat pretty to observe their afiectionate 

I have never heard of any trait which would suggest that 
the edentates are possessed of the smallest conjugal sympathy. 
The sloths are at all times of the year occasionally seen in 
pairs, and this r-ay suggest a certain dull predilection for each 
other's society. The sirenia are sociable, and Brehm tells us 
{Sciugdinr, iii., 555) that " both sexes exhibit much attachment 
to one another, and each defends the other ". The cetacea are 
at all times sociable, and in the pairing season a considerable 
time is passed in which the couples find contentment each in 
VOL. I. 11 


. i ij. 

I I. 

i ii ) i nm.i *w 

- J 


the society of the other. But of true conjugal sympathy, that 
loving sense of companionship which would unite the male and 
female all the year round, we find no evidence in these lower 
mammals, and in the next of the orders, the insectivores, out 
of thirty-two genera {Brit. Mm. Cntalo,,ne) only one, the 
hedgehog genus, exhibits any visible development of this 
feelin.'- Judging from Brehm's description {Smujdnre, n., 362) 
the hedgehogs appear to mate with considerable tenderness. 
" Little inclined to sociability, he is found almost always alone 
or in company with his consort. The female makes her nest 
quite close to his, but all the summer weather they dwell ui the 
same nest together. Many a male is unable to separate him- 
self from his charmer at any season of the year, and 
permanently shares with her his lair. Close by, they play 
most lovingly together, provoke and chase each other by turns, 
soon after they cuddle together, as lovers are wont to do." Vogt 
also speaks of the hedgehogs as being permanently uniteu in 
pairs, a very early instance of that monogamous union which 
we shall regard as the true type of conjugal sympathy. 

But all the other genera of the order seem incapable of 
this devotion. It is true that the mole in the breeding season 
captures a female by main force, shuts her up with jealous 
care for a month or two within his cellar (Vogt, Mcmnmluu i., 
124) and for a short time assists her in the care and defence 
of the youn^r. (Brehm. Saugeticre, ii.. 378.) But if at any otlier 
time of the" year he should meet her, he kills and eats her on 
the spot. The shrews likewise are unamiable spouses, " never 
found together, except at pairing time, living a liermit's life : 
if two shrews meet, there mostly begins a battle tor lite or 
death, and the victor at once eats up his antagonist ". (Vogt, i., 
117.) ' Brehm gives an equally unfavourable account. " Out- 
side of the pairing season, the sexes never live in peace with 
one another. Ai any other time one eats up the other. 
{Sdwjetim', ii., 392.) Moles and shrews are endowed with a 
■ strength and ' ferocity so huge in proportion to their size, and 
at the same time with so great a fecundity, that they would 
far outnumber other mammals of the smaller sort were it not 
for this extreme unamiability, which not only prevents ah 
chance of co-operation but also turns the destructive powers 


thy, that 
male and 
ise lower 
ores, out 

one, the 
i of this 
y, ii., 362) 
ays alone 
i her nest 
vd\ in the 
rate him- 
yrear, and 
they play 
• by turns, 
do." Vogt 

united in 
ion which 

icapable of 
ing season 
ith jealous 
winnlia, i., 
nd defence 
t any otlier 
eats her on 
8es, " never 
rniit's life ; 
! for life or 
'. (Vogt,i., 
nt. " Out- 
peace with 
the other." 
wed with a 
eir size, and 
they would 
were it not 
prevents all 
jtive powers 



of the species to its own extermination. Even the maternal 
love IS after a time overmastereil by this intense indivi- 
dualism. "At first the mother suckles her offspring with 
much tenderness, but soon her love grows cold, the young 
depart to tind their own sustenance, and lose all brotherly 
affection. Each shrew from its youth upwards regards as 
Its food all flesh, even if it be the flesh of brother or of 
sister." (Brehm, ii., 392.) 

TJie bats, although gregarious, exhibit nothing whatever in 
the way of conjugal sympathy. It seems probable that males 
and females spend the greater portion of the year in separate 
retreats. The elder Brehm found in large collections of 
females not a single male (Brehm, i., .334), an.l Vogt among 
seventy males found but two females. (Mavwiu/Ui, i., 99.) The 
same sort of observation has now been so repeatedly made 
as to render the conclusion tolerably sure that the sexes are 
segregated during all the season of the winter sleep. Just 
before that time begins, if a male can catch a female, he 
satisfies his instinct, and all the males witlun hearing gather 
to do the same. 

Among the 117 genera of rodents we find a few in which 
there is some show of conjugal afi'ection, leading to a family 
life of tolerable duration. The female squirrel, according to 
Brehm (ii., 416), collects in March some ten or a dozen males 
around her, which court her goodwill and fight among them- 
selves for her favour She makes her selection generally of 
the stoutest combatant. The others depart and then begins a 
strictly monogamous union, the couple clinging to eacli^other 
with a^ strong attection. Long after the young are born, the 
father is still there, assisting in their defence, and sharing their 
eai-ly gambols. When they are weaned, he still remains to 
assist them, and then both parents make ready for a second 
brood. It very frequently happens that the two families are 
united, and they may be seen passing overhead among the 
branches in a long ami .-portive train, often a dozen or more 
in number. Unitedly they lay by in autumn their winter 
store of nuts, but, ere the spring has come, the family is dis- 
persed, each forgotten of the otlier, and with the advent of 
March comes anew the period of mating. 

i\. !: 


! T 

l< I 

I f/ 


p.ich vear This, however, seems to be the habit ot n ost 
tir Beave.. nuee, rats, f ^^^^s a^uti. .^rbo^ -^^^ 
forth all have a more or less a,stinctly tamily hie, with sonie 
ittle t n eriiess of atiection between the sexes at pairing 
^ea on but in every case it seems likely that the care ot the 
T Z left entirely to the female, and in very tew is it 

^^"l" 1 hat the miion ksts for more than a brief season. 
Si;rl' L ,52;^ that if. out of the breeding period, a 
hamster me^ts a female he bites her dead, even though 
;;:^V n:::r rio before 1. Uved .^h lier in Oie .m. 
hurrow and helped her to tend the same brood. Fion wlucn 
iT^iLly Jppe- that the s,uiri.l ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
kindlier life, and the reason is plain why t s able to old it 

and so appear to be also the lynx and ^^^j^^^^J^^^ 
1 T 1 ll.-.,v (r>,f,v to :SfiuI>i of Mavumlia, p. aOf)) state Uiat 
t^'l^tul t dt t^ lio-s/ by an atiection that outlets 
the Zing season, and there are many corroborations ol t^ 
as ertion (tor instance Andersson's Lion and El^knnf, p. 40 
Thev cer ainly fight at times, and I have noted numerous 
^ :^^^in lions, tigers, or bears, confined m menageri^s^ 
We kiU-1 tlieir mates. In Nature (xv., 70) is record^l a 
t^ J^t n a bear deliberately drowned his partn^, hiding 
W l" d under water m a trough till life was extinct. \ e 
" te ^" these outbursts of savage fury, it is rue enough that 
^^ w\akes pleasure in a nuiet coniugal -^f^^^^ 
««o«, Lion a.! miun.L p. MO.) Ur t.e ic uieuu^, ^- 
says (i., 560) "in the summer months one seldom sees 






neH are 
snjjth of 
r afresh 
of most 
, and so 
th some 
e of the 
few is it 
t season, 
period, a 
11 thouji'h 
the same 
iin which 
)pier and 
, hold its 
ter. Not 
e credited 
ion which 

pecies, the 
iiiinself as 
Mnpel her. 

his mate, 
[. Flower 
I state that 
at outlasts 
ions of the 
ant, p. 40). 


recorded a 
ler, holdin;T 
ict. Yet in 
;nough that 
ty. (Ander- 
iion, Brchui 
lorn sees it 



alone, but almost always in the company of its family. The 
male goes first and the female follows, while the young ones 
close in the rear, the whole troop winding out and in like a 
long snake." Species of the dog, cat, or marten trib(-s which 
are record'^i to hunt at all seasons in pairs may be assumed to 
be amongst those whose unions are monogamous and tolerably 
permanent. After this vague fashion, I calculate that perhaps 
a ([uarter of the carnivores display a moi'e or less sympathetic 
attachment of the sexes. 

The ungulates are very rarely monogamous, and therefore 
it is hard to distinguish in their case between conjugal and 
social sympathy. For in almost all species the males and 
females keep togetlier throughout the year, l)ut in such 
numbers that the affection of mated pairs would be lost in the 
general amiability of the herd. Nevertheless, as the males 
always occupy the post of danger, and are resolute in defence 
of the females, as well as of the young, they have an instintt 
at least somewhat analogous to that now treated of, and 
equally preservative. For if the chance wdiich the calf 
possesses of reaching maturity is greatlj' increased b}- the 
devotion of the motlier, much more will it be increased 
when there are added thereto the powerful weapons and 
furious courage of the father. 

Yet there are great discrepancies. In general, the boar 
remains with the sow long after the season of intercourse, and 
lu is gallant in defending both her and her litter. ( Vogt, ii., 67.) 
Yet the wart-hogs generally wander singly, leaving the sows 
to go in herds of eight or ten along with their young ones. 
(Blandford, Gcvl. (aid Zoo/, nf Ahjissiiiin, p. 241.) 

There are antelopes, sucli as the koodoo, in which the bucks 
herd alone, and the does also alone through the greater part 
of the year ; yet the majority of antelopes li\e in polygamous 
but permanent union. Sometimes a single buck (Jerdon, 
MammaU of India) will attach no than thirty does to him- 
self. It is by no means the ideal state, for when ottspring 
appear, there is but the one powerful male to defend a large 
crowd of the comparatively helpless. Yet many sorts of deer 
are monogamous, and, even Aviiere the buck has two ov three 
•loes, he seems to be thciir companion throughout life. At 

' ; i 

'1 : 






least it is recorded of the roebuck, of C'crvus campestris, of the 
reindeer, of some <?azelles, and of the sassa and harnessed 
antelopes that the mated pairs remain in conjugal attachment 
all the year round, thouj,* the period of sexual excitement is 

Conjugal Feeling in Birds. 

But nowhere among mammals, so clearly as among birds, 
can we trace the tendency to the formation of stable moiH)- 
gamous unions. Of the very lowest orders exhibit 
abundant instances of charming tenderness of feeling between 
the sexes. It is true that there are many discrepancies. But 
in the main, the birds are characterised by a conjugal sympathy 
that has no doubt been an element in securing lor them their 
world-wide profusion. Certainly they needed it more, for 
whilst the hatching of the egg required the almost con.stant 
presence of one pai-ent, the co-operation of the other must 
have been of the greatest importance. 

The lowest of the birds, the ostrich order, show less than 
any other this interesting feature ; and yet perliaps they are 
quite on a level with any of the mammalia yet discussed, for 
males and females live in small herds amicably all the year 
round, and unite to some extent in the hatching and rearing 
of the young. Some are monogamous, in otlier cases the male 
gathers to himself a group of two or three females. Among 
the swimming birds, most are monogamous, and there is often 
a great att'ection between the sexes. Swans seem always to 
pair for life, and they are noted for their mutual tenderness 
and tidelity. Geese, ducks, terns, gulls, and others are known 
to mate with a devoted attachment, and Audubon describes 
how assiduously the pelicans strive to make themselves 
agreeable to their mates, {('niith. JJiof/niitlii/, iii., 381.) 

In the succeetling order, the wading birds, out of 223 
genera thei'e are sixty-seven wliich matf for life in pairs that 
are unfailingly tender to eacli other. Among these are the 
plover, the Hms, the spoonl)ill, the stork, tin; screamer, and the 
jacana. Yet there are left .some seventy per cent, of this 
order whicli are polygamous, and therefore approaching less to 


is, of the 
tement is 

ng birds, 
ble mono- 
s exhibit 
r between 
iies. But 
lem their 
more, for 
t constant 
,her must 

• less than 
they are 
:!us8e(l, for 
1 the year 
id rearinj^ 
s the male 
I. Among 
re is often 
always to 
are known 
I describes 

ut of 223 
pairs that 
3se are the 
iv, and the 
ut. of this 
ling less to 



our ideal of 

conjugal union. This is the case also with the 
whole of the gallinaceous order. It is well known how 
polygamous are fowls and pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, 
grouse, partridges, (juails, and so forth. In all these, the 
mother has no reason whatever to rely on her mate either 
for assistance in rearing her brood, or for defence against an 

But from the level of the pigeons upward, the display of 
conjugal ati'ection among birds is most striking. It is a matter 
of popular knowledge liow devoted are the doves in their 
wedded life. Each male is mated to a single female; his 
loving attentions are not contined to the seasons of sexual 
desire, but continue unabated all the year round. He assists 
in building the rude nest ; he feeds her while she broods ; he 
relieves her at times in her monotonous task, and when the 
young are hatched the group forms a pretty family picture, 
the father being as solicitous in all parental cares as is the 
mother. Darwin tells us that in a large proportion of cases 
the unions are broken only by the death of one. 

The great majority of the higher birds are monogamous, 
and a very considerable proportion of them form unions that 
are lifelong. Wherever this occurs we may be sure that upon 
the fundamental pas.jion of the sexes for each other there has 
been superimposed a more disinterested feeling of loving 

Among all the smaller birds of the finch and sparrow 
types, the male and female a happy time together in the 
days of their nest construction ; and in the season of brooding 
the male pours forth tumultuous floods of tuneful emotion. 

Iiove gives it energy, love gave it birtli. 

He assists in feeding the young, and remains the ardent lover 
till, when summer is past, parents and offspring join the 
general throng, and the pretty family life is merged m th^ 
life of the flock. 

There are many iiundreds of species of which repeated 
instances have been recorded to show that a sick bird is 
nnv.sed and fod by its mate, and that its death i.s folluwud by 
the difjconsolate mourning, often by the steady decline and 



f ! 

M 1^ 

decease, of the bereaved partner. Gra}' (p. 2!»2) relates how 
he noticed a pair of birds always toj^ether, and for a year 
observed the attentiveness of one to the other. He shot them 
both, and then found that the female, though her lower 
mandible had long been torn away, so that she was incajiable 
of feeding, was plump and fat. The conclusion he drew was 
that, for a year and more, the male, like a faithful comrade, 
had fed her well and assiduously. Bishop Stanley (p. 228) 
relates a pathetic stoiy of the love of a female sparrow for 
her mate. In another place he tells of a female wagtail 
which, through some mistake, had been induced to build her 
nest and lay her eggs within a brass foundry. The male, 
afraid of a lathe that worked near by, and the din of 
hammers, never ventured in, but brought her food for her all 
the same, leaving it upon the roof, week after week. Absence 
had here not interfered with attection, the bodily thrill of 
sexual endearments was no element in his motive, but his 
zealous labours must have been the outcome of a loving and 
self-sacrificing devotion. 

But this is the normal line of conduct pursued year after 
year by the hornbill, which, when its mate has laid her eggs 
in a hollow tree, walls up the entrance with clay in order to 
exclude the varied pests so common in the Indian and African 
climates. He leaves a sort of buttery window, through which, 
with his beak, he pa.sses in her food, and that so assiduously 
for two or three months that while he is grown thin, she is so 
fat as to be esteemed by the natives a most dainty dish. 
(Livingstone, 3Iisfi. Travs., p. 613.") Woodward, speaking of 
the hornbills of the East Indies, says that the male wears 
himself to a skeleton in feeding his wife and her young 
one. (Xaturalist amorKj fhe HctuUinnfer.<, p. S4.) Livingstone 
describes the extreme affection of the mated pair, and relates 
that, when a male hornbill was shot, the female for five days 
hovered round with plaintive calls, anxiously striving to per- 
suade her beloved to join her. She ate nothing, and died, as 
Living.stone supposes, of grief. 

The bower birds (Pfi/onorhi/nrMna.') show great conjugal 
attachment, the male building his bower for the gratitication 
of his mate. The gardener bower bird is said by Dr. Beccari 



(quoted Romanes, Anuaa/ Intvllujnur, p. 825) to make .,uite a 
^'ardeu in front oftlie bower, and thitlier lie daily I)rin<,^s moss 
and buds and brilliant berries as orterin<rs to the mistress of his 

Brehn tells of a grosbeak (Piiucu/n enudeafor) which 
voluntarily crept under a net wherein its mate liad been 
captured, braving the dread presence of man in order to be 
near its unhappy consort. {Fo,/,/, i., 815.) But indeed he 
speaks of the conjugal life of the grosbeaks in general as 
being marked by much that is self-sacrificing in the highest 
degree. J remember on one occasion, when I wished tf) ascer- 
tain the weight of a yellow-breasted honeysucker, I caught 
one of a pair, tied lis legs lightly together with cotton, and 
laid it in a pan of the scales, when it e.scaped, and at a Hash 
riittetl out through an open window, taking refuge in a clump 
of cypress. At the first chirp its mate Joined it, and the 
solicitude of the little thing at seeing the plight of its consort 
was most afiecting. The shackled bird ccjuld escape being 
caught, yet fluttered rather helplessly from twig to twig 
When they were out of reach both pecked industriously at 
the thread, which eventually became entangled in the outer- 
most twigs of a lofty branch. Here for an hour and a half 
the prisoner was attended by its mate, which hopped round it, 
caressed it, encouraged it, often looking wistfully into its' 
eyes, whistling all the time a low and plaintive note. Their 
painful experiences were ended at length by the disentangle- 
ment of the feet from the thread, and ofl' they flew, as happy 
a pair of lovers as the air ever wafted U wanls their home. 

Brehm gives a picture of the often noticed ag(3ny of a 
linnet when its mate has been .shot {Vonrl. i., 298), and he 
asserts that woodpeckers of some .species droop and pine av ,iy 
after the ileath of their consorts. Of the reed titmice, he 
describes the "extraordinary" which always leads 
to the death of the second of a pair if its mate should die or 
be removed (i., 184). 

Audubon believed that the ivory-billed woodpeckers 
(Cnnipephi/iift) form unions which are lifelong. (Ornifi! V'or/., i., 
345.) Professor Ryiner Jones, on the authority of t . Prince 

von Wied (ii., 153), declares that th 

e raven shrikes ( ilni,iim- 


I • 








^^91 t ^^^H 



hBI ^ '^^1 








II i^ 

f I 

phihis) are ho much attached to their luateH that each pair 
continues tofjether in unvaried atfeetion throu^diout their 
lives. Brehni, on tlie authority of his father, who watcheil 
them long and carefully, declares that the ravens are united 
in most devoted couples," which, once paired, remain together 
in lifelontr fidelity". {Vihjd, i., 428.) The whole parrot class 
of birds are said to be monogamous, and to form but the one 
union for life. As I write, the pai-akeets (Plati/cercus), in the 
late autumn, flit past the window as they did in the spring, 
always in pairs. All the year round one may easily notice 
how, even when a nmltitude are plundering the same fruit- 
tree, each pair is distinguishable from every other, and as this 
is without the least break in the long interval between the 
breeding seasons, ,' i- easy to infer that, in the main, their 
unions are perm).v..i ;:r,. So it is said to be always possible in 
a flock of coclraiu.: , U> pick out by their mutual attentiveness 
those which form Vi.uided pairs. 

Dr. Franklin's ae> ount of the care of a caged parrot for 
his mate, which was slowly dying of a gouty swelling of the 
legs, the utter dejection he displayed and yearning solici- 
tude to be of service, his unhappiness after her death, and 
his subsequent rapid decline, is in itself most touching, 
and has this great value, that the well-known competency 
of the observer removes any fear of a sentimental misinter- 

Owls, though the love-match is less permanent, show a 
very tender attachment, which at least outlasts the breeding 
season. The flycatcher, the babbler, the bulbul, and scores of 
others, have been often the subject of eulogies founded on 
their sympathetic conjugal relations. Even the birds of prey, 
unsocial and rapacious though they be, may claim the 
credit of being not only careful parents but most attectionate 
spouses. Almost all of them seem to pair for life ; the very 
vultures, whatever of horror and disgust their habits cause us 
to associate with their names, form their true love matches, 
which nothing but death can sever. Brehm says of a 
Brazilian species (Po/i/hornx rnlfiarin) : " The closely united pair 
live throughout the year in strict companionship, and if a 
flock of them be seen, the mates can at once be distinguished 



by their mutual «levotioii". {Voijii, iii., 412.) So also 
Audubon .says of the white-headed ea;,de {OniUh. Hiiy., i., 
lOG) : " The mutual attachment which two individuals form 
M'hen they first pair .seems to continue till one of 
perishes ", 

The bii'ds, therefore, as a class are most honourably dis- 
tinguished by conjujral devotion, and ol a lari,'e proportion of 
them the words are literally true which Shelley addresses to 
the skylark — 

Thou lovest, but no'cr knew love's sad satiety, 
for their atiection never wearies until life itself be .spent. 

Conjugal Feeling among the Higher Mammals. 

Amont^ the mammals, as we have seen, it is not till we 
reach the hijrhest species that we have any approximation to 
this nobler conjugal attachment. Of the pro.simians, too little 
is known to enable us to judge of their character in this 
respect. The people of Madagascar, according to Brehm (i., 
274), a.ssert that the male of the lemur joins his mate in the 
nurture and defence of their single otispring, and if this be 
truly the case it supplies the greater of the two advantages of 
■conjugal sympathy. It is likely enough that .something of 
the kind is usual, for it i^ known to be the habit of their near 
allies, the marmosets or s([uirrel-monkeys of South America. 
Male and female roam the forest with their little one beside 
them, which remains at all times closest to its mother, but at 
the slightest cry of pain or danger the father hurries up to 
join the pair. (Brehm, i., 258; Vogt, i., 71.) of the 
monkey class, however, are polygamous, the strongest male 
gathering round him quite a group of females. With these 
his union is perennial, and although the condition is not 
wholly our ideal, he shows some resolution in the defence of 
his wives. He never leaves the motluM- single-lianded to 
suckle, carry, and defend the little one. Of the males, as of 
the females, the w^rds of Brehm are true (i., 40): "In one 

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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 










H'l'^ l ii ■ "■ 


point they are all most ilistin^'uished — in their love towards 
their otisprin^f and in their compassion towards weakness or 
tender years ". The conju^avl life of the monkeys is not 
characterist 1 by that simple, earnest, whole-souled devotion 
which forms so touching a feature of the higher birds. It. 
has its moods, its whims, its playfulness, winch is often pro- 
vocative and sometimes malicious, yet it stands far higher 
than that of the lower birds — higher, for instance, than that, 
which we see in the poultry-yard. It is good so far as it 
goes, and serves the groat purpose of uniting the parents iu 
the service of their offspring, though, of course, in polygamous- 
communities the paternal care is a much divided (juantity. It. 
will rarely happen, however, that one male will have half a 
dozen offspring under his care at the same time, and w^e may 
easily imagine that if lit takes upon himself the duties of 
scout and guide and guardian, leaving to the females a 
freer time in their attentions to the young, he serves a 
useful purpose in the economy of his race. 

Yet even these lower monkeys are not always poly- 
gamous. Darwin asserts that " some of the Indian and 
American monkeys are strictly monogamous, and a.ssociate all 
the year round with their wives ". {Descent of Man, p. .590.) 
Houzeau is very explicit in his statement that the wanderoo 
of Ceylon (Muckcuh sihnmn) " has only one female, and is 
faithful to her till death ". (Quoted Letourneau, Eculution of 
M((rri((i/c, p. 38.) It is difficult to say how an observer can be 
positive in regard to such an a.sHertion, for Brehm states that, 
of the free life of this species practically nothing is known ; 
but as it is often tamed by the Cingalese, who keep the 
wanderoos in considerable numbers, Houzeau may have 
reasoned to a just conclusion from observations made on 
captive specimens. As all monkeys, however, are strongly 
preilisposed to artection, we may without rashness believe 
that, whether polygamous or not, the sexes are united by 
sympathies which are tolerably distinct from the sexual pas- 
sion, and there are many records of cases in which monkeys 
have died of grief after the loss of a well-loved spouse. 

As we pass upw.""' ' into the family (jf the anthropoid apt's, 
we find the father taking a still more prominent part in the 


<!arc of the oHsprin^^, an.l the tendency to mono^ran.v is 
Uiulouhted. The lowest .,uus, the ^^il.I.ons, thouo-h .een as 
a rule m troops of from six to a iunidretl, o-uiJo.l by a 
powerful ohl nuile, seen, to he united in pairs that live 
amicably to-.-ther, the male takinj,. a tender share in the 
nursing- of the youn^-. Hartmann states (Anf/nvpold Apr, p 
2o4) that the wau-wau (ILM'^tcs asjili.) "appears more com- 
monly to live in pairs thaii in troops"; and Lieutenant 
Crospiffny states (Roi/. Gau,. Sue. Prorre,lnu,s, Jan., 1872) that 
It this species is foun.l in a small herd, there are irenerallv 
present a father, a mother, and two or three youn.r ones of 
various ages. It has already been shown that thisls partly 
true of tlie orang-outang also, though the males a-ul females of 
this species more generally live apart, meeting each other on 
the moonlight nights. (Rajah l^rooke's JoHmah i 997 ) Carl 
Vogt says {MannnaHa, i., 34) that the chimpanzee roams in 
families consisting of father, mother aii<l cliih], these families 
•sometimes nniting in troops. The father builds a seat of 
boughs on :,ome high trees, whereon he watches over wife 
and child, and if they are attacked will use his teeth an.l 
arms vigorously in defence of those to which he is so warmly 
attached. "^ 

Of the gorilla, Hartmann thus summarises the scattered 
accounts of travellers (p. 220) : " The gorilla lives in a society 
consisting of a male, a female, and their young of various 
ages . But Savage, 111 his Descnptim of Tro^jlodyirs Gorilla 
speaks of a family as consisting of two or more females with 
their young, all grouped round a single old male, which how- 
ever, is the champion for the .lefence of all. Du ChaiUu s-ems 
inconsistent in his two accounts. In his AsJumja huvl he 
speaks of groups of several females and their youn-r 
without any full-grown male. But in his Equuiorhd Afrka 
(p. 349) he says that he found "almost always one male wit), 
one female ". The observer had of course to describe what he 
saw and perhaps the variations of the season might account 
foi- the .htterence. Koppenfels asserts that the gorilla dwells 
with wife and children, mounting guar.l over them at night 
He once observed a family at their meal. The father, .sad to 
relate, sat at hi.'' - -- 

ease, while his wife and two childr 


{ i 

II |; : 



t , 

! 1; 




plucked the berries for him to eat. If they took any (jjreat 
.share for themselves he growled or even struck them. He 
had the ideas of the good old house-father among men. 

h ' 


Conjugal Feeling among Savages. 

When we pass into the lower ranks of savage life we find 
a certain degree of improvement. For of all it may be uni- 
formly asserted that males and females spend their lives 
together ; that their unions are in the main monogamous and 
comparatively permanent; and that the father and mother 
are united by the loving care which they bestow upon their 
otispring. There is but the one exception alleged to the 
universal applicability of this description in the case of the 
lower savages. It is very often said that the Andaman Islanders 
consider the union of the sexes to be terminated by the birth 
of a child, and that the man and woman thereafter form 
fresh connections. This statement has passed cui-rent on the 
authority of Sir Edward Belcher, but as he alone, out of the 
eight writers whose descriptions I have read, I'ep this 

circumstance, the others, some of whom lived lori the 

islands, not so much as referring to it, I suppose it must be 
taken as a case of some sort of mal-observation, perhaps a 
hasty generalisation. For as there is neither law nor guiding 
principle among savages upon that level, their conduct is apt 
to be loose, their unions will often show much want of 
stability, and will rarely be of life-long permanence. Thus 
when tried by our standard their customs shock us, their 
unions seeming looser perhaps even than the connections so 
readily made and unmade in the slums of our own great 
cities ; yet they are probably stable in comparison with the 
sexual attachments formed by any of the lower animals, save 
only the higher birds. 

In the lowest savage life, not the remotest vestige of the 
idea of chastity is to be found. The gratification of an 
instinct is simply a natural process that has in it neither good 
nor evil. The young folks of a tribe, as soon as they reach 
the age of puberty, satisfy their awakening passions so far as 


ever tliey may: nor is there any Inn.lrance except that whicli 
comes from tlie interference of the ohler an.l stron.a>r n.en 
who m ,lue course appropriate the frirls to themselves. But 
in the very lowest sava.^es even this cle^ree of restraint is 
comparatively n.operative. The young indulge in a pro- 
m:scuou.s intercourse which, in its licence and constant 
Km iftcation soon loses its early keenness of attraction, and 
settles down to the level of a routine want 

Even so, among ourselves, the gay young man. after his 
years oi unchaste revel, wlien all the poetry and beauty of 
love have been trampled in the mire of riot, seeks in marHa^e 
only a quieter, les,s exciting, les.s expensive method of securin-. 
tliat gratification which has grown stale at the old price If 
not wholly last to better feeling, he may appreciate the"com- 
panion,s up of a wife; he may feel that, after all, the ol.l life 
was a lonely life, and may find a genuine pleasure in the 
new charms of a restful household sympathy. 

Something of the sort oe-irs in the lowest sava-e life 
when, after the period of free-love, a mutual inclination 
makes a special pair gravitate towards each other. This is 
constantly promoted by the birth of the first child when the 
cares of motherhood make the woman less anxious for the 
vanity of fascinating new lovers ; while the man, in most 
races, drawn by the natural sympathy for infancy and tlie 
wiles of baby years, lends himself readily enough to the com- 
iort of a family life. Moreover, there are other motives in 
action. The man secures a slave and an attendant, while the 
woman secures a protector, a matter of no little importance in 
a society wherein is no law, and where the only chance of 
justice IS to be strong enough, or to have a friend strong 
enough, to take one's part. ^ 

There is, however, no abstract appreciation of monogamy 
When a man can get a second wife, he never hesitates to take 
her, unless he finds the family thereby made uncomfortable 
Me has no great compunction in changing an old wife for a 
new. On the other hand, if a woman finds two men willing 
to live m harmony with her, both as husbands, there is not 
the smallest feeling against the arrangement. If they can 
manage happily amongst themselves, it is nobody's concern 










but their own. Hence poly<riiniy i.s common onou^'li, poly- 
andry occasional, among savaijes. 

Neither, however, is systematic till a hioher grade is 
readied: they occur as accidental variations in a general 
condition of monogamy, which is entirely natural. For the 
numbers of the two sexes being eijual, one man could not 
secure a second wife without depriving another man. Superior 
strength and courage miglit enal)le him to do so, but as the 
sexual impulse is one of overmastering power in savaces, the 
defrauded man would not settle down tamely to years of 
unwilling bachelorhood. Restless attempts now on this hand 
and again on tliat would disturlj the peace of the tribe. The 
man with more than one wife would have at all times to 
mount guard over thein. He would be less imperiously urged 
to retain them hoth than the other man to secure one of 
them. It is easy, therefore, to see that in a society wherein 
neither wealth nor distinction of rank could give one man the 
aid of other men's liands in securing for him a monopoly 
against the general interests, there could be no great pre- 
valence of polygani}'. 

The conjugal condition of the lower savages is in advance 
of that of the apes, but yet is (juite comparable with it. 
The Bushmen are entirely naked. (Barrow, Trurc/s in South 
Afrira.) Their women show not the slightest sense of the 
need of any covering, and their early licence of intercourse 
has caused some of their visitors to suppose that they had no 
.such institution as marriage. Lichtenstein considers them to 
be witliout the faintest idea of the distinction between maid 
and wife. Yet we learn from later travellers (Chapman, 
Trnrcl.'< in South Africa, i., p. 258) that there is much affection 
in their unions, which are in general monogamous, though an 
old man will often cast oti" liis early wife and take a younger 
one. The Rev. Mr. Ca.salis says that "they demand from 
their wives the strictest fidelity, and punish pitilessly any 
infraction of the conjugal law". {My JAj'e in Bd.mto Land, p. 
157.) Galton tells us that the women have no little influence, 
the husband always consulting his wife in matters of any 
concern. {South Africa, chap, vi.) 

In regard to the negrito races, Sir C. B, Flower states 


that "they are all monogamous, and reputed to be faithful to 
the n,arna«-e tie" {Antln-op. L,4., xviii., p. 80): an.l although of a free character is conunon auL, ^^^ 
o ks, ye , according to Earl, the ne^rito of the Philippines 
(^at^ve Mace, of tkr Indian Arrhiprlago, p. 1:38) " has only 

the Malay Archipelago, who rove in absolute nakedness both 
men and women, sleeping in nests among the trees, or under- 
neath a breakwind of boughs, are said to have no formal 
marriage system ; a ^ouple whose inclinations are towards one 
ano her keep in each other's company. They have no notion 
of decency, gratifying their sexual impulses without reserve 
as they arise, before the general gaze. (John Bradley, 7Vave/ 
and Sport m Burmah, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula, p 29.5 ) 
Yet their unions are understood to be fairly permanent, and 
they almost always occur between one man and one woman 
(Wesurmarck, Hist, of Human Marriage, p. 436.) 

The Andaman Islanders, according to Owen {Trans. Ethno. 
^00 11., p. 35), have no .sense of any indecency in the open 
intercourse of the sexes. After attaining the age of puberty, 
the girls are used for indiscriminate gratiHeation, the only 
restriction being that fathers must not so approach their 
daughters. Mouat (Bo;/. Geog. Soc, 1802. p. 122) gives the 
same description, stating that after the age of about twelve 
years, the girls are enjoyed by the tribe in common, till each 
torms a predilection for some particular man. when a little 
ceremony unites her exclusively to him. Owen however 
says that there is no rite, nor anything but the simple 
cohabitation of the pair. Mouat tells us that " the wives are 
said to be faithful to their husbands," while Owen makes the 
more careful statement that the wife is expected to have no 
further amatory intrigues, but to bestow her favours only 
upon her husband or at his direction. Yet the men take but 
one wife each, and never marry outside of their own tribe. (E 
ti. Man, Journ. Anthrop. Institute, xii., p. 135 ) 

The Brazilian and Guiana tribes," according to Bates 
{^aturahst on the. Amazon, p. 305). allow the girls to lead r. 
short career of before their marria^re and TXalton 
(1., 80)^says that " chastity is not considered an indispensable 

j^ \\^^^ 



iiii it 




'i u 

U I 

virtue anionffst the unmarried women," while Waitz declares 
(iii., p. 382) that the Caribs " put no value on the chastity of 
unmarried women ". Wallace de.scribe.s the women as abso- 
lutely naked ; the marriajfes are etlected without any sort of 
ceremony, but in {general a man has but one wife (Trtirrls on 
the Amazon, chap, xvii.), and she is as a rule faithful to liim. 
The Rev. Mr. Brett (Iiu/ian Tribes of Guiana, p. 98) j^ives to 
the men also a good character for conjugal kindness, saying 
that they are faithful and attached to their wives. Polygamy 
is by no means unknown, but it is somewhat rare. 

Of the Fuegians, Fitzroy tells us (ii., p. 182) that pro- 
miscuous intercourse prevails to some extent. It is clear 
from all accounts that men and women are absolutely naked, 
but that they form permanent unions, which are mainly 
monogamous. Darwin, it is true, alludes in passing to the 
" universal privilege in this country of possessing two wives " 
{Naturalist's Voyage, p. 277), but this half-jocular expression is 
not to be too much pressed, for it would imply that females are 
tv/ice as numerous as males, of which there is small probability. 

In regard to the Ainus of Japan, A. H. Savage Landor 
asserts that " their marriage customs seem to be summed up 
in unqualilied promiscuity, the Ainu disclaiming any idea of 
being better than bears or dogs ". {Nature, xlvii., 330.) Yet 
Batchelor tells us {The Aitiu of Japan) that the girl at sixteen 
or seventeen settles on .some youth of her choice to be her 
lifelong mate. No one interferes with the wishes of the 
young folk, and a marriage feast is always made. Mossman 
regards the sexes as being faithful to the tie thus formed, 
husband and wife being very companionable the one to the 
othei'. Though there is no law or custom which forbids 
polygamy, it occurs but rarely. Divorce generally follows, 
however, if the wife is childless. 

The Tasmanians, who as a naked race, without homes, and 
ignorant of any but the rudimentary arts, represented 
humanity on one of its lowest levels, were accustomed to the 
general promiscuity of young girls before their marriage, 
which was nothing more than mere appropriation by some 
particular man. (Bonwick, p. 38.) A widow was the common 
property of all the young fellows of the tribe until she 





remaiTiod (Br()u<rh Smvtho ai ■ ■ 

virtue of hi. ^i,, ((!Sa: r ;'r'V7;r>^- ^'^ -^ the 

mono-ramous; for thou-.], idiii -u ir. T' ^''^P'^' ^^'^''^ 

early voyagers took it 1^0,.;:'' '"*' '"^"" ^^' '^'^ 
state that they were poly^. ,t , " " ^"''^ '"'^P^'^*'"" 'o 
who .spoke fVorn lenSn "■.""' ""T ''''''' "'•■^-•^^-^ 
a different opinion. CaZ^^-'T^ ^"'" ^^'"' °^' '•"'te 
«ay.s that polygan^y wa un ^''^^ «/ ^«^^'««n.V,, p.' ,5) 

■same uH.sertion. "^ ^^ " J<'s»>anuo.s, p. 71) n.ake.s the 

The Au.stralian.s, who were n u- > . 
almo,st all indulged in a verv ' ^ ^^^'' '" ^'evelopn.ent, 

generally .ono^a.ous uZfl? ^0^"'" ^'''''''' ^' 
tlieir initiation into manhood the , 7 ''"^ '"°"*'''^ '-^^"^er 
unbounded licence -iru] l\ •^''"*''' '^'"'''^ allowed an 

to the youn, un ^ar ^ ^^T T T ''^ '^''^"^« ^^^^-^S 
women joined in their aklnelrr""' ''""• ^^^^ --' 
and it was in „.any tr bes ' e " o ''' ' " '"''"'"' '"""' 
boree that a number ^ LniT^t;!; 17^ '^ ^""'' ^^'■^•^^'^■ 
way off from the dance to winch th " '''"^ ' ^'''^' 

retire in the intervals to enVvtl. ""T""' ^"^'" ^""^^ 
Sniythe, ii., 319.) -'"^ "^'^^ S'^'' embraces. (Brough 

possible weight, .sp'eats f he al T""'^ ^'^ ^'^'^'^^^^'^^ 
relations among tribes in the r • ? ^ of .sexual 
or heard of a wliite Ta til Ih " "^^^^^^^^ '''''' ^^^^ --r seen 
'^e says, "i« universal tat sir ^^^ " ^^^ ^"^tom," 

-omen given to them' "s an 1 I" "''^ '"^^ ' ^ribe have 

fi-litmo.sttrouble.someand ofte/lT^'^^^ ' "'^^^ *- 
•making the black fellow; unders .T ^'''' ^"ffi^-^lty in 

t^eir women.- (BrougirL;! t" On ' T '" "°* ^^'^"^ 
writer more explicitly describes « . /" P" '^^ *^^ ^^^ne 
cuity among the Aust; LTs \ wo "^"'''^*"^ P^'^^^^ 

'"an, but she has numerous otho. T '' ""''''''^ *« «"« 

a Piraura, and each Tntiril ^^'""f-^"''^'^^"^''^' '^'^ called 

certain festivals (p. 6^ t thL"" ""''" ""' ''''''"^'^ 
iP- 0-) at which one woman is chosen to be 

r^ .: 




i 1 

!1 ! 


t ! 


used I'or the intercourse of every luiui and lad who is present. 
The ^'reat preservative power of that idea of chastity whicli is 
of suhseciuent development is well seen in this paper. Howitt 
tells us that in spitt; of much care taken to obviate all cause of 
quarrel, it is precisely out of these loose sexual relations tliat 
nearly all the feuds arise which so much weaken and reduce 
the tribes. 

In the very earliest days of Victoria a commission was 
appointeil to inquire into the condition of the aborii^inals. It 
printed a scheihilc of ([uestions, one of which ran thus : " Is 
chastity cultivated among the women ?" Fourteen fjentlemen, 
missionaries, protectors of aborifijines, and pastoralista of well- 
known respectability replied to this question. Twelve of 
them bluntly answered that the women had no conception 
of chastity. One stated that within their own tribes the 
women recognised limitations, and showed some indications 
of modesty, but that they never refused the solicitations of a 
wliite man. The fourteenth, wlio was well known as a fervid 
champion of the blacks, being the chief of the stati" of pro- 
tectors, could not go further than the weak assertion that 
" chastity is to a certain extent cultivated ". 

In the House of Commons papers for 1844 will be found 
some 350 printed pages of reports, memoranda, and letters 
gathered by the standing connnittee appointed in regard to 
the treatment of aborighials in the Australian colonies. All 
these have the same unlovely tale to tell of an absolute in- 
capacity to form even a rudimentary notion of chastity. One 
worthy missionary, who had been for some years settled 
among tribes of New South Wales, as yet brought in contact 
with no other white men, writes with horror of what he had 
observed. " The conduct of the females, even young children, 
is most painful ; they are cradled in prostitution and fostered 
in licentiousness." Brough Smythe (ii., 240) quotes several 
authorities who record that in Western Australia the women 
in early youth were almost prostitutes. 

Monogamy Prevails in Savage Life. 
Yet along with all this licence monogamy prevailed. Curr 
states that while " individuals might occasionally have two or 

'f 1 



is prcsont. 
y wliicli is 
•. H(j\vitt 
ill cause of 
tions that 
md rudiico 

ission was 
,nnalH. It 
thus: "Is 
ts of well- 
rwolve of 
tribes the 
iitions of a 
iiH a fervid 
iti" of pro- 
irtion that 

1 be found 
ind letters 

regard to 
Dnies. All 
bsolute in- 
itity. One 
ars settled 

in contact 
lat he had 
g children, 
id fostered 
tes several 
the women 

,iled. Curr 
lave two or 


even three wives, yet the rule was to have only one ". In his 
more elaborate work (J»sfra/un, Jiarr, ii.. H)6) the same 
writer most clearly imlicates that pt)lyoam\- was i^are The 
Rov. iMr. Schiirmann says of the South Australian blacks that 
"they fre-iuently sent their wives out to other parties or 
exchange.1 them for a night with a friend. As for near r'ela- 
tives, such as brothei-s, it may almost be said that they 
have their wives in commcju ". (A'afirc Tnhe, of South 
Australia, p. 223.) Eyre speaks of "the almost unlimited 
intercourse between the sexes". In a note wherein the in- 
delicate details are veiled in Latin, he describes conclusive 
facts on which this sweeping generalisation is based. Ujls- 
covcnes, ii., p. 820.) Woods (Native Tribes of South An,trnlu,) 
declares that the young man, up to the age of about Hve- 
and-twenty, had to content him.self with the gratification 
arising from any opportunities that occurred for^reneral in- 
tercourse. But so soon as he had a sister or any other female 
relative to ofier in exchange it was possible for him to secure 
a wife. All the writers who contribute to Woods's book con- 
sider that the old men had generally two or more wives. 

But though man in the rudest savagery has as yet 
acquired no notion of the virtue of chastity, still, amid the 
licence of unlimited indulgence there grows the natural pro- 
pensity to the of the family life: the wife as a 
helper, a companion, too often a .., .ulge, is a comfort to the 
hte of a man, as well as the mere instrument of his .a-atifica- 
tion Then there come with her the children, of whom in 
moderation, the savage is extremely fond. Time has the 
power with all of us to endear the places and persons that 
grow familiar with long and daily communion; hence in 
savage life a tie of affection tends to unite the mated pair 
already kept together by the common love of their offspring 
And the more this finer sympathy prevails, the more per- 
manent in consequence become the unions of the sexes • the 
better therefore is the care bestowed upon the young, and the 
less IS the tribe rent and weakened by those feuds which 
so often arise out of loose sexual relations. 
_ Among the higher savages we begin to find that the mat- 
ing of the sexes passes more under the control of something 


i ( ' 1 


■•■'t I 






I i f^ 'ii 
in ^-' 


If s 


like custoinary law. Tito inaidou Imudj,' a (Icsirahlo poHsoHsion, 
licr fatlicr Im'Coiuch awan' that lie can ;,'i>fc soiiiftliiii^i; for Iwr. 
Certainly it i.s not nmcli, lor in a race which neither tills the 
p'ouiiil nor (loiuesticate.M the u.sel'ul animals, there is little to 
exchan;^<'. At first it i.s merely woman for woman, hut by 
de^n-ees the parents learn to accept weapons, skins, or other 
commodities oi' savaije lii'e; at a later date, slaves, or in the 
barharian staj^je, cattle are ;;iven in exchan^^e. Tliis is the 
normal process of development, but it is varied by the con- 
stant capture of women where the chances of war may rer.der 
it possible. Each of these will be examined in detail in the 
followin;^ chapter; it is here necessary to notice only by 
dej^rees men and women no lonjfer merely drift into stable 
unions as t)io secpience of promiscuous jj^ratiHcation. 

And yet tlie decrees are very slow. The old animaldike 
fashion recedes in.sensibly before the tendency to a system 
which, thouf^h still i<j;nol)le, is at least more rejjular. Takinj>; all 
the races in order which are on tlie hitfher Havaj^e level, we 
find that amonj; the Nati;as of tlie hills of A.ssam there is 
" {jjreat moral laxity before marriaf:;e, but the very opposite 
after it". (Lieutenant-General Fytche, Ihtrmnh, i., 34r/.) The 
other aborif^inal tribes of India wliich are of the .same 
standard seem, according to the elaborate volumes of Watson 
and Kaye (Peapkn of Imlia), to- answer to the same description. 
Amonjf the Santals, for instance, " marriaj^e takes place 
chiefly in January. For six days all the candidates live 
in promi.-icuous concubinage, after which the wliole party 
pair ott'as man and wife." From that time forward, violation 
of the marriat^e fidelity is punished with tines. Amon<f the 
18,000,000 abori^nnals in India, there are very varyinjf 
deforces of civilisation, but there are only a fifth of the races 
in which there is any value set upon the chastity of a jj;irl 
before her marria<^e, and these are tlie races most att'ected by 
the admixture of the conquerors' blood or by the infiltration 
of their ideas. Among the lower races, all those on the level 
of Todas, Kurumbas, Kotas, and so fortli, laxity before 
iiiarriajfe and strictness after it seem to be the rule. Poly- 
gam}' is rare. 

For all the American races, as ah'eady indicated, the testi- 





inoijy is aiiiple. HiuicroFt {Nativi' Jince.% i., 65) sayn that lunoiij,' 
tlic Kskiiii()"iii()il('.sty (loos not cxiHt, chiiHtity is little n'j,'imlo<l, 
and a strai\;ft'r is always provided with a I'eniale companion 
lor the uiirht". Uichardsou (i., .SoO) found this practice u 
froquent annoyance. I'oly^'aniy is in no way prevented, hut 
is uncoinnioii. Of the Konia^jas, Jiancroft says (i., HO; that 
they have no idea of si'xual morality, nor is female chastity 
at all regarded. An ur.married ;,rirl lives a life of the most 
beast-like freedom, hut once she has been purchased for the 
use of one man, she must never wander elsewhen; without his 
permission or command. The usual practice is that when a 
^'irl reaches the a;;e of puherty, the shaman or pritNst Hrst of 
all debauches her, and after her initiation in his end)races she 
soon learns to prostitute herself to the tribe until some bride- 
^n-oom otters to her fatln-r due payment for the exclusive 
possession of her. Poly;ramy is uncounnon ; but sometimes a 
man will purchase a second wife, and yet it is (piite as common 
for two men to club tof,'ether for the purchase of a sinj^le wife. 
Amonj,' the Creek Indians, as we learn fron> their friend 
and admirer Schoolcraft (v., 2'72), "simple fornication is no 
crime or reproach; the sexes indul<re theii propensities with 
each other promiscuously without secrecy or shame ". Lewis 
and Clarke, speaking of tribes who until their visit had never 
seen or heard of a white man (Tmvrls to the. I'arijir Ocean in 
1804), say that "the Indian women are of an amorous dis- 
position, and before they are married are not the less esteemed 
for the indulifonce of their passions. The young 'men com- 
monly spend their nights in the tents of the girls, who use an 
application of herbs to prevent conception" (p. 108). Yet 
they tell us that the Indian girls after a time form mono- 
gamic unions, and while their husbamls are little inclined to 
be jealous, the infidelity of a wife is rare (p. 46). 

Mackenzie, however, will not grant them the merit even 
of conjugal fidelity, for he says that "chastity is not con- 
sidered among the North American Indians as a virtue, nor is 
tidelity essential to the happiness of married lifo ". Among 
the Tinneh, dwelling to the west of Hudson's Bay, Bancroft 
tells us that the married women are tolerably chaste, but an 
unmarried girl is the willing partner in every excess till some 



i: if ! i 


I ' 

i: ' ^ ■'! 

I I 



I i 


j'oiiiifj man agrees to serve a year for her in her father's hut, 
after which slie is well behaved. Polyf;'aniy is not unknown, 
but it is rare. Among their neighbours the Thlinkeets, the 
women are by no means so lewd ; and those of the Aleuts are 
even less given to looseness in their unmarried state. Yet in 
both races men freely exchange their wives or lend them for 
a consideration. A wife is always purchased, and a man well 
enough oti' to buy two of tliem will tind no obstacle in the 
usages or ideals of the tribe, although in practice polygamy is 
a rare custom. 

Speaking of the Cherokee Indians, C. C. Jones tells us 
that " comparatively little virtue was shown by unmarried 
women. The chances that a girl might marry well were 
augmented if she had been a general favourite, but had 
avoided having children, during her years of general pleasure. 
Adulter}' in a wife was severely punished ; but a man, even 
though married, never had the remotest notion of self- 
restraint." {Antiqnitk's of the Southcrib Indians, p. 69.) 

It would be tedious to follow the same sort of testimony 
through all the tribes of North America, for the few are 
samples of the many. Bancroft in his Native Eaccn (vol. i.) 
says of tribe after tribe, " chastity among unmarried women 
is unknown ; they are allowed the grossest licence ". Out of 
thirty-eight of these aboriginals, I lind it expressly recorded 
in the case of twenty-one, by men who knew them well, that 
unlicensed sexual intercourse is allowed the unmarried girls, 
with whom all the men, married or unmarried, have constant 
intrigues. In all of these the loan of wives to honoured 
visitors is a usual custom ; the exchange of wives, either 
temporarily or perman3ntly, is very general ; and the sale of 
the use of wives or daughters is too common to excite sur- 
prise. Of the remaining seventeen cases, most are excluded 
because I have found it impossible to obtain express informa- 
tion ; but in only four out of the thirty-eight do I find it 
recortled that a girl was better esteemed when she remained 
of unspotted purity until her marriage. Among the savage 
races of Central and South America the record is practically 
the same. 

Yet polygamy is rare. In his smaller work {The Indian in 




his^ IVu/wam, p. 73) Sclioolcraft ,sa}-,s " poly;i,riuny is found 
chiedy wlioro food in alnindant, Ixit even there it is scarcely 
reputable ". It occasionally happens that a chief has four or 
five wives, but in (reneral the warriors of the tribe are too 
nearly on the same level of rank to suti'er that one should 
appropriate tive women and leave four men to <ro without. 

Tliere are other reasons why poly^ramy is uncommon in 
savage life. Where divorce is easy and exchange of wives 
usual enough, and unmarried girls held in conmion, there is 
no great incUicement for a man to purchase many wives. But 
the chief reason of all is .-imply the na^ vl tendency of the 
human race to drift into monogamous u .ion. An aftection, 
sweeter, calmer and more lasting than mere sexual impulse, 
grows up between husband and wife, and in the natural state, 
until interfered with by other causes, binds them together in 
a sympathy which neither tolerates a rival nor seeks to intro- 
duce one. 

Amusing instances are to be found in the descriptions of 
life among the Australian tribes, where a wife defies her 
husband to bring in a younger rival, and keeps a camp 
embroiled and embittered for weeks by her natural objec- 
tions. It is true the husband could always knock on the head 
the wife who interfered with his wishes, and often enough 
this was the means of ending the trouble, but then polygamy 
was over. And even savage man is not so much of a beast as 
to live for years with a woman without accjuiring in general 
some tlegree of household atiection for her. As a rule, the 
man who proposed to bring in another wife made every etibrt 
to placate the old woman and reconcile her to the innovation. 
He might succeed, but more often the unhappiness of his 
household would lead him to desist, and he would cultivate 
peace round his fire, easily finding variety, if he wanted it, 
without the accompaniment of daily quarrels, Schoolcraft 
gives a humorous description of the semi-apologetic air with 
which, among the North American Indians, even a determined 
chief would bring home a second wife and face the trouble 
which he knew to be browinf. 


Hence it may be said of savages in general, that while 
there is no moral feeling whatever to regulate the number of 


'l l l > <l— ■ 

;l i 




a man's wives, or of a woman's Inisbands, nor to interfere in 
any possible way with the f^-ratitication of the sexual instinct, 
yet a natural tendency leads them to drift into the comfort 
and peace of monopimous union. Moreover the undoubted 
advanta<,fe thus secured in the rearinjf of children cannot but 
emphasise this tendency, keepin-; alive by preference those 
in whom it is most pronounced. For if 1000 savages now 
livinj,^ are the ancestors of a possible 250,000 descendants a 
century lience, and if of these only 1000 are to survive 
and replace the orij,nnal 1000, it is plain that a sympa- 
thetic co-operation of both parents extended through many 
ytars will have a large inlluencis in settling which is to be 
the one survivor out of the 250 descendants that were 

If I have prolonged the evidence to a somewhat weari- 
some extent, it is because the conclusion to be drawn is a 
matter still in dispute. There are still abundance of 
sentimental people who would gladly look on the savage life 
as a condition of unsophisticated innocence. They seek for 
the fabled golden age in the primitive existence, and when the 
ugly facta here and there are thrust disagreeably under their 
notice, they accuse the civilised man of having degraded and 
polluted the simple savage. It is true that the white man 
places in the power of the dark skins means of self-destruc- 
tion before luiknown to them. It is true that the pioneers of 
civilisation are too often men whose natures owe little to the 
culture of their race, and exhibit strongly enough the funda- 
mental animal traits of all races. But it is untrue that in 
sexual licence the savage has ever anything to learn. In 
almost every tribe there are pollutions deeper than any I 
have thought it necessary to mention . and all that the lower 
frini>-e of civilised men can do to harm the uncivilised is to 
stoop to the level of the latter instead of teaching them a 
better way. 

Promiscuity, Succeeded i$y Monogamous Union, the 
Early Bent of Mankind. 

Un the other hand, there are those who take up a position 
altogether too hostile to the savage. Writers such as J. J. 




orl'erc in 


coin tort 


nnot but 

ice those 

ijfCH now 

snilants a 

) survive 

i synipa- 

gh many 

is to bo 

liat were 

at weari- 
awn is a 
(lance oi: 
iivage life 
' Hcok for 
when the 
ider their 
L-aded and 
diite man 
ioneers of 
ttle to the 
,ho funda- 
le that in 
learn. In 
lan any I 
the lower 
ilised is to 
ig them a 

3N, THE 

a position 
h as J. J. 



Eacholen, drawing from tlie stores of antiquity, and L 
H. Morgan, ransacking those of ethnography, and J F 
McLennan, with his powerful sketch from both sources 
all mamtani that in primitive societies there are no mar- 
riages, nothing but promiscuous indulgence. But these have 
reached an untenable conclusion. For there is no evi.Ience 
that there ever was a race of men, no matter how voi.l of any 
Idea of chastity, no matter how animal-like their gratification 
of the sexual feelings, in which men and women did not in 
the mam become to each other partners and companions in 
monogamic union, and did not to a reasonable extent co- 
operate ni the rearing of their children. 

Sir John Lubbock, in his Origin of Civilisation (chap, iii ) 
speaks of the savage practice as that of "communal mar- 
riage, every woman in the tribe being, after a manner, wife 
to every man in it. But this is a way of describing 
the fact of sexual looseness in youth, and is in general quite 
niconsistent with the abundant descriptions which so con- 
stantly point to the marrieil woinar^ as faithful to her bond 
and permitting the embraces of otlier men only by permission 
or direction of her husband. 

Everywhere we see evidence that until the growth of 
moral feeling brings with it a higher ideal, the natural prac- 
tice of mankind is to begin life with a grossly promiscuous 
nitercourse, but to form in maturer years monogamous unions 
of fairly sympathetic type. What is the meaning of that 
army of 700,000 prostitutes to be found in Europe ? Does it 
not signify that a large part of the male population is accus- 
tomed to spend its early days in promiscuous intercourse, out 
ot which It passes into marriage ? And is not this an indica- 
tion of that underlying principle of savage life which even 
the most cultured races of our own time have left behind 
them after all not more than 100 generations, a time 
too short for radical modifications of racial instincts i. 

There are still very many persons who think it only 
natural for a yoang man to " sow his wild oats," which in 
the main is only a euphemism for the grovelling delights of 
promiscuity. He i„ .supposed to tire, after a time, of tbds 
tumultuous indulgence of his pj,v.i„n„, and to find some 

If' i-n 

\\ M 




y' V » « ■ 





i I 


virtuous girl who will steady him in the quiet Hatisfaction of 
home life and the hapjiy cares of paternity. Dr. Parkes, in 
his Friictiad Hygiene, thinks it not improbable that fully one- 
half of the " young men of the upper and middle classes "' 
sulier in health by the formation of impure connections. Lot- 
us hope that the estimate is very much in excess ; though the- 
truth, no doubt, is lamentable enough. Several medical 
authorities offer the estimate, which, however, is only a guesa 
founded on the trend of experience, that about one-fourth 
of the adult male population of Europe is at any given 
time living in the occasional practice of sexual promiscuity. 
Certainly when one considers that in the most cultured 
countries from ten to thirty-five prostitutes exist for every 
10,000 of the population, or about an average of one to every 
100 men, it must at least be allowed that the most cultured 
races still are reminiscent of their naked ancestors. 

Yet it is a thing hopeful in its way if any considerable 
proportion of modern civilised men lead virtuous lives from 
youth upwards, for certainly nothing of the kind on any 
notable scale ever brightened the records of the past. But by 
far the most reassuring feature in the consideration of this- 
ungracious subject is the general purity of the women in a 
cultured society of our own times. They at least are in 
general far removed from the unlovely experience of savage- 

The sweet purity of the average maiden is one of 
those blessings for which we have to thank the progress of 
quite recent centuries. It existed in incomparably less pro- 
portion in any bygone age. As Ruskin truly puts the 
matter : " At no period, so far as I am able to gather by the 
most careful comparison of existing portraiture, has there 
ever been a loveliness so variably refined, so modestly and 
kindly virtuous, so innocently fantastic, and so daintily pure 
as the present girl-beauty of our British isles". {^Art of 
Enyland, p. 197.) If he had included the fresh and virtuous 
maidenhood of other cultured lands, hia words would have 
been none the less elocpient of truth. 

Yet alongside of all this bewitching fragrance of maiden 
purity, how much is there to suggest that the average civil- 



'action of 
'arkoH, in 
'ully one- 

clasnes "' 
3ns. Let 
lOugh the- 

y a guess 
ny given 

for every 
! to every 


ives from 
[ on any 
. But by 
)n of this, 
men in a 
st are in 
of savage- 

s one of 
•ogress of 
le&s pro- 
puts the 
ler by the 
lias there 
estly and 
itily pure 
{Art of 
I virtuous 
)uld have 

>f maiden 
age civil- 


ised man is still, like the savage, fundamentally inclined to a promiscuity, but that he is rescued from it by a con- 
jugal sympathy which, whether as the romantic devotion of 
the suitor, or the patient sympathy of the husband, clothes 
the relations ot the sexes in features of sweetness and beauty 
not absolutely unknown to the savage, but always more 
marked and more delightful as society progresses 


I .ti 









Ij .: 


a : ? 

The Purchase of Wives. 

Though it be true tliat the idcca of chastity as a commendable 
quality finds its first faint dawning in the middle grade of 
savage life, it is not at that level an element of any con- 
sequence in the motives that influence the daily conduct of 
the tribe. A woman may have her own reasons for con- 
tinence, but among these the sense of personal purity has no 
place. As for men, it is useless to seek for any idea of the 
obligation or comeliness of chastity till we reach a very much 
higher standard of development. Among women, however, 
the feeling of pollution in promiscuous intercourse begins, like 
a tender plant just showing its leaf -tips above ground, to 
assert its purifying influence at the stage of the higher 
savages ; but it is chiefly through the stages of barbarian life 
that the notion develops, growing, as the level of the lower 
civilisation is reached, more intrinsically cogent, less depend- 
ent on self-interest, and touched with something in the nature 
of a divine enthusiasm, for which a woman would lay down 
her life. Yet even then it is only in the case of the more 
exalted souls that aspirations of purity 

Begin to cast a beam on the outward shape, 
The unpolluted temple of the mind. 

It is, to my thinking, fairly certain that this change is 
fundamentally due to the growth of a conjugal sympathy, the 
woman, in proportion as her true artections begin to clinf>- 
around one man, feeling less and less inclination for the 
embraces of others. We see among ourselves that the merry, 
but good-hearted girl, who in her teens is pleased to have 



sweethearts, and flattered by the attentions of crowds of men, 
no sooner forms a genuine attachment than tliese delights 
begin to pal] ; the devotion of one becomes dearer to her tlan 
the admiration of the many. Without feeling it in any way 
wrong ni her to accept the homage of other men if she so 
pleases, she simply loses taste for them ; and the ballroom to 
whicli formerly she impatiently looked forward as the scene 
of manifold triumphs, is now valued chiefly as it otters oppor- 
tunities of meeting the one so deeply cherished in her inmost 
heart. When married, her fidelity to her vows depends far 
less on her notion of duty or her desire to be pure, than on 
the mditterence to her of all other men compared with him 
who has her attections. In the great majority of cases the 
question of unfaithfulness never arises, so completely has 
conjugal sympathy gained the ascendency over mere animal 
desire. Custom, public opinion, fear of disgrace and all other 
accessory motives, have little scope for action in a marriage of 
genuine and permanent aflection, for the caresses of other 
men are as distasteful to the wife as those of her own chosen 
among men are soothing and heart-comforting to her. 

But this sentiment of conjugal sympathy required long 
ages for its development, and it was not until it became 
strong and fairly general that it could give rise to any very 
distinguishable idea of chastity. The unaided operation of 
natural selection would inevitably have brought the chaste 
type sooner or later into predominance. For the chaste 
woman leaves behind her far more ottspring than the un- 
chaste. In Europe, according to Mulhall's figures, 100 
average married women have 420 children in all, while 100 
prostitutes have only sixty. It is certainly not the case that 
so very great a disparity would appear between the chaste 
and the lewd woman in a barbarian race, but many circum- 
stances, which it is scarcely needful here to detail, render it a 
matter beyond doubt that fertility sutters by promiscuous 
intercourse. This perhaps would not tend to extinguish a 
strain if diminished fecundity were accompanied by ina-eased 
parental care. But the truth is precisely the other way. For 
the woman whose most active thought is to bowitch the men, 
and whose home is less dear to her heart than the excitement 












! I 

1 ;i 

■ t ■ ] ; I 


of amorous intrigue, will bo a less efficient mothei" than she 
whose affections are fixed on one husband, and whose ambi- 
tions and interests are centred in her family. Thus the 
chaster type is the one likely to emerge ; and, moreover, 
it will gather round it an increasing public esteem. The 
woman who spends her days in faithful union with one man 
has no share in causing those brawls and unhappinesses which 
arise out of the smiles of wanton women ; when the pro- 
miscuous beauty, her good looks gone, is cast aside as an ugly 
creature, .still solicitous of embraces which men rarely bestow 
on her, save for want of a prettier object, the domesticated 
wife, assured of her position even in declining years by the 
bond of conjugal sympathy, has beside her a husband to be 
her defence and sons to do her honour. 

Yet this process of natural selection which takes hold of 
the chaster type for preference in propagation, has received a 
great assistance from a circumstance which, though not strong 
in itself, has had much effect in quickening a change that was 
in any case inevitable. This was the growing sense of pos- 
session which the man felt in regard to his wife. 

In a cultured people of our own day, the wife po.ssesses 
her husband to very mucli the same degree as the husband 
possesses his wife. And amongst the lowest of all savages, 
before much sense of any sort of exclusive possession had 
arisen, the .same must have been to some extent the case. 
But in the intermediate stages a strong sentiment arises such 
as Petruchio asserts in reference to Katharine : — 

I will be master of what is mine own ; 
She is my goods, my chattel ; she is my house, 
My horse, my ox, my ass, my anything; 
And here she stands, touch her whoever dare. 

Though the sentiment of chastity has its true foundations 
in conjugal sympathy alone, its history is intimately blended 
with that of this powerful auxiliary, which inevitably arose 
as marriage became a definite in.stitution. For it is to be 
remembered that among the lower savages what we have 
been calling marriage is only habitual cohabitation. Un- 
doubtedly where this is permanent and founded on mutual 
inclination, it forms a genuine marriage, but it has a loose- 



r than she 
hose ainbi- 
TliUH the 
[, moreover, 
aem. The 
th one man 
esses which 
n the pro- 
as an ugly 
'ely bestow 
ears by the 
band to be 

kes hold of 
) received a 
not strong 
^e that was 
tise of pos- 

e possesses 
le husband 
ill savages, 
session had 
it the case, 
arises such 

3ly blended 
tably arose 
it is to be 
t we have 
tion. Un- 
on mutual 
as a loose- 






nosH about it which makes it differ considerably from that 
solenni obligation whicli civilised societies have insisted on as 
a remedy against the disorders arising from sexual complica- 
tions. Whether this view of civilisation is to be permanent 
or IS only a temporary phase, I shall subsequently discuss, but 
111 this place it is our business rather to review its past than 
to predict Its future, to discover its origin rather than its fate 
Uiat origin, there can be no reasonable doubt, is to be found 
ill the growing idea of possession which men actmired in 
regard to women. 

Increase of intelligence brings increase of foresight, which 
teaches men not to waste or lose the objects of their gratifica- 
tion when for the time being they are satisfied. The animal 
enjoys in his season the society of the female, but being 
content he lets her go, unconscious of a recurring season of 
desire: but man has forethought enough, though satiated 
now, to remember the future, and the more this capacity of 
forethought develops, the more will he wish to convert the 
passing enjoyment of a woman into permanent possession of 
her. The sentiment of jealousy affects him but little, for 
always in the lower grades of mankind the husband thinks 
little of lending, exchanging, or selling the use of his wife. 
It IS i^urely the increasing desire for possession, the wish to 
have a thing entirely for his very own. Now the exclusive 
possession of a wife comes about in two ways, which are 
popularly known as marriage by purchase and marriage by 
capture, of which two the former is necessarily by far the 
more widely spread, and by far the more ordinary. 

It begins to show itself in the middle grade of sava-res but 
as their mode of life is incompatible with the acquisition of 
objects capable of being bartered, they having no riches of 
any form, the purchase of a wife consists in the exchange of 
one girl for another; a si.ster, a daughter, sometimes even a 
mother, is given in return for a wife. But at the grade of 
higher savage life, the inadequacy and awkwardness of this 
system give way before the increase of wealth of various 
forms. Horses, bows and arrows, canoes, furs and skins 
begin to form the means of purchase. Often enough, where 
tlie suitor on whom the girl has fixe- '- .• affection has no 
VOL. I. 23 

'l! lii 



I iikiaU 



?> ,» 




ineariH wherewith to pay tor lier, there that variety of 
marriage by purchase wliicli is called inarriaj^e by servitude. 
He serves her father as a slave or assistant either for a year 
or else till the first baby is born. In all these early staj^es of 
society the woman thus purchased becomes the property of 
the man, who then is free to do with her what he pleases, and 
be(iueath her when he dies. Sir Geori^e Grey tells us that in 
Westein Australia a son inherits alonjf with his father's other 
property all his wives. He inherits his brother's wives and 
children. A widow, if not his own mother, must <(0 to his 
hut and become his wife within three days of her husbaml's 
death. Analoj^ous unseemly customs run throuji;h every 
of society up to the lower civilised ; all the nej^^ro races, for 
instance, havinjr the same sort of callous view of women. 

Amonj; the North American Indians, out of thirty-ei<,dit 
peoples for which I have secured information, there are thirty- 
two in which the bride is purchased at rates that vary from a 
few yards of wampum up to fifteen or twenty horses. In 
three, it is the rule for the suitor to do menial service for his 
bride during a year. In only three do I find that a wife is 
not paid for, and these are among the lowest of all, for the 
purchase of wives is, strange though it seem, an upward step. 
Very often, as the Kev. Mn Brett t ''s us {Imlian Tribes of 
Guinna, p. 98), the bargain is made s\ liile the girl is only an 
infant, the husband claiming her and carrying her ott" so soon 
as she is eleven or twelve years old. Among these tribes, as 
among all other savages not on the very lowest level, a woman 
is always the property of the father, husband, or son, and in 
every savage race of North and South America, the husband 
could sell his wife, the son his widowed mother, whensoever 
it pleased him ; if such sales were comparatively rare, it was 
never because they were thought to be any way wrongful, 
but merely because human atiections assert themselves on the 
humblest level. 

But it is not to be too readily assumed that this arrange- 
ment destroys all liberty of choice on the part of the girls. 
In very man} races, the purchase money becomes a sort of 
fixed tariff, and when a girl and a youth have formed a liking 
for each other and exchanged their sweetheart vows, he is at 


t varit'ty of 
y servitude. 
V for a yi'ar 
■ly staj^es of 
property of 
pleases, and 
s us tliat in 
ither's otlier 
H wives and 
<t ^o to his 
r liusliand's 
every grade 
races, for 
e are thirty- 
vary from a 
horses. In 
vice for his 
it a wife is 

all, for the 
pward step. 
'(n 7'rihrs of 
I'l is only an 

off so soon 
se tribes, as 
el, a woman 

son, and in 
,he husband 
rare, it was 
y wronf(ful, 
elves on the 

3f the girls. 
ss a sort of 
ned a liking 

kvs, he is at 



Uy to marry her when he has scraped together for the 
'^ther the reeogn.sed price which is custonuu-v. It neter 
.appens that a girl is put up to auctior, the only ase I k . ow 
winch tins ,s reeorde<l being that passage of iJodt" 
Cho, 196) wherein he tells us that a.nLg tTK- ancie, Bl 
on,ans. g„,s were gathered into one pTace . ' , 

^.und them stood a crowd of n.en, an.l the herald se 

th em :n^''^'By'"'" ""^' 'y «-'• «-^ '^- '"-t graceful o 
them all . But savages, as we have seen, are usually very 

authority winch is most urgent in rude natures nmv often 
eHere but the more one of daily life in ..:2 t Is 
the more he ,s nnpressed with the feeling that a certain od 
humour ,s largely prevalent, an,l that the gi H h v " 
«;onerally the choice of her own destination' in r 1 a f 
Captam Musters, for instance, tells us that among (^ e pX' 
A'omans (p. 186) " marriages are always of inclin^tUm t 
usual custom is for the bridegroon., a'fter he l^^Za 

. ^'^'^■'^ piLCiscly the same niformat on for the 
Araucanians n, his Three Yrars' Slavm, (p 140) 

It IS ciear that such a system will make for chastity in 
w men ; eertamly not chastity in its high.r and nobler i^ef 
but chastity such as it can be appreciated in savage mini ' 

toleia e no more promiscuity save with his permission The 

ait will feel no longer a free agent, and so it happens 

a.xihaiy to the ever-growing conjugal sympathy in securin^f 


Thk Cai'tuue of Wives. 

The other manner in which wives passed into the exclusive 

possession ot their husbands arose out of what is ca Id 

iiiarriasre bv canture" T i? ir t caiJea 

form wts H ? ■ "!• • ^^^'^L^""*"^ taught that this 

V '• ^""^'^""•''"^^'' «.^ ^^'" of marriage in rude 

societies, and in common with most who read th:fascin^ 



N ! 


pageM of his I'riiniflir .\( "'~>-i('!/>\ I UHod to think he hiid 
rtnii'ly well Huh.stantiatiMl liis theory. But wlicn oxu) onterH on 
the lahour of iiidcpciKh-iit veriHeatioii, the i.s altered, and 
I am now ahsoiutfly certain that the learned writer p'eatiy 
exa<,f;(t rati'd thf extent of what was after all a .suhordinato 
variation arisin^r out of the jjenoral tendency to steal what 
one has no nutans of purchasini;. Out of 212 races whcso 
reconis I have examined for this t)uri)ost', 1 Hnd that the 
cai)tiu'e or simulateil capture of wives exists or existed in only 
thirty-one. It is a lar^^e proportion, one in seven ; and yet in 
none of these races is it stated to be the sole or even the chief 
nu'thod of si'curinj,' a wife, hut only one method alon^' with 
othi'rs; whereas it may safely he said that marria;,'e by 
purchase is a prevailing;- system in every race ut a certain 
sta^e of its development. 

^rarria(,'e l)y capture is in fact but an episode in the lives 
of tribes auKJii^ wh(jm war, plunder, and rapine are the 
noblest of exploits. The youu;-- man, too poor to buy a wife, 
may hope by coura^^e and skill in arms to capture one. But 
just as it is absiu-d to say that all sava^-e tribes could live on 
stolen food, or use oidy stolen weapon.s, suein-;- that if all 
merely stole them, there would be none to procure thum, so it 
is preposterous to say that wives were wholly or maiidy 
secured by capture. It is impossible that tribe A could steal 
all its Avives from tribe B. and that at the .same time tribe B 
could take by force all its wives from tribe A. Nor does it 
mend matters if we make a chain of tribes. The weaker 
tribes may some of their women, and no doubt always 
did, but they have kepi the majority of them. Either 
by removal or extreme watchfulness they mu * ii'.-r .s.Nud 
their women or else j^one out of exi.stence, for the weaker 
tribes could in no u.seful dep-ee have captured their wives 
from the stronjjer. 

Moreover, if it had been the case that tribe A stole all its 
V ' « ,:om tiibe B, while tribe B .stole its bride.s in the .same 
v:K . ■rr.iv tiibe A, it have dawned even on the .savage 
n;in,i tint they w.' • throwinjT away much labour, and that 
each v,\.mld find less trouble in keepintf its own than in steal- 
ing of the other. The practice of exogam\- has a wholly 


think III- liail 

one entornon 

is altored, ami 

writer ;^'i'(')itly 

a Huiioniiiiatc 

to Hti'a! what 

I racos whoHo 

find that the 

'xi.sted in only 

!n: and yut in 

3ven the chief 

od aloii^j; with 

niarria^fe by 

at a certain 

i in the lives 
pine are the 
() buy a wife, 
ire one. But 
could live on 
^' that if all 
re them, so it 
y or niaiidy 
A could steal 
time tribe B 
Nor does it 
The weaker 
doubt filways 
iheni. F.ittior 

' li-U-f H<'\(jd 

r the weaker 
1 their wives 

L stole all its 
in the same 
on the sava^'e 
lOur, and that 
ban in steal- 
has a wholly 



•''"•••■'■■'ton^nn. It arises fron, two causes : Hrst the eustun. of 
ex<-hHM^n,>,r H- ,uen as a n.eans of een.entin;, peaee and treatien 
t H ha„oe and second tl... well-known fact that n.en are n.ore 
kely to lall m love with women outside of their own cbele 
tha,. .' inside it. The youth who passes fancy free 
throu;rh years ol ten.ale cousins and j,.,od-lookin^r „„i.:hl„.„, 
g.r.H umon^. whon. he has ^.rown up fnm. i.dancv, Ts soon 
In.wled over when he ^^oes from home. Son.e, it i^ true are 
'non, apt to fall in love with those witli whom they have been 
taunharn. their early years; but the ^n-eat n.ajority of n.en 
Hi-e s.mtten channs which have all the power of novelty 
So we may fancy that the youth who ha.l roved fron. baby: 
hoc.l upward w,th a tribe of Hfty people, an.on^. whon. not 
nore than hall a .loxen would be -drl.s in their youthful 
bloom, would be apt, when he with a nei^hbom-^ribe to 
have a violent attack of an.atoriness. The ^drls he has played 
with, qaarrelle.1 with, joined with in lascivious ^.vmel will 
stem to us ,.yes poor in con.parison with the strangers. 
Quite probably, n. sava^^e life, he has had his fill oi' i.leature these, but he must buy the stran^^er f,drl to be his wife 
It IS no way nurprisin^r then to find that exo^^an.y has often 
^'rown up as a re.i^ular custom : and if tribes, in the ^eal of 
new-made nendslnp, many vowed each to the other the 
exchan^re of then- f,nrls, we can easily i,naf,dne how such con- 
ventions mi^dit become very ri^dd and .r.ther round them the 
strange prescriptive poweivs of anthjuity an.l superstition 

As tor marna^re by capture itself, it means merely that in 
rude societies, during the state of war. women will be stolen 
just as frequently as other desirable things, and that from 
time to time, when a successful foray has been made, the 
youthtu warrior may so provide himself. In more advanced 
stages of society, where the position of wife begins to carry 
with It some honour, the captured women will be ma.le con- 
cubines. Such, m all ages and among all people in their 
earliest civilisation, has been the cruel prerogative of the 
warrior. The Mosaic law makes full provision for it " When 
thou seest among the captives a beautiful woman, and ' ist 
•Usire unto her, then thou shalt Hving her home to th.ue 
house, and she shall shave her head and pare her nails; she 

!■ '( 






shall remain in thine house and bewail her father and her 
mother a full month : and after that thou shalt o-o in unto 
her, and she shall be thy wife." (Deut. xxi. 12.) He who 
compares with this Deuteronomy xx. 14 and Judges xxi. 16 
will perceive that while marriage by capture was in no sense 
the general system among the Jews, it was an episode of war- 
fare that was abundantly understood and provided for. We 
read in Numbers xxxi. that when the Israelites defeated the 
Midianites " the Lord spake unto Moses," saying, among other 
thnigH, that all the men, all the male childre,., and all the 
wonien who were not maids, were to be .slaughtered, but the 
virgins were to be saved alive and divided among the vic- 
torious warriors. Thus were assigned 32,000 hapless girls, of 
whom thirty-two were handed over to the use of the priests. 
But this was the practice in all the warfare of antiquity 
In the Iliad (ii., 353) Nestor incites the Achtmns to valour by 
renunding them that victory will give to each a Trojan 
woman to lie by his side. In the first book of the same 
immortal picture of primitive life, Agamenmon (line 110), in 
his public speech, refers to the captive maidens as the prin- 
cipal spoils of war. Ulysses had fifty of these trophies of his 
valour. On his return from wandering he found that 
twelve of them had been unfaithful during his long absence 
He caused a rope to be stretched across the court-yard from 
pillar to roof, and while it hung slack lie fastened to it by a 
noose round her neck each of the unfortunate women. When 
the rope was hauled taut they were lifted with their feet off 
the ground, and there they hung in a row like thrushes or 
cooing doves caught in snares, while their feet for a little 
space— not long— quivered convulsively in .the air. {Odi/ssn/, 
xxii., 46.5.) The book then concludes with the praise of the 
god-hke Ulysses. 

The Huns, after their successful invasion of China in the 
third century Jic, demanded a yearly tribute of maidens, and 
tor several generations large bands of hapless girls were sent 
each year to be the victims of their loathed embraces. The 
Ronians at all times of their history han.led over to their 
soldiers the captive women for their gratification. Cajsar 
made a regular practice of it, and three centuries later 


ther and her 
t <;'o ill unto 
2.) He who 
itlges xxi. 16 
8 in no sense 
isode of war- 
ed for. We 
defeated the 
among other 
and all the 
red, but the 
mg the vic- 
»les,s girls, of 
the priests. 
if antiquity. 
;o valour by 
h a Trojan 
if the same 
line 110), in 
IS the prin- 
phies of his 
found that 
ng absence, 
-yard from 
d to it by a 
len. When 
leir feet off 
thrushes or 
for a little 
■aise of the 

lina in the 
lidens, and 
( were sent 
aces. The 
ii' to their 
1. Cresar 
ries later. 



when the emperor Claudius defeated the Gotlis, every soldier 
received either two or three women as his share of the spoils. 
In times still later, Christian emperors systematically por- 
tioned all the female captives among their lustful legions. 
The very soldiers of the Cross, fighting for their reHgion 
under the holiest of oaths, seized the Saracen and Jewish 
women of every place they captured to be their paramours ; 
here and there a Godfrey of Bouillon or a Frederic of Suabia, 
who disdained the practice, was looked upon as a wonder of 
virtue. But no number of instances of these atrocities of war 
will prove that marriage by capture was the fundamental 
system among Jew or Greek, Roman or mediaeval Frank. It 
is true that the Spaniards seized the women of Mexico and 
Peru. " The young maiden was torn without ramorse from 
the arms of her family to gratify the passion of her brutal 
concpieror. The sacred houses of the Virgins of the Sun were 
broken open and violated, and the cavalier swelled his harem 
with a troop of Indian girls." (Prescott's Fcni, ii., 247.) Yet 
it would be most untrue to assert that marriage by capture 
was a system among the Spaniards. It was simply the 
warrior's licence ; and even now, although the exigencies of 
modern war will hardly permit that each soldier should drag 
about with him two or three captive women, the same spiri't 
is far from dead. What else meant those horrid days after 
the British army had captured Ciudad Rodrigo, or those 
when, four months later, they glutted their brutal passions 
with the women of Badajos ? IMcLennan has been carried 
away by the constant recurrence of these scenes in early 
history to assert for marriage by capture a much greater pre- 
dominance than ever it possessed. Even the case of the 
Australians, on which he lays much stress, is little to the 
point, for an overwhelming weight of testimony goes to show 
that marriage was by exchange of women. If two or three 
young men were without the means of securing wives, they 
might .join in a foray, but the writers best ac(iuainted with 
the nature of the people declare that those who were already 
provided with wives would be little likely to face the toil and 
dangrr of an expedition in order to assist others in securing 
partners. Curr (i., 108) and Taplin (p. 10) both expresslv 


(. .i' 


state that the capture of wives took place only upon rare 

Antl the explanation of the sinuilated capture which forms 
a part of so many weddinj;- ceremonies is not to l)e found in a 
once luiiversal habit of marriage by capture that had sub- 
secpiently {^rown obsolete. It is the festive symbolism of the 
contrast in the character of the sexes — courage in the man 
and shyness in the woman. In the wars of savages who have 
little or no wealth, a successful foray will bring back only 
two sorts of plunder, the scalps or heads of men and the 
captive charms of the women. The youth who leads home a 
ilamsel as the trophy of his prowess will be as proud of her 
as another of scalps and heads. A certain lustre will gather 
round this manner of winning a wife, just as in mediteval 
times there was no more glorious way of obtaining a bride 
than by feats of arms. This is a sentiment deeply rooted in 
all peoples, and Dryden's line has passed into a proverb 
among ourselves : — 

Only the brave deserve the fair. 
We may easily conceive how much more dominant would be 
this feeling among primitive races, and how the nuptials of a 
warlike youth with a captive maiden would assume the aspect 
of a military triumph, in whose mimic sports the seizure of 
the bride would fovm a prominent feature. 

Furthermore, we can easily understand how the supreme 
glory of being hero on such an occasion might cause the prac- 
tice to spread to weddings brought about in a nmch tamer 
spirit. Just as with ourselves all officers are "gallant," all 
barristers are "learned," all clergymen are "reverend," as 
every man is a " gentleman " and every woman a " lady," so 
might it readily enough come to pass that all bridegrooms 
would be brave, and their courage be celebrated in the bridal 

On the other hand, as the influences we are describino- in 
this chapter slowly produced the feminine ideal of modesty 
and coyness, there would grow up, as Herbert Spencer veiy 
Justly observes {Principles of Sociolof/i/, i., 623), a tendency, 
sometimes real, sometimes all'eeted, but most often a mixture 
of both, for the bride to exhibit a reluctance at passing into 





upon I'iiro 

lich forin.s 
"ouiid in a 
had sub- 
Hin of tho 
1 tlin man 
who liavG 
sack only 
I and the 
Is home a 
ud of her 
ill <,father 
<■' a bride 
rooted in 
L proverb 

would be 
)tials of a 
ihe aspect 
ieizure of 

tho prac- 
ch tamer 
lant," all 
:end," as 

la<ly," so 
ho bridal 

ribinj; in 

icor very 


mg into 





the ejnb)-ace.s of a man. Archdeacon Moule, as the result of 
thirty years' intimacy with the Chinese, says that amon^^ them 
an aHoctation of extreme shyness is the proper attitude of a 
bride. On the weddin^^ day, if slu; is at all attentive to 
appearances, she will stay in bed till late in the afternoon, 
and then, while exprcssin^r her dislike to mari-ia<,ro, she rises' 
under the pretence of compulsion. (Xar ChinK (ukI Old, p. I 28.) 
Bancroft tells us {Nalive Races of Amn-im, ii., 251) that amoiifr 
the Aztecs it was always rofrarded as the proper thinf,^ for 
the bride and her parents to decline the first overtures of 
marriage, and a modest maid atiected extreme reluctance; 
probably, poor girl, she often felt it when leaving, at the age 
of fourteen, home and mother and sisters. 

It would be useless to (juotc further instances, though 
they are abundant, to show that the most admirable pair are 
the ardent and courageous bridegroom, and the coy, reluctant 
bride, a state of opinion wholly suited for producing at wed- 
dings tho conventional fiction of marriage by capture among 
races wherein the reality often enough occurred, and was hold 
to honour a man so long as he lived. 

Obligation to Chastity at first Confined to Wf)MEN. 

'riie conclusion that marriage by purchase is the normal 
condition in primitive .societies, while marriage by capture is 
oidy an episode, will bedoeponod by the following sketch of 
the customs of barbarians and civilised races. But as we pro- 
coed, it will also be noticed that along with increase in the 
stability and wealth of the connnunity there arise more 
stringent views as to the chastity of women, and a greater 
tendency to polygamy. For the more customary it l)ecomes 
that a man should pay for his wife, the more jealous will he 
grow of any interference with the service and devotion his 
pi'operty is to show him. On the other hand, as wealth is 
never e(iually distributed, l)ut always tends to concentrate in 
the hands of those who have strength to win it and brains to 
keep it, there will arise small bodies of men who are able to 
purchase several wives. The ideal of chastity wliich grows 
up in such a community is not in the least connected with an 


,y hH 

.' I 


f! J 


appreciation of purity. It is in part the duty ol:" a bought 
wife to the luaii who has paid for the exclusive possession of 
her, and who means to have it ; though probably it is in nuich 
larger part also the outcome of the strong atfections that 
spring from household intercourse and marital relations. On 
the man's part there is no obligation, he has not been bought, 
he is an absolutely free agent. So long as he does not injure 
other men by intruding upon their property, chastity has no 
claims upon him. Among unmarried girls or with captive 
women there need be no limit to his indulgence. When Judah 
found his daughter-in-law, Tamar, disguised as a harlot by 
the wayside, he paid her a price and enjoyed her. (Gen. 
xxxviii. 24.) Three months later when her uncha.stity 
became known he said, " Bring her forth and let her be 
burnt". When the mystery was cleared up, he magnani- 
mously suffered her to live and forgave her the trespass for 
various reasons, but there is no sort of hint that he had him- 
self done wrong. Nor does he suffer any diminution of 
repute. In his father's subsequent blessing, he is "Judah 
whom thy brethren shall p'-aise " (Gen. xlix. 8), and his was 
the most honoured of all the tribes. Samscn was no way dis- 
graced by his wanton ^oves (Jud. xvi.), and in those chapters 
of the Proverbs which warn men against the enticements of 
loose women, though the tone is higher, the teaching is that 
of a certain worldly wisdom with no flavour of enthusiasm 
for a pure ideal. And indeed 'he life of its author, with Ids 
700 " princesses " and his 300 concubines in addition to his 
queen, would indicate that in the opinion of the wise men of 
old, though the model woman will be very chary of her person, 
the model man is one after Mahomet's conception, capable of 
begetting the utmost possible number of progeny, and of 
extraordinary strength in sexual intercourse. 

And yet, even in barbarian races, though men acknow- 
ledged no obligation whatsoever to be chaste, there must 
always have been a certain tendency for conjugal sympathy 
to induce the vii'tue of chastity. A man who has a wife and 
has grown fond of her, more especially if she is the mother of 
children to whom he is much attached, will be led by his 
ati'ection to at least some degree of fidelity to her. How can 


a bought 
session of 
s in much 
bions that 
lions. On 
in bought, 
not injure 
ty has no 
th captive 
lien Judah 
harlot by 
tjr. (Gen. 
et her be 

respass for 

had hiin- 
iuution of 
is " Judah 
id his was 

way dis- 
e chapters 
cements of 
ng is that 
)r, with his 
tion to his 
ise men of 
her person, 

capable of 
ly, and of 

n acknow- 
Lhere must 

1 sympathy 
a wife and 
B mother of 
led by his 

How can 





he please her with his caresses and protestations of love if he 
is accustomed to share his endearments witli other women ; or 
how enjoy the (juiet happiness of family life with his chil.lren 
round about him if he is addicted to the excitements and 
rivalries of amorous intrigues ' There is a certainty, tliere- 
fore, that tlie development of sympathetic susceptibilities 
witlnn the human frame, in ways to be subsefpiently discussed, 
wdl tend to the slow growth of male chastity as the outcome' 
■of kindliness and consideration. If there were any chance 
that this miglit be a type less calculated to be successful than 
the average in propagating itself, its inHuence would have 
been slight and evanescent. But the truth is quite the other 
way. The man wdio is good to his wife and considerate of her 
feelings is likely also to be good to his children ; the family 
will therefore be favourable for the successful rearing of off- 
spring; and considering how largely brawls and feuds spring 
r..t of loose amours, it may be .said with just^'ce that the man 
him.self will live longer on the average if he is fairly constant 
to his hou.sehold atlections. 

Wife among Barhauiaxs. 

But the operation of all these processes is slow, and in the 
■consideration of the lower barbarian races, we shall still Hnd 
the prevalence of much promiscuity and little notion of male 
chastity, although with the purchase of wives there arises 
.steadily the idea of female obligations to chastity. Of all the 
North American Indians, the Irocpiois were the best entitled 
to rank on this level. L. H. Morgan {Ancirnf Sochiji, p. 410) 
tells us that among them chastity was demanded of the -vife, 
-or even of the girl who hoped to be well married. The 
marriage relation, (hough arranged by the parents of the 
bride and bridegroo'u, lasted oidy ,so long as the wedded pair 
were content with each other. Presents, however, were always 
made by the bridegroom or hi-, parents to tlie parents of tlie 
bride. Among the Hurons, ,vho, of the American Iiulians, 
stoo(l next to the Irotpiois, purehase of wives prevailed, and 
the Kdelity of wives was expected, save on one night of the 
year when a licentious festival permitted a general promiscuity. 



! \ 

1: : 


' ^1 ^ 1 M D * ' 



Of tlie Tlilinkects, on tlie west coast oF Canada, who stand 
third on the Hst, and are the only others up to the barbarian 
level, Bancroft tells us {Xnt. Ratrs, I, 107) that the women 
were more chaste on the whole than the average of the North 
American races. Monogamy was almost universal, wiv(!.s 
were bought, yet they contrived to secure great influence 

(p. 112). 

The Central American races were on the lower barbarian 
level ; Bancroft tells us (i., 763) that the usual price for a 
wife was a cow. Aftc being purchased the woman was- 
supposed to be faithful to her owner, but wives were often 
exchanged. The prostitution of uinnarried girls was regarded 
as in no way objectionable, and there were several festivals in 
the year when lascivious intercourse was general. A man 
might buy as many wives as he pleased, but he v/as almost, 
always content with one, who, if he died, became the common 
property of his male relatives. Of the Mosquito Indians, 
Bell says that the idea of chastity was (juite unknown, ])ut 
after a husband had bought his wife, he would beat her 
severely if she proved unfaithful. Though perfectly free to^ 
buy as many wives as they pleased, they rarely had more than 
one each. (A'o//. Gm;/. Soc, 1862, p. 251.) 

In a recent most careful work (Codrington, 7'hr Mil(<- 
ncHians, p. 23), we are told that "there is no place in whicli the 
common opinion of the Melanesians approves of the intercourse 
of unmarried youths and girls as a good thing in itself, though 
it is allov.'ed as a thing to V)e expected and understood. The 
feeling that the intercourse of the sexes is innocent is shown 
by the native hospitality which provides a guest with a 
tempoi-ary wife. At their feasts great and promiscuous licence 
prevailed, but it was understood to be a disorderly indulgence 
not quite approved of." In New Britain, we are told by the 
Rev. B. Danks (Antfirop. Inst., xviii., 2!)2), the marriage tie is 
a money tie, the liusband buying an exclusive right to inter- 
course with a woman whom he may spear if he tinds her 
encouraging any infringement of that right. A husband can 
always sell his w4'e to another, but, if he die, his widoAV 
becomes the common property of all the men of the tribe. 
Analogous information is given ])y various writers for the 



peoples of New Caledonia, the Xew H.l.ri.lcs, an.l tlie Solomon 
LslandH. The general price for a wife would bo about three 
pi^s, a few ear-riii^rs, and a stone axe, or their eiiuivalent (B 
H. Thomson. Run. Ganj. Sor., 1889, p. 527.) Wilfrid Powell 
■states that in New Britain ^nrls are often sold while still mere 
cinldren, and relates a case in whicli a child-wife of ten years 
old cried so much to return to lier family that her irritated 
owner killed lier and ate her, the tribe assistinjr in the feast. 
{Wtnidn inijs in a Wild Countnj.) 

The Maoris, being thoroughly well known, may be taken 
as a fan-ly typical specimen of life in the lower barbarian 
grade. William Gisborne, formerly a minister of the Crown 
m New Zealand, tells us, as a result of long aciuaintance, that 
" chastity HI single women was held of little account, but 
inlidehty of wives subjected the offenders to death" \t1h' 
Colon,! of Jew Zealand, p. 27.) The Rev. Richard Taylor 
asserts that " prostitution was not viewed as any discredit to 
the unmarrie.l female, on the contrary it was considered a part 
of a host's duty to otier his guests temporary partners who 
were called Waiaipo. Girls were at perfect liberty to act as 
they pleased until married, when they became Tapu to their 
husbands." (iXew Zealand and /As- Inludiifants, p. ;^3.) Thomson 
says " girls not betrothed in childhood were allowed on grow- 
ing up to bestow their favours on whom they pleased" In 
concubinage the men steal to the women's huts, whereas in 
marriage they take thtj women to their own. While maidens far more than European freedom, married women 
suffer from Asiatic restraint. When well treated, inMdelity is 
rare, but in the reverse case virtue is far from common. The 
wives of a deceased father became the property of his son, and 
those of a dead bx..ther were bequeathed to surviving brothers " 
{Story of yew Zealand, i., 178.) Yet I «nd no reference in 
good authorities to the purchase of wives among the Maoris. 
Duperrey (cjuoted Letourneau, iiW«//o//. of Marriaf/e, -p. 113) 
asserts that " in New Zealand the man bought the girl". But 
according to writers who were best ac(|uainted with the 
Maoris, though a present from the bridegroom to the parents 
of the bride was sometimes made, it seems to have been 
voluntary and only occasional. Polygamy was universal 

h ! 

' i ' P_m »> 




amonj,' the chiot'.s, but natiu-ally rare ainon<f the tribes- 

As wo pass upward throuffh tlie barbarian staffo, we find a 
steady development in rcj^ard to the idea of nudity. When 
we reach the level of the lower barbarians it has become 
uniformly the rule for women, or at least married women, to 
cover their bodies. Yet the sense of modesty is still .so incom- 
plete that they readily enou<,di lay aside their ^^arment and 
probably feel no more in regard to the want of it than among 
ourselves a lady would feel in going out without gloves or in 
passing down a street without hat or bonnet. The lowest 
savages possess no clothing; tlie middle savages possess it but 
generally go without it, men and women being equally nude ; 
the higher .savages generally wear their clothing, which is 
alv/ays ample, but they have never the smallest scruples in 
laying it aside, and nudity never appeals to them with any 
sense of indecency. On the lower barbarian level, little 
more than the same can be said of tribes that live in the 
tropics, .some indeed being more usually naked than clad, 
although with .scarce an exception married women are clothed 
and a littl'- reluctant to appear publicly in entire nakedness. 
The middle barbarians also are of unequal development in 
this respect, many of the negro races being absolutely nude. 
Living.stone was i-eceived by the queen of the Balonda in the 
full state of a formal reception, yet .she was completely naked ; 
all the Polynesian races of this level wear a little clothing, but 
lay it aside readily enough. An American who lived long in 
the Marquesas Islands used to enjoy his morning dip in com- 
pany with a crowd of girls who joined him without ceremony 
and .stripped for the bath. Even the Maoris, whose colder 
climate encoui-aged them to clothe abundantly, .saw nothing to 
be condemned, when the girls in public removed their gar- 
ments in order to swim. The men always stripped naked for 
work or for lighting. 

When we reach the level of the upper barbarians, we tind 
that in very nearly every case the men are displeased if their 
women appear without clothing, and the women indicate some 
•sense of shame in But great ditibrences prevail 
within even the same race. Thus in Homer we find that the 



Grocks oi heroic times uiust have re<,mr.lo.l nake.lnoH.s a,sl„.in.r 
shameful, for Uly.sse.s threaten.s to strip Tliersites of tlie 
mantle and tunic which covered his shameful parts (ii. 2()->) 
and yet lon<c centuries afterwards the ^nrls of Sparta, up 'to the 
ligii of twenty, carried on their exercises in public in complete 
nakedness. (Duruy, Iflsf. of Grrar, p. 4(32.) In spite, however, of 
exceptions, which frecpiently enou^di crop up on both sides it 
may be said tliat decency in this regard is unknown to the sav- 
afre; that it is fostered in the barbarian level; that it becomes 
tolerably fixed, thouf,di with vagaries of its own, in civilise.l 
hfe, but that it reaches only in culture.] communities the 
position of being legally and socially compulsory. Yet in 
some respects our ballrooms and theatres suggest that even 
we have not yet altogether reached finality. Probably enough 
it is not attainable. 

Tliere is no doubt that on the whole the middle barbarians 
show some advance in regard to decency and the sense of 
chastity, though it would be vain to seek among them for any 
exalted ideals. Lichtenstein says of the Kaffir women that 
they are not only decently clad, but that he noticed how 
carefully they avoided any unseemly exposure while .suckling 
their children. He thinks the married women tolerably 
virtuous, but those not yet married are never in the least 
condemned however unchaste may be their conduct. A 
stranger always finds the girls ready to ofier themselves, and 
they are glad to be assigned as temporary partners to dis- 
tinguished visitors (i., 264). Holden tells us in his IsTaffir 
Eaccs (p. 189) that when a female child is born she is looked 
upon as a regular piece of property, and is sold for the highest 
price attainable between her seventh and fourteenth years ; her 
wishes being sometimes but not often consulted. After living 
among these people for twenty-seven years, this missionary, a 
warm friend of theirs, declares that "a really pure girl is 
unknown among them ". At all weddings and other feasts 
the sexual relations break into complete promiscuity. A wild 
dance lasts till midnight, after which the couples pair ott' 
indiscriminately to pass the night together. He describes 
(p. 198) what he calls " debauchery," and says that 
the loan or exchange of wives is common. When men are out 


! ! 

J i J ^K* 



on 11 Journey and conio to a kraal to spentl the nit(ht, they 
regard theniselve.s as inlio.spitably treated unless they receive 
not only food and be<ls but also fenude compainons. This 
severe account is corroborated hy the testimony of two other 
niissionaries, Warner and Duji;niore, who also lived long with 
the Kaffirs. These people would seem to be the most decidtidly 
polygamous in the world, statistics showing that of 253 men, 
oidy lifty-two were content with one wife, while 201 others 
had 000 wives among them. A discrepancy, however, must 
prevail somewhere, as the census returns show that there were 
17,395 men to 18,062 women. Shaw {Suutk-Endem Afrim, 
p. 420) tells us that if the weather is in any way warm, the 
men go absolutely naked, but in general a band is worn round 
the waist of the women which they are loth to remove. 

Without going into wearisome details of the many and 
varied races of tlie negro type, we may say that while .some, 
such as the Shillooks, are ([uite naked, hi most i I them, at 
least the married women are clothed, and a majority consider 
some little amount of covering to be a matter of decency. 
Some are outrageously indecent, while there are others that 
wear their petticoats of plaited grass or of skins in the hottest 
weather, and bathe scrupulously apart. Of sixty-one negro 
races for which I have gathered information, tifty-seven are 
recorded to purchase their wives ; there are four in which it is 
expressly statetl that the bridegroom's presents are ahvays 
met by an equal or larger present made by the bride's parents, 
an early indication of what we shall subsequently have to 
consider, the rise of the practice of dowry. In nine out of 
these races, the bride is expected to be a virgin when she is 
purchased, and in a tenth that this will be the case is ensured 
by the cruel degradation of the process of infantile infibulation. 
In twenty of the sixty-one races, the girls are allowed the 
most absolute licence, and a widow has the same ignoble 
freedom ; but in almost every case it is recorded that the 
married women are allowed no irregular intercourse, save at 
the command of their husl)ands. Yet this must be from a 
feeling of property, for Mrs. French Sheldon (Anthrop. List., 
xxi., 3(i0) states from her owni observation that all along the 
east coast of Africa negresses are allowed the utmost licence 



nii^ht, they 
ley receive 
ions. This 

two other 

long with 
it decidedly 
f 253 men, 

201 others 
irever, must 

there were 
eni Africa, 
' warm, the 
worn round 

many and 
tvhile some, 
i' them, at 
ty consider 
at' decency, 
others that 
. the hottest 
^-one negro 
y -seven are 

which it is 
are always 
e's parents, 
;ly have to 
line out of 
when she is 
i is ensured 
allowed the 
ime ignoble 
3d that the 
irse, save at 

be from a 
itjirup. Inst., 
,11 along the 
iiost licence 



uitercourse before marriage, and no sort of shame over 
attaches to it. She tells us that among almost every tribe the 
bridegroom has four groomsmen at his wedding, each of whom 
IS entitled to satisfy himself with the bride on the wed-lin-r 
night. So gross and animal-like is the moral condition from 
whici luen have had to rise! When customs such as these 
are universal, it is useless to talk of ideals. The I ath is that at 
tins level the notion of chastity is only beginning to grow by 
reason ni part, of the proprietary right which the husband 'has 
in us wi tes person. The price he pays varies from one to 
sixty cattle ; the average for thirteen negro races, as to whom 
explicit numbers are given, is as high as nineteen cattle 
feome pay n: slaves, some in ivory, some even in gold, but the 
price ranges from the value of ten shillings to that of thirty 
pounds. This cor.paratively high rate and the consequent 
care with which the iiusband guards his precious acmisition 
assist very much in enforcing the chastity of married women 
1 he purchase of wives a nong the negroes, as everywhere else 
tends to systematise the practice of polygamy. Tjie youth 
has to go without a wife, while the rich old men. especiallv 
the clnets, purchase half a dozen each. Of the sixty . me races 
htty-six are polygamous, four are in the main monogamous' 
only a very few chiefs having a second wife, and one is 
stnctly monogamou.s. But in almost all cases the first wife is 
distinctly the mistress of the household. 

Wife Plrchase Renders Marriage more Stable. 

It is at this stage of development that we find marriages 
tend to grow indissoluble, as a consequence of the pur- 
chase of wives. In a savage race there is nothing to keep 
the married pair together save conjugal atiection If a 
husband IS tired of his wife, off she must pack. But at the 
middle barbarian stage the high price given for a wife has a great 
tendency to steady the fickle husband. In almost every case 
he IS free to send her away if he likes, but. if he has no just 
cause for doing so, he loses the whole of the money which he 
has paid to her relatives. A man's affection for his wife may 

VOL. L 14 ''' 

! ; hi 


t ^» I 

bo HOiuowhat cooldd, hut when ho thinks of his twi-iity cow.s, 
and how loii{^ it may be boforo he will be able to pith(!r 
another lot, ho perceives that he must keep the wife he ha-s, or 
(ilse '^n without. Hence the stability of unions is increased. 

On the other hand, if the wife wishes to leave her hus- 
1)and, and he is content that they should part, ho demands the 
return of the price he paid for lior. Slu^ has therefore to per- 
sua<le her relatives to disirorj^e the property they have 
absorbed as their own, in f^onoral an unlikely story. More- 
over, the consetiuences of unfaithfulness on the part of the 
wife be^in to alter. In the lower races, where the woman is 
none the loss the man's property thouj^li not I)ou;,dit with 
a price, if she her master to intolerable dislike, ho 
kills her. The same custom is found in some barbarian races, 
but in most there occurs a change. Why should he lose ^ood 
property / To kill a bad wife is to throw away twenty good 
20WS. He knows a better way. He complains of her conduct. 
And if the tribe aj^rees with him that he has l)een deluded 
into a bad barjjain he gives back the woman, while the rela- 
tives are made to retui-n her price. This must be a most 
uncongenial nece.ssity, and therefore the father, the brothers, 
and other male relatives of the bride have a strong 
interest in keeping an eye on her conduct, and hedging her 
in to the right path. Chastity then tends to grow a duty, 
prompted not only by conjugal ati'ection and the fear of 
marital blows, but also by the prospect of reproach and con- 
demnation from the wife's own people. Thus by encouraging 
a greater stability of union, and consequent better treatment 
for the children, the system of purchasing wives has, in its 
own period, played a gi'eat part in assisting the course of 

It must be remembered, however, that these are o)dy 
general tendencies, and they are often interfered with by 
racial peculiarities. Thus the Papuan and the Polynesian 
barbarians, though living in proximity under similar circum- 
stances, are widely differ^ ^.t in their conjugal usages. All the 
Papuans buy their wives, but among the Pol3niesians the 
practice is little known. The Fijians, who are the highest 
types of the Papuan variety, alwaj^s purchased theii- wives. 



tt'uiity CDWs, 

to ^fivtlior 
Fc ho has, or 


V(! liur luiH- 
li'inaiitls the 
>f'oro to per- 

they have 
ory. More- 
part of the 
le woman is 
iou;,'ht with 

(li.slike, lie 
jarian races, 
16 lose j^cod 
Aventy good 
lier conduct, 
cell deluded 
ile the rela- 

1 be a most 
,he brothers, 
i a sti'ong 
liedging her 
'ow a duty, 
the fear of 
ch and con- 
3r treatment 
3 has, in its 
le course of 

se ax'e only 
ed with by 
ilar circum- 
;es. All the 
mesians the 
the liiyhest 
their wives. 

'I'lll'; IHEAL op ('IIA.STITY. 


All ^nrlswere the property of the chiefs, ^vho made a .^.o.I 
revenue l.y .seilin. then, to the amorous bachelors, ^Th.. 
husban.l, however, had no r..dress if his bargain failed to 
please lum, e.xcept that he might resell lu-r, at a ivduced price 
d '';• couhl Hnd a purchaser. Krskine tells us ( /(V.s^ J'an/ir 
p. ->4) that th..r<. was no restriction to the number of wives' 
A man might buy as many as he could afford, but there was 
always on.> who held the highest and .learest position one 
to whom the others were subordinate. He states that the 
intercourse of the sexes was conduct.! with great .lelicacv 
Prostitution of lu.marrie.l girls was far from unknown but 
arlultery in a married woman meant death. So one went 
entirely naked in public, all women wearing a petticoat of 
neatiy-plaite.1 bark, commencing with a gaily-.lyed belt round 
t^.e waist, and ending with a decorated fringe at the knees 
Erskuie considers the women to have been .leci.ledly mo.iest' 
aiul that, for a barbarous race, the standard of female virtue' 
was high. 

Yet among the Polynesians most of these things were 
reverse,!. We have seen that the .Maoris di.l not purchase 
their wives, nor .!oes Ellis in all his nnnute account of 
marriage in Tahiti {Polynesian Resenrclws, vol. i.) include the 
least mention of the practice, tliougli he says (p 270) " the 
suitor often ma.le presents to the girl's parents to gain their 
consent ". Among all the Polynesian races I find not a simde 
reference to tlie practice of purchasing wives. It is perhms 
in some measure as a consequence of this want of the purchase 
system that the marriage tie was very loose among tliem all 
Jhe laliitians, the highest type of the race, are said l)y Ell's 
to have ,!is.olved the marriage tie with great readiness if 
either luisband or wife desire.! to separate (i., 25G) Tjcen 
t.ousness prevaile.l among the girls, thougli it is clear that 
some value was placed on the chastity of a bride, for any girl 
betrotlied while yet too young for marriage, was forced to' 
remain upon u platform in her father's liouse, whereon she 
spent ahnost her whole time, fed and watched by the rest of 
the fannly, to ensure that she should ren ain uncontaminated 
1 loreoyer, there seems to have been a consi.lerable body of 
the lahitian people, especially the quiet farming population 



i iii! 

fife iM.i 



1 ^1 I 


If '* 3 

^' I 

wherein domestic life of a respectaljle and orderly character 
prevailed. The chiefs and the warriors allowed themselves an 
atrocious licence. A society called the Areois consisted of 
men and women banded toirether under oath to kill their otl- 
,sprin<4' and min^de in sports which terminated in unrestricted 
indulj4-ence of the passions. Yet there is reason to believe 
that this was in a small way like the court immorality of the 
reign of Charles II. in England, known to us as a time of 
debaucheiy and cynic disdain of every sense of decency, even 
though there then existed a great body of Puritanic sim- 
plicity. So in Tahiti, Hawaii, and the Marquesas Islands, the 
evidence seems to point to the growth of a considerable body 
of the people whose lives were a silent protest against the 
customs prevailing among the gayer population. 

Moreover, amid all their licentiousness there was at least a 
certan: deference to some sense of decency which was a solid 
stage of progress in comparison with the rude animalism of 
the savage. Not only were they well and even elegantly 
clad, but they were far removed from that brutal condition in 
which the sexual passions are commonly enough indulged in 
the public gaze. It is much even when a veil of decency is 
drawn over indecency, for it indicates an incipient notion of 
virtue. Turner says of the Samoans (p. 184) that "chastity 
is ostensibly cultivated by both sexes, but it is more a name 
than d reality ". The same may very justly be said of the 
Polynesian races in general. For exactly as Turner de.scribes 
the real profligacy of manners in Samoa, the obscene con- 
versation that passed current in their daily lives, the pre- 
valence of adultery, and the scandalous scenes of their night 
dances and wedding festivities, and yet praises the neat 
dresses of the women and the outward propriety of manners 
that prevailed, so in the barbarian stage in general a real 
advancement is attained when some regard begins to be 
shown to appearances. However amorous the graceful 
women of the South Seas, they had, if not a moral, yet 
an ajsthetic sense, which threw a veil, even if sometimes 
only a cofjuettish one, over conduct and desires which 
were beginning to look ugly, though by no means 


ly cliaracter 
emselves an 
ionsisted of 
ill their otf- 
1 to believe 
ality of the 
H a time of 
icency, even 
ritaiiic sim- 
Islands, the 
erable body 
against the 

as at least a 

was a solid 
nimalism of 
in elegantly 
condition in 
indulged in 
f decency is 
nt notion of 
at " chastity 
lore a name 
said of the 
er describes 
bscene con- 
;s, the pre- 

their night 
3S the neat 
of manners 
rieral a real 
jgins to be 
he graceful 

moral, yet 
• sometimes 
sires which 

no means 



Female Chastity among the Higher Barbarians. 

This description applies with special force to the Malays 
and Jlalagasy who stand the topmost of all upper barbarians 
and just on the fringe of the lower civilisation. Speakin.r of 
the people of Timor-Laut, H. O. Forbes, a most reliable 
authority, states that " the people are sensuous, though no 
nnmorality comes to the public gaze ". {Nntimdist's Wmidninys 
m the Eastern ArchipeUujo, p. 315.) In Sumatra, he tells us 
that efforts have been made to suppress the custom of buying 
wives, but it is too deeply rooted in the native mind to be 
overcome. Payment is always made, the goods that are given 
generally ranging in value from £50 to £200. Yet it does not 
follow that the father callously parts with his daugliter as he 
might with a bullock. The young folk luive their little love 
affair, but the suitor knows that when he goes to seek the 
paternal consent he must take or promise the price customary 
in the rank of the bride. If he cannot pay the price retiuired, 
and yet the father is willing to indulge the fancy of his 
daughter, the amorous swain must work for her father until 
the equivalent of the price is rendered. " A man may buy as 
many wives as lie pleases, but as the necessary payment is 
high, most men have to be contented with only one." In 
Buru, as the same author tells us (p. 404), girls are often sold 
while only infants. A wealthy man may have several wives, 
all of them mere girls. If a young man cannot scrape 
together enough to pay for a wife, he sometimes joins with 
two or three of his male relatives, and they buy a girl among 
them, she living as concubine to them all, until one can buy 
the others out and secure the undivided possession of her. If 
a husband dies, the widow is sold, and if she is too old to 
attract a purchaser, she becomes slave and concubine to all of 
her husband's male relatives who choose to share her. 

But with all these low ideals there is a strong though 
mercenary appreciation of female chastity. " There is always 
much ceremonial at marriage ; an illegitimate child is a great 
(hsgrace to a girl, and diligent search is made to find the 
father." (Forbes, p. 197.) No wonder, when the girl's parents 
are in hopes that her charms, if not too easily enjoyed, will 


I iM I 



. i-' 






' I ; * 


Hocim! tlieiii a lumdsomo price. Forbes tells us that, ainon<j 
some of tlie Malay races ol" Sumatra, a j^irl found to be illicitly 
with child is sent out into the woods ; when she returns it 
must be without any infant, and the villai^e is purified with 
sacrifices (p. 182). Sir Stamford Raffles says of the I\ralays of 
Java (vol. i., p. 71) : " Althoujfh no strictness of principle nor 
strontf sense of moral restraint prevails in the intercourse of 
the sexes, prostitution is not connnon except in the capitals. 
An unmarried man over twenty is scarcely ever met, and an 
old maid is a curiosity. Poly<ramy is rare, and useless where 
divorce is so eas}^ and so common." Marsden gives the 
Sumatrans hio-h praise for modesty and chastity, arisinjj^, how- 
ever, less from any lii^jh ideals than from the sense of property 
which the father has in his daughter and the husband in his 

The Rev. W. Ellis states {Hist, of Modaf/imrn; p. 170) that 

wives among the Malagasy were bought, but Little on the 

contrary asserts that the bride brought with her a dowry to 

her husband {Mmbujasear, p. 03), and that if he divorced her 

he had to hand back the dowry. Sibree, the third of the 

three best authorities on Madagascar, seems to agree with this 

latter view, for he states that in the ceremony of divorce the 

husband must hand the wife a coin as a token of the return 

of the dowry he had received with her. Equally inconsistent 

are the records of their moral condition. Ellis is most sweep- 

ingly severe (p. 137.) "Sensuality is universal and gross 

though generally concealed. Continence is not supposed to 

exist in either sex before •narriage. Its absence is no vice 

and immorality prevails from youth upwards. On the birth 

of the late king's daughter" (written in 1838) "the whole 

capital was given up to promiscuous debauchery." Other 

writers, however, are less condemnatory, perhaps because 

vice was kept too much in the background fur them to see. 

Little says scarcely anj^thing about their sexual relations, but 

he tells us that the ]\Ialagasy were reserved, courteous, 

exccodingl}' well-behaved, and temperate in their habits. 

" The woman is always regarded as the helpmate of the man 

and she receives much honour and attention ; she is not .scorned 

as essentially inferior to man, but enters into her husband's 









that, amonj^ 
to be illicitly 
It! returns it 
)uriHe(l with 
le Malays of 
principle nor 
torcourse oi" 
the capitals, 
met, and an 
jeless where 
1 ffives the 
I'isinf^, how- 
of property 
band in his 

). 170) that 
ittle on the 
a dowry to 
ivorced her 
bird of the 
ee with this 
divorce the 

the return 
nost sweep- 

and gross 
supposed to 

is no vice 
n the birth 
" the whole 
y." Other 
ps because 
-hem to see. 
ilations, but 

eir habits, 
if the man, 
not .scorned 
r Imsband's 



cares and joys. Divorce is much too fre(|uent, and is too 
freely granted upon any pretext almost." {Mndrnja^car, p. G3.) 
It would fairly summarise the best accounts if 'we say that 
wlnle unchastity in the women of Madagascar incurs no great 
oblo.juy, yet they are always gracefully clad in a single under 
garment with a long flowing robe over it; that they are gracious 
ni manner and by no means immodest in public demeanour. 
Perhaps a general veil of elegance and decorum conceals no 
little amount of sensuous indulgence, and immodesty is 
rather a breach of good manners than an infraction of any 
moral law, a position which on the whole amounts to the 
highest standard attained by any barbarian race. Yet it 
IS to be noticed that when a breach of good manners is apt to 
lead to bloodshed or to bitter (juarrels, it is natural among all 
men to attach to it a very considerable importance, and as 
sexual irregularities are more productive of domestic disquiet, 
of deadly brawls, and restless feuds than any other cause, it 
must often have been considered that though immodesty 
was in itself harmless, it sowed a deadly crop for subse- 
quent reaping. Thus the woman whose conduct caused death 
and disorder would have little praise from her neighbours ; and 
if she were at all of a sympathetic nature, small satisfaction in 
herself. We see how these feelings would act among a people 
so gentle in their manners as those of Madagascar when we con- 
sider their habits in regard to polygamy. ' It was allowed; no 
moral sentiment in the least condemned it, yet it was un- 
common (Little, p. 6.5), because, as Ellis tells us (p. 172), it was 
the source of so much domestic discord, the first wife generally 
objecting to a second, and as divorces were easily procured, 
she usually preferred to withdraw, rather than submit to the 
presence of a rival. 

Niemojowski, in his Siberian Pidurcs (i.. Id), .^peaks of 
the licentious manners of girls among many of' the Tatar 
races. They are without restraint in their early years, but 
after they have been purchased l)y a bridegroom it becomes the 
interest both of the father, who has received the price, and 
of the husband, who has paid it, to insist that her conduct 
should be seemly, and thus the lives of married women are 
fairly virtuous. Among the Touareg Arabs of the Sahara, 


■ I. 



t t 



I I 



another race on the upper barbarian level, the father is 
entitled to make a profit out of the sale of his (laughter's 
virtue, and no one thinks any the less of him or of her 
on that account. Analogous reports are made of the Moorish 
tribes which inhabit the hilly regions of North-west Morocco. 
{Roy. Geog. Soc, 1889, p. 490.) 

"■ I- 


The practice of polyandry, that syste.n in which a woman 
is married to two or more husbands, is altogether inconsistent 
with our ideals of chastity. Yet it occurs here and there in 
all grades of savage and barbarian life, and penetrates more 
or less distinctly into .some parts of the lower civilisation. 
But the region of its chief prevalence is in barbarism, as those 
will rind who are curious upon the subject by the examina- 
tion of McLennan's lists. (Studies in Avcicnt History, p. 97, ct 
postea.) It is a system which we would naturally expect to 
find arising where the promiscuity of early life began to yield 
before the sense of property when purchase of wives became 
common. The girl who yielded herself up to any of the men 
of the village just as inclination suggested without the least 
sense of shame or impropriety, would be conscious of nothing 
unnatural if two or three of her sweethearts clubbed together 
to raise the price which no one of them alone could command. 
Hence it arises that among some 30,000,000 of existing races, 
people of ordinary lives, and, according to their own standard, 
staid and respectable character, the custom goes unnoticed 
when several men, very generally brothers, pur-hase a wife 
between them. 

But such a .system will be general only when the pre.ssure 
of poverty impels it ; for we can easily see the difliculty of 
maintainkig peaceful relations in these households. Polyandry 
is much more disruptive in its tendency than polygyny. Yet 
Urquhart, in his Spirit of the East (ii., 415), tells us that in 
Moslem countries the permission of polygyny is not made 
use of by more than one husband in twenty, for, apart 
from the question of expense, it is found that the domestic 
unquiet arising out of it forms a considerable deterrent. 






Whence it hus come that a mild public censure attaches to 
the man who ,s foolish enough to disturb his own daily life 
and to Strang the relations of several families by takin/more 
than one wife. Lane, in his And> Socicf,, in the Middle Aaes 
corroborates this view. Thus, even in the East, only a small 
proportion of the wealthy make use of the liberty they 
possess. '' ''' 

Now it i.s true that in polyandry there is absent one great 
source of disquiet, the jealousies that arise out of several 
families of children who have different mothers; for when 
each mother is fighting for her own, watchful of every advan- 
tage given to the others, when mutual criticisms and insinua- 
tions keep the household in perpetual jars, there must be a 
dnnmution of daily happiness. Where there is but one 
wife there can be but one family of children, and these 
roubles are avoided. But then there is the counterbalancing 
tact that vnere several wives exist, the husband has the 
strength to keep them in some appearance of good order. 
Ihey scarcely dare to quarrel and fight in his presence. But 
where there are several husbands to one woman, their dis- 
putes if they arise, are likely enough to be tierce and 
disastrous. Though not so frequent, they are certain to 
be much more disruptive. It is natural, therefore, for the 
reader to share the surprise of the traveller who occasionally 
fands domestic peace habitual in a family so constituted. 
J^or he recognises in himself deeply-seated human instincts 
that rebel against the idea of such a system. These bid 
the husband cling to the wife he professes to love, and to 
her alone; these bid the wife devote her whole soul to the 
man who has won her life's affections; to her all others as 
we feel, ought then to grow indifferent. And if we ksk 
why It should be so, we shall finu, first, the fundamental cause 
already given, that in the union of one man with one woman 
the children have the best chances to be well and lovingly 
reared; and, secondly, as we shall see in subse<iuent chapters 
out of the conjugal sympathy thus engendered, there has 
arisen the idea of chastity as of something personally pure 
and beautiful, .ucli as the more refined among modern 
cultured .societies now regard it. 

i\ \ 



Meantime comparative ethnolof;y teaches uk with sorrow- 
ful iteration that no such ideal is natural to man in his primi- 
tive condition, but that it is the result of scores of centuries 
of elimination. The same lesson is tauj^ht in ihe histoxy of 
all the civilised peoples of to-day whose records j^ive any 
faithful picture of their habits in the times of their primitive 
barbarism. The early Chinese chronicles, however fabulous 
in many ways, are in this respect altogether consistent with 
what we have already learned, for they say that in archaic 
times the intercourse of the sexes was quite promiscuous, 
so that men knew who were their mothers, but not who 
were their fathers. Somewhere about 3400 v.. marriage 
became a settled custom with the sanction of orderly 
laws, the unions being at first monogamic till the Emperor 
Te Kuh, in 2400 B.C., married four wives, and gave to the 
wealthy the evil example of polygamy. By degrees, however, 
marriage by purchase became more and more settled, and 
polygamy more and more the custom of the gieat, even 
though it often led to revolutions and hastened the fall of 
dynasties. (Thornton, Hist, of China, i., 29.) The chronicles 
of other peoples, though unreliable as records, indicate that 
this seemed to the early philosophers the natural development 
of marriage. 

Female Chastity in Greece. 

We may with little rashness assert the same general course 
of events among the early Hellenic races. Their records scarcely 
penetrate far enough into barbarism to throw much light on 
their earliest condition, but the promiscuity of their mythology 
seems with no uncertainty to suggest a time when a general 
sexual intercourse was never in the least degree condemned. 
Nevertheless, the appearance of such goddesses as Artemis 
and Athena, honoured for leading virgin lives of perfect 
purity, suggests that when we first make definite acquaintance 
with the Greek race, it had reached the stage at which, though 
virtue in general had little value, the virtue of a woman of good 
position was carefully guarded. In all the Greek mythology 




til SOITOW- 

his primi- 
' centuiies 
history of 

ffive any 
■ primitive 
r fabulous 
stent with 
ill archaic 
; not who 

)f orderly 
i Emperor 
ive to the 
i, however, 
ittled, and 
1 eat, even 
the fall of 

licate that 

eral course 
'ds scarcely 
;h light on 
1 a general 
IS Artemis 
of perfect 
ich, though 
liut of good 

there is I think no example of male virtue, and the extreme 
lionour bestowed upon the virgin goddesses for a constancy to 
their ideal which is now shown by millions of unmarried 
women in Europe and America suggests that, though the ideal 
was formed, the practice was uncommon. We know that 
in comparatively early times the Greeks began to secure the 
■chastity of their women by secluding them. For it was their 
■custom to buy their wives, and in that case it requires only a 
very slight development of the appreciation of chastity for 
fathers and husbands to find in their own selHsh interests an 
incentive for securing by compulsion the purity of the women. 
In heroic Greece, as Duruy tel]s us {Hitit. of Grme, i., 297), 
wives were always purchased, and the reader of Homer will 
remember how often the praise of a beautiful maiden is 
.summed up in an adjective which indicates that .she brings her 
father many oxen. Aristotle a.sserts that the early Greeks 
-used to " buy their wives of each other". How callous was 
the system of selling women may be seen in the Odi/smf 
(i., 290), where we disco\-er that Penelope, though married 
Jialf a life-time, and with a grown-up family, is .still, if a 
widow, at the disposal of her son, Telemachus, and further on 
(ii., 54) we find that her father, Icariua, still has a claim to 
receive bride gifts if his widowed daughter should be sold in 
a second marriage. But customs had so far progressed that 
the mere .sale was not Wedlock, a public wedding "in all 
men's sight" being necessary and the reckless mingling of 
maidens among men being disreputable. {Odyssei/, vi., 287.) 
The agony of Uly.sses when discovered naked (vi., 129, 178, 
219) by the Pha^acan maidenf< indicates that the Greeks of 
heroic times were on the level of the higher barbarism. One of 
Solon's laws abolished the right of a man to sell his daughter or 
his sister, but it seems to have been only partly operative, for 
wc find Demosthenes stating, '"Sly father beciueathed my sister 
to Aphobus, and my mother to Demophon" (quoted Legouve, 
HiMoire Morale des Fnnmrfi, p. 90) ; and Passius on dying 
bequeathed his wife to his friend Phormio. Moreover, in the 
strict letter of the law, as Lsaeus tells us, even of his own 
'Civilised time, if a woman were married happily and had a 
family, it might occur on her father's death, as a result of the 






! ": 

tin ^ i 

( ■ 

I ■ 

distribution of his property, tluit slie ini<,dit be torn from the 
arms of husband and cliildren to become the property of the 
heir. We may reasonably trust that so scandalous a misuse 
of primitive powers was rare, but the existence of the ri^dit 
pointed back to the barbarian customs of earlier times. Even 
up to a late period the wife was still bought. Aristotle in his. 
advice to wives (Ucok nics, i., 7) reminds them "that they have 
been bought at a great price for the sake of sharing their 
husbands' lives and bearing them children ". 

Strange anomalies in Greek ideals unmistakably suggest 
the transition from the old to the better feeling. Plato 
(Mt'public, v., 3) regards it as monstrous that a woman should 
be seen wrestling naked in the Palaistra, yet he recommends 
that an unmarried man ought to be indulged by a true friend 
with the loan of his wife. He clearly favours the idea of a 
select sort of promiscuity (v., 7, 9); for those youths who 
distinguished themselves in war ought to be oti'ered every 
facility for lying with the women, even the married women, in 
order that stout warriors might be begotter. Of course the 
picture which Plato draws is purely ideal, but that is all the 
worse. How low must have been the general tone and prac- 
tice in Greece when the most exalted of her philosophers 
seriously recommends the unrestrained sexual intercourse 
described in the fifth book of the licinMic ! It is true that 
an adulterous woman was in practice disgraced and her para- 
mour was lined ; that in Athens girls were carefully watched,, 
and wei'e supposed to enter as virgins into the married state ; 
but in Sparta chastity was little regarded. Miiller tells us 
{Doric Race, book iii., chap, x., sec. 4) that " a husband, if he 
considered that the unfruitfulness of his marriage was due to 
himself, gave his matrimonial rights to a younger and more 
powerful man ". If a citizen fell in war without having had 
children, some other man was assigned, even if only a slave,. 
to raise up issue for the deceased. Xenophon and Polybius 
both describe the practice of polyandry as being blameless in 
Sparta, and among the men it is well known that the deepest 
degradation was common from the earliest times without 
condemuation. According to Plutarch, all but the kings of 
Sparta were at liberty, without disgrace, to lend their wives 



rn from the 
lerty of the 
)us a mi.suse 
of the rif^ht 
inie.s. Even 
stotle in liis 
it they have 
laring their 

ibly suggest 
ing. Plato 
man should 
I true friend 
;he idea of a 
youths who 
li'ered every 
d women, in 
[■ course the 
it is all the 
le and prac- 


is true that 
ikI her para- 
lly watched,, 
irried state ; 
ller tells us 
sband, if he 
s was due to 
er and more 
i having had 
Duly a slave,, 
nd Polybius 
blameless in 

the deepest 
aes without 
the kings of 

their wives 



for a sufficient price. Indeed Aristotle himself, when describ- 
ing the deliasing sensual indulgences whereby the Cretans 
restranied the increas.^ of their population, has no note of 
hearty uidignation, but only a doubt as to whether it was a 
goo.l thing or not. He promises a subse.juent examination 
of the propriety of lusts now regarded as so shameful but he 
never, so far as I know, redeemed the promise. {Politics, ii., 

Duruy, in his Hidory of Greece (i., 27), declares that in 
heroic times "love in our sense of the word was wanting," 
but all such sweeping statements are to be taken with much 
reservation. Conjugal love, we may be sure, was present in 
no small degree, and romantic atiections had no doubt their 
own part to play in the mating of youth and maiden. More- 
over, there was a certain sweet ideal of womanly purity in 
the national mind, as witness the pictures of Andromache 
Penelope, and Nausicaa. Yet it is true that the notion of 
chastity was confined to women, and was only of the best 
barbarian class. There was attached to chastity enough of 
vrlue to make the father wish his daughter to be a virgin 
when sold into marriage, and to make the husband'" a 
jealous tyrant in regard to his wife. But no sort of restraint 
lay upon the me i. We have seen how the warrior, without 
the least suspicion that there was evil in his conduct, appro- 
priated to himself as concubines all the women he captured • 
and nothing in the history of Greece suggests that, so long as 
a man refrained from interfering with the rights which a 
husband had acquired by purchase, any possible harm could 
appear in the most unrestricted sexual indulgence. No one 
can deny that the courtesan of the days of Pericles was a 
woman held in very considerable honour, different of course 
from that accorded to the matron of a noble family, for 
aristocracy had its prestige ; but want of virtue was by no 
means laid to the charge of women such as Aspasia : and in 
many places, especially at Corinth, bands of courtesans were 
attached to the temples of the gods, so that the indulgence of 
brute passions v. as interwoven with the worship of piety. 

The friendships of the Greek philosophers with the courte- 
sans of their time form a strange episode in the history of 

I \ 




/ I, 



tlu'ir race. Socrates owed much to tlio conversation of one 
named Diotima ; and amonj^ the most surprising pictures of 
Greek literature is that in the }[('in(mihllin of Xeiiophon 
wliere Socrates visits the famous courtesan Theodota, taking 
witli him his disciples. Lecky thus describes the conversa- 
tion : " With a ipiiet humour he ((uestioned her about the 
sources of the luxury of her dwellintj, ami proceeded to sketch 
for lier the (juaiities she should cultivate in order to attach 
her lovers. Havin<( carried on a cheerful and perfectly 
unembarrassed conversation with lier, accompanied by no 
kind of reproacli on his part, either expressed or implied, and 
with no trace either of the timidity or effrontery of conscious 
{,milt upon hers, the best and wisest of the Greek.s left his 
hostes.s with a ^a-aceful compliment to her beauty." {Hist, of 
European Morals, ii., 296.) 

And yet, amid all this unconcern about moral purity, the 
settled life and gentler ways of <;-rowin(,f civilisation were 
offering room for .sympathy to exert its power and deepen the 
quiet happiness of the home wherein a true and faitliful love 
united husband and wife. Even in heroic times Ulyssea 
closes his address to Nausicaa in these words {Odyssci/, vi., 
180) :— 

For there is nothing better or worthier 

Than where a luishand and wife possess one home 

Accordant in their wishes. 

We may be very sure that in tlie long run such a union 
would command the respect of a people in whom sympathetic- 
qualities were rapidly developing, Aristotle {Economics, i., H) 
expresses his aversion to the unfaithfulness of husbands, not 
as a matter of moral obliijuity, but as a failure of kindly and 
gentlemanly consideration for a good and loving wife. "Foi- 
in very truth nothing is so peculiarly the property of a wife 
as a chaste and hallowed intercourse ; and that which is most 
precious in the eyes of a prudent wife is to see her husband 
preserving himself entirely for her, and thinking of no other 
woman in comparison with her, whilst she regards herself as 
peculiarly his own, and is faithful towards him. In propor- 
tion as a wife perceives that she is faithfully and justly cared 
for, so much the more will she exert her energies to show her- 


ation of one 
f pictures of 
t' Xoiiopliou 
(lota. takiii<( 
10 convorsa- 
r about tli& 
ed to sketch 
LT to attacli 
ul perfectly 
nied by no 
implied, and 
of consciouH 
eks left his 
." {Hist, of 

pui'ity, the 
sation were 
I deepen the 
aithful love 
les Ulysses. 
OdysHcij, vi., 


ich a union 
lomics, i., 8) 
isbands, not 

kindly and 
,vife. " For 
)y of a wife 
lich is most 
ler husband 
3f no other 
) herself as 

In propor- 
usLly cared 
show her- 



self worthy." Could such sentin.ents have had but a f.w 
centuries in which to spread unmoleste.l and become current 
our present ideals of male chastity must inevitably have arisen' 
out of tiiem. 

Chastity among Se.mitic Races. 

The Hebrew people as seen in Genesis and Exodus present 
all the features characteristic of the transition from the hi-di- 
est barbarian level to that of the lowest civilisation. W'ivos 
were generally bou^dit. The story of Jacob and of the 
servitude by which he won his wives Leah and Rachel has 
familiarised us wah the system of working for a wife. But 
actual payment was common enough. In Exodus xxi 7 we 
rea.l, " if a man sell his daughter to be a maid-servant," that 
IS, as the context shows, to be a concubine, the purchaser is 
not to be at liberty to sell her again to any foreign nation. 
When Shechem (Gen. x.xxiv. 12) became smitten with Jacob's 
daughter Dinah, he offered whatever might be the needful 
price for her. Jacob accepted the money, and Dinah was 
given in marriage, but her brothers took advantage of a wily 
stratageri to slay the men of the city and ravish all their 
wives. In Exodus it is enacted that if a man seduce a vir-nn 
he must purchase her to be his wife, or, if her fathe? is 
unwilling to give her, he must pay him the customary price of 
such a girl. In the repetition of this law as it is found in 
Deuteronomy xxii. 28, the price is specified as being fifty 
shekels of silver. Boaz says : " Moreover, Ruth the Moabitcss 
have I purchased to be my wife ". (Ruth iv. 10.) Even as late 
as the time of Hosea various references indicate that the 
custom of purchasing wives was by no means extinct In 
Protessor Robertson Smith's learned treatise (Kinship and 
Marnmje in EnrJii Ambia, p. 87) there will be found con- 
clusive proofs that among the primitive Jews the widows and 
concubines of a deceased man passed into the possession of his 
heir, who could sell them if he .so desired, or keep them as his 
own concubines. 

But even at the time when Genesis was written the Jews 

t , . 

f ii 

Il ' 



had VL'iy (leHuituly reached the upper barbarian .standard, 
which condemnH nudity, and is very exacting as to the 
cluistity of married women, while it sets couHiderable value 
on the purity ol' tht; maiden, but haw little to ,say in con- 
demnation of the .sexual indul^^ence of men .so lon^ as they do 
not infrinjje on the property right^s of husbands or fathers. 
That nudity was considereil shameful is seen in the Jewish 
le;j;end of Adam and Eve as well us in that of Noah. An 
overwhelming nundjer of passai^e.': testify to the almost 
ferocious care that was taken of female virtue, but many 
thinj^s conspire to show that a mercantile rather than an ideal 
view was taken of its importance ; such, for instance, as the 
gross proofs which the brid 'ij^room could demand of the 
bride's vir<finity. (Ueut. xxii. 17.) 

The readiness with which Abraham and the other 
patriarchs took or put away concubines, the manner in which 
women were divided as spoils of war, the way in whicli, while 
the harlot was condemned, not a word of censure occurs in 
stories wherein they are visited by the heroes of Old Testa- 
ment history, all agree in suggesting a pi'actically undeveloped 
sense of male chastity. Then there was the pi'acticf^ of poly- 
gamy, which showed how far they were removed from a high 
ideal of matrimonial love; and so tenacious wei-c the men of 
a liberty handed down from their remotest lathers that, as 
Graetz says in his Hidorj/ of the Jeivs (iii., 94 ;, polygamy was 
a lawful custom even to so late a date as 1000 A.D., when 
Ger.shon was the first Jew of authority to condemn it. Yet 
even he permitte<l it in certain cases. Beyond a doubt 
Hebrew history displays by how slow degrees a nation grows 
moral, and how it is by the elimination of rude and disorderly 
elements, as well as by the conservation of the more sympa- 
thetic types, never by laws or ordinances, that the ameliora- 
tion takes place. Thus it is that history can tell so little of 
the actual process, which is much too slow, much too closely 
confined to household life, much loo subtle in any particular 
generation, to attract the attention of contemporaries. 

Professor Robertson Smith {Kinship and Marriiuje in Early 
Arabia, chap, v.) describes how lax were the sexual relation.s 
in times among the Arabs, but how, in proportion 


1 stumlaril, 
as to tlie 
I'ablc value 
;ay in con- 
as tlioy do 
or fathers, 
the Jewish 
Noah. An 
the almost 
but many 
an an ideal 
nee, as the 
iiid of the 

the other 
er in which 
/liich, while 
13 occurs in 

Old Testa- 
ce of poly- 
'rum a high 

the men of 
irs that, as 
ygamy was 

A.D., when 
in it. Yet 
id a doubt 
ition grows 
I disorderly 
ore sympa- 
e ameliora- 

80 little of 

too closely 
J particular 

ige in Early 
al relations 




as worn,.,, pass,.! by p„,chase or by capture into tlie solo pos- 
Hps,on ol deh.ute owners, Hdclity can>e to be expecte.l of 
then, even while other won.en, who wore still free, enjoyed 
tlie same liberty ,us before, without loss of ivputation The 
...arned woman was most unmistakably the property of her 
Jm.sband, and ,1 she failed in her allegiance .she was con- 
demned, not tor sinning against any high ideal, but for 
detraudu.g her owner. If she admitted any other man to 
her embraces, her husband di.I as is now done among the 
Bedou,ns-he called her father an.l brothers or other male 
relatives together; if he could satisfy them of her infidelity to 
Inn. he proceeded at once, in their presence and with their 
approval, to cut her throat. 

Vet the unmarried woman, of whatever age, and however 
many children she might have, suttere.l „o disgrace from the 
utmost laxity ; and, as Professor Robertson Smith declares (p. 
143), there was no idea that a man was disgraced by visiting- 
heir houses . But a woman of ,' ; . .ss was sure, sooner or 
ater, to form a special attachn , . to some one or other of her 
lovers, and woul.l go to liNe with him in his tent or house 
without becoming his actual property. Such alliances were 
known as beena marriages. The drawback to them was that 
the wite and her children were still all legally in the posses- 
sion of her father, and could bo sold as he desired at any time 
But there is nothing to suggest that want of chastity as apart 
troni mere rigl, s of property brought any disgrace in early 
Arabia, except in so far as wantonness led to strife. 

Chastity m Rome. 

In Roman history we recognise the .same condition of 
tlungs as a tradition handed down from prehistoric times 
Of the three forms of marriage, the two that were commonest 
agree with the marriage by purchase and the beena marriage 
ot the Arabs. The former, called co.mpUo, was that usual 
among the great body of the people. The brid 
lated a purchase of the bride, who thereupon, 
beloiiffinLns. Dassed into his possession, a re^rulai 


VOL. I. 








veyance being made out as if any ordinary piece of property 
had changed hands. Such a marriage could always be dis- 
solved whenever the hu:sband chose to make a reconveyance, 
in which case it was part of the ceremony that the woman 
should pretend to pay back the price that had been given for 
her. In historical times, wives were not actually bought by 
the Romans, but these legal fictions speak forcibly of the time 
wher • ey were. In the other form of marriage, called nsus, 
and corresponding to the beena system, the man and woman 
merely cohabited for a year. If this were done she passed 
completely into his possession and became part of his property ; 
but an absence from his house of three days in the year pre- 
vented the legal consequences of usiis from taking effect, and 
great numbers of women preferred to lose the advantage of 
legal wedlock, rather than subject themselves to the dis- 
advantage of a kind of slavery. 

The third system of marriage, called confarreatio, which con- 
sisted of various archaic ceremonies centring round a sacrifice 
and the eating of a sacred cake by the bride and bridegroom, 
was essentially the wedding ceremony of the priestly class, 
and none but the offspring of such unions were ever eligible 
for priestly offices. (Ramsay, Roman Antiquities, p. 251.) The 
spread of this solemn marriage rite, which, however, was 
never the popular custom, belongs to the period of civilisa- 
tion, whilst we are in this chapter as yet concerned only with 
the growth of the conception of chastity as displayed on the 
barbarian level. 

The Romans, at the time when we begin to make out their 
history, were on the highest grade of that level, and female 
virtue was distinctly prized. The story of Lucrece and the 
grim fate of Virginia point to a powei-ful sentiment of the 
connnanding loveliness of female honour, but there is nothing 
to indicate that the chastity of men was of any moment, nor 
yet the chastity of women in general. It was the honour of 
the matron or damsel of high birth, whose father might hope 
for her a noble alliance, whose husband had the power and 
the determination to reserve her wholly for himself. In the 
story of Virginia, if the decemvir Appius Claudius could have 
proved her a slave, no law, no sentiment, would have saved 


of property 
rays be dis- 

the woman 
en given for 
/ bought by 
r of the time 
, called «,s«s, 
and woman 
! she passed 
lis property ; 
le year pre- 
g effect, and 
dvantage of 

to the dis- 

0, which con- 
id a sacrifice 

riestly class, 
ever eligible 

1. 251.) The 
owever, was 
1 of civilisa- 
sd only with 
ayed on the 

ike out their 
, and female 
rece and the 
iment of the 
re is nothing 
moment, nor 
he honour of 
r might hope 
e power and 
iself. In the 
IS could have 
d have saved 



her from his lust : and, till the last days of Rom 


^ -' — - power, 

slaves never could marry. They were coupled together to 
breed for the good of their masters in a union called con- 
tuhcrnium ; but during the palmy days of Rome the chastity 
of the female slaves was never a matter of any moment, 
and at all times they were largely used as concubines by 
their masters, a circumstance which had its share, as we see 
from Niebuhr (iii., 163), in causing that deterioration of the 
Roman character wliich was a large factor in the fall of the 
empire. ^ There is complete evidence (Mommsen, i., 158) that 
m the times of the kings it was a crime for a man to seduce 
a married woman, but otherwise he was unrestrained. As 
Lecky puts it, somewhat mildly however, "unnatural love 
and adultery were regarded as wrong, simple unchastity 
before marriage was scarcely considered a fault". (Earop 
Morals, i., 104.) 

Cicero, in his speech on behalf of Cailius (xx., 48), ex- 
pressly asserts that this was the Roman feeling and his own 
as well. " Now if ther^. be any," he says, " who fancies that 
youth should be forbidden the embraces of courtesans, he is 
incleed unnecessarily severe; I will not argue the point, but it is 
(luite opposed to the custom and concessions of our ancestors. 
When has it not been done ? When blamed >. When for- 
bidden ? When, in short, has that wliich is now proper not 
been proper ? " 

If we take Cato the Censor as the well-known type of 
ancient Roman austerity, we find neither in Plutarch's picture, 
nor in the laudatory references in Horace and other writers! 
any reason to believe that virtue in a man was to him of 
value. He objected to excess of all sorts, but that he should 
take a female slave to share his bed seemed to him unob- 
jectionable. Mommsen truly enough says of him that his 
idea of chastity was one wholly worldly, and we have fairly 
good evidence that he regarded youthful incontinence as a 
matter of no concern. 

Even the virtue of the early Roman women is not to be 
taken too litei-ally. It rests largely on the testimony of 
poets and other praisers of times past. It probably Ijelonged 
mostly to the class of mere respectabilities; the good wife 


■ \t 

I . t 


:.' ^ 





It : 



' f 

would stay at lioiiu' ami .spin lu>r wool ; the danisel who hoped 
for a o()(),l husband would bo seen but little abi-oad. A\u\ yet, 
while coiifoi-niin<i- to the desires of those males who for the 
time were their ownei-s, they mio-ht be only prudent rather 
than pure. It is in this way, as it seems to me, tl:at we 
can account for the sul)se(|uent deoradation of the Roman 
women, when, as Xiebuhi- says, " their de<,fenei-acy and proHi- 
f^acy were awful "'. It is almost inconceivable that a race of 
pure-minded and inherently modest women should in a few 
generations so far have lost their nobler ideals. It may liave 
been that the intiux of slaves and foreigners made a new 
blend of national character ; thus perhaps in part ; but to a 
mucli greater degree the cause is probably to be found in the 
fact that the vruly virtuous type in early days was far i'rom 
common, good comhict being compulsory rather than of choice, 
and that as soon as the inHux of wealth loosened the old re- 
straints the true character of the people was made plain. 

H i 

Teutonic Cha.stity. 

When oiir own Teutonic ancestors emerge into tlie light 
of liistory they are upon the upper barbarian level. Among 
them all the wife was purchase* I. The laws of tlie Saxons say 
{Co<h\f Lnjiun Ant iqim runt, Lindenbrog; Lycn Saaiinmi, tit. 6) 
" one who is going to marry a wife nmst pay 300 shillings 
to her relatives, but if without their consent he take her, 
the girl being willin >•, he must pay (iOO shillings ". Law 7 
says that " if a mothei be left a widow, she must pass under 
the tutelage of her step-son, or, if she has none, of her hus- 
band's brother. He who wishes to marry her must pay the 
price to her guardian." It is hard to think of our forefathers 
as people who sold their step-motliers, nay, in some tribes, 
even their own mothers. The laws of the Angles and Werini 
have ti\e same class of provision. In those of the Eurgun- 
dians it ii-^ enacted that if a girl be ravished and return cor- 
rupted to parents, the ravishers must pay them six times 
her marriage value. If he is unable to pay, he must be 
handed over to tlie parents, that they may do to liim as they 
please. If a man kill a girl under child-bearing age, he must 


c\ who liopod 
1(1. And yet, 
1 who lor till' 
uileiit I'iither 
me, that wo 
the Roman 
y and proili- 
hat a race of 
lid in a few 
It may have 
made a new 
rt ; l)ut to a 
found in the 
vas far from 
lan of choice, 
d the old re- 
e plain. 

ito the li<i-ht 
/el. Amontf 
e Saxons say 
•(III ion, tit. ()) 
JOO shillinys 
le take her, 
f.s ". Law 7 
t pas.s under 
, of her huH- 
lust pay the 
r forefathers 
.some trihe.s, 
1 and Werini 
the Buryun- 
l return cor- 
am six times 
ho nuist he 
him as they 
ige, he must 



pay 200 ,shillinK.s; but if she 


■ere old enou^-h to have had 

„i ;i 1 , •' ' ^ 'ry^LK. uiil fUOUl'-n to Have UK 

views of a fau-ly specimen Teutonic tribe : 

that r to r '' • w ^"'^'"'-'••'^ -"'^tantly mention the price 
that IS to bo paid for a wife. (Book ii tit 1 ^ rv I . 

LUC Wile. iJio woman has no share in fh*. 

t N but that oi her male relatives. Even if she was ravished 
I was considered no injury to her, but only to those win ' 

ni::%:i'^"'^^"^^^'; ''- - --^ ^^^^-^ tit. 30) i: 

.h U , 'f" ^-^'^^tives and half to the kin^.; but if 

tn ;;';::n:irr'7r'/'^-^ '''-' nevercontemnh.te for a 
moment that hal shouhl be f,nven to the woman ).orself. The 
whole compen.sation then ^roos to the kinc. 

The same principle of conservation of prop.^rtv runs 
throufedi all the Teutonic laws. In those of tlu A • 

(iif f^x ^ Q r> 1 , . • ^" ^'losc or the Allomanni 

(tit. .58.) a man who takes indecent familiarities with a 
woman pays a compensation of twelve shiliin-.s to her nearest 
n.Ue relatives; if ho violates her he must p.;; forty si U^^^ 

tie laws of tb ' R ""'""' '^"'^^ "" '" '" •^«"-^'-l- Among 
e laws of the Bavarians wo rin.l that a man mij^ht seduce a 

tree woman or a «ne of twelve shillin,.s, but it he se lie • 
another mans wife he had to pay him llo shillings. ( Ti t 7 
It_ ho violated a virgin he had to pay forty shUIin. s • if a 
widow ho paid eighty shilling.s. ^ ' 

There is absolutely no law in the whole of this hu<.e collec- 
tion which VV.U d iiulicate the least appreciation of ^ui y as 
per V T k'"^^^ Everywhere it is the sordid care of pr" 
ptity. lake, tor nistance, this law of the Frisians- "If a 
man seduces or violates a slave girl, lot him pay four shillings 
but only throe it she had been corrupted before Tf 1. 
only the third, ^t hi.n pay two shilling^- Sotl,^ r^ 
.Innunshnig until it becomes legal for hini to debauch t slave 
tten as he pleases at the rat. of ono-ti,i...l nf n .,..-n.-..,. 
occasion, the 



'ii s 'i i 


being paid to her owner of 




But lonjr after these Teutonic races were settled in 
England tlio same sordid view of woman's virtue was pre- 
valent. A law of Ethelbert of Kent, the Mrst Christian king 
in England (5G4 to G16 A.D.j, provides that any one who 
commits adultery with another man's wife must buy him a 
new one ((ju ted Hume's Hi>it. of Eiuildnd, i., 298) ; and Pike, 
in his Hidori/ of Crime (i., 91), (quotes a compilation of the 
laws of \ made by a bishop of Winchester, in which 
the purchase of a wife is referred to as the usual custom. 
Lappenberg, in his Emjland under the Aiu/lo-Saxou Kings (vol. 
ii., p. 338), says that " marriage was contracted after the 
bridegroom had settled with the friends of the bride the pur- 
chase price which belonged to the relation in whose guardian- 
ship the woman was at tlie time of her betrothal ". He states, 
however, that " we do not find any traces that the husband 
among the Anglo-Saxons possessed the power of selling his 
wife ". That this power was formerly not only possessed but 
exercised we have many indications. For instance, Tacitus 
{Annules, iv., 72) states that the Frisians, finding it difficult to 
raise money for the oppressive taxes imposed by the Romans, 
sold their wives for the purpose. 

We cannot imagine that any high ideal appreciation of 
chastity existed among the Teutons. Too many historic facts 
forbid it. When the emperor Valens permitted 200,000 Goths 
to cro,ss the Danube and settle in Thrace, the provincial 
governors wished to remove their arms from them. The 
Goths ol)jected, but found that they might keep their arms if 
they surrendered their wives and daughters to the wanton 
pleasures of the Roman officers. They chose the ignoble 
alternative. (Gibbon, chap, xxvi.) 

Canute abolished in England the purchase of wives some- 
where aliout 1030 A.]). (Kci'nigswiirter, Etudes Historiques, p. 
35), but among the lower classes it was a practice for long 
centuries after that time. Professor Geiger tells us that 
among all the Scandinavian races the wife was bought {Hist, 
of the Swedes, p. 31) ; and the laws quoted by Ktenigswiirter 
show that the son had the right to sell his mother when she 
was a widow. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland, 
even after the bulk of their population had been converted to 



e settled in 
,ue was pre- 
lu'istian king 
ny one who 
b buy liim a 
) ; and Pike, 
■ation of the 
er, in which 
sual custom. 
ti Kings (vol. 
3d after the 
•ide the pur- 
ise guardian- 
'. He states, 
the husband 
f selling his 
)ossessed but 
nice, Tacitus 
it difficult to 
the Romans, 

preciation of 
listoric facts 
30,000 Goths 
e provincial 
them. The 
their arms if 
the wanton 
the ignoble 

wives some- 
Tisforiqiia, p. 
ice for long 
ills us that 
ought {Hist. 
er when she 
md Iceland, 
converted to 



been wf /' ^TT "'' ''''''^y "^"^^ ""'««« ^ Vnce had 
Deen paul tor the bride. 

of wolren'biVT"'"'*!"' ^^^'^ '"^ ''^'"^ '"^'^^ appreciation 
o won,en, but it is quite consistent with a strict supervision 
of her chastity. The guilty wife, according to Tacitus (X^ 
mama K^^.X was scourged naked through the district, itself a 
proceedn.g which showed that a sense of delicacy was not the 
cause of indignation. But the picture of Tacitu^ if it can b 
relied on indicates a state of society in which the steadiness 
and regularity arising from marriage by purchase had worked 
out their own form of progress, and women had learned to 
regard hdelity to their purchasers as the most respectable of 
womanly qualities. Men contented themselves as a rule with 
one wife, but as divorce was easy this was only natural 
Powerf u clue s generally had two or three, but the numbe; 
who could alibrd to do so was small. Every man had the 
power to put his wife to death when he pleased, and he could 
legally put her to the torture. 

Kcenigswarter sho'-.s that in the primitive Celtic rp-s 
marriage was by purchase, and we find that this custom 
lasted m Wales until about 800 a.d. Woodward, in his 
ff>sfon; OS Wales (p. 186). says that the laws of Howell 
belonging to that time, "recognise a degree of laxity respect-' 
ing female honour, and an absence of feminine delicacy such 
as could scarcely be paralleled ". Probably he had not read 
much HI the social history of other barbaric peoples 

Vithout endeavouring to extend our examination over the 
whole area of barbarian history, we may take it as tolerably 
well proven that, whether now or in the past, a race, as i^ 
moved onwards through barbarism to civilisation, experienced 
a stage in which the purchase of wives formed what Kceni^s- 
wurter calls (p. 43) " the most efficacious means of convertitn' 
irregular unions into stable marriages," and that this strondy 
tended to foster a custom of fidelity among women, without 
at hrst giving rise to any great appreciation of personal 
purity. But even this feeling would arise during the course of 
long centuries in which the faithful wife was extolled, and the 
maiden was trained from her earliest vouth to r...aru herself 
as dishonoured if she departed from th^ customs ot" her people 


; 5 511 


' l! 





i ■ 


i h 



No hint of the obligation of chastity upon men would 
arise in such a case, and the fact that this has been the actual 
course ot the history of progress has made several writers of 
late years refer somewhat cynically to the purchase of wives 
as the sole cause of the growing idea of female chastity. The 
cudgel and the spear of her owner taught the woman to 
keep herself for him alone. From such a view I would 
most strenuously dissent. An accessory it has manifestly 
been, but onl)^ an accessory ; for under all progress of con- 
jugal fidelity, I see in the history of every race the influence 
of sweet domestic sympathies. Fear by itself never could 
have raised the noble ideal of a woman chaste in her inmost 
thought even as in her actions. Love has had the supreme 
part to play ; and the silent but tenacious affections that 
grow up when daily lives are spent together have given a 
simple and practical foundation to feelings which, in ways to 
be described in later chapters, assumed more and more an 
ideal character. This abstract enthusiasm for virtue is not to 
be sought on the barbarian level ; it begins and grows only 
with civilisation. Yet the barbarian has a fairly good work- 
ing substitute in the sense that the wife's fidelity is due to 
her husband, and that she is worthy of punishment and dis- 
grace if she extends to others those privileges to which he 
alone is entitled. It is a very homely sort of virtue which is 
thus created, yet it is that which perhaps still has the largest 
control in the practical everyday life of our own communities ; 
and it is only when this somewhat surface quality has been 
for centu-ies in existence that there is opportunity for the 
growth of that exquisite sense of the beaut;y of womanly 
purity which is expressed in Heine's famous lines :— 

Thou art as arc the blossoms, 

So sweet, so pure, so fair : 
I look on thee, and yearning 

My heart is full of prayer; 
As if upon thy ringlets 

I laid my hands, dear child, 
Pleading that God might keep thee 

So pure, so undefiled. 


men would 
sn the actual 
al writers of 
ase of wives 
astity. The 
i woman to 
!w I would 

ress of con- 
le influence 
^ever could 

her inmost 
he supreme 
jctions tliat 
ve given a 

in ways to 
d more an 
ue is not to 
grows only 
^food work- 
y is due to 
it and dis- 
) which he 
ae which is 
the largest 
Timunities ; 
y has been 
ty for the 




Sympathy the First Origin of Male Chastity. 

There are three causes why the chastity of men grew up as 
an Ideal so much later in <late than that of women. In tL 
hrst place, their sexual passion is „,ore intense, and in so 
much the more difficult to regulate ; in the second, it is much 
ess interfered with by parental cares, for the mother, absorl^ed 
n the nurture of her babe, is, by the maternal love which slie 
lavishes, rendered so much the less disposed to amorous 
intrigues ; and lastly, the man is not restrained by any sense 
of being owned by a wife more powerful than himself The 
rise o a chaste ideal for men will depend wholly npon 
sympathy winch will display itself in regard, lirst, to the 
married, afterwards to the unmarried woman. I„ the case of 
the mans own wife, if he truly loves her, his sympathy will 
prevenc his causing her unhappiness by preferHng other 
women to her In the case of the wife of another, in Addition 
to the fear of the husband's vengeance, there would be some 
scruple in he mind of a man of any sympathetic feeling if he 
subjected her to the blows and ill-humour of her fealous 
owner; and tew men would be so thick-skinned as to 'feel in 
no degree the condemnation of the community which felt the 
un airness of interfering with property which another man 
liad paid for. 

In regard to the unmarried girl, the scruples of men are 
of much later date ; but if we suppose that stage to be reached 
m which the father and brothers of a maid are to receive a 
certain sum for her when she attains the age of marriaoe 
and assume that her value depends to some extent on he^ 



I i- 


purity, as it almost always does at the level of the lower 
civilisation, it becomes clear that a stroii<r public feelin^r will 
arise in condemnation of the laxity even of unuiarrietl ^-irls. 
When this has been lon^r operative, the girl detected in an 
amour stands abashed, and in some of the Malay and Mongolian 
races suicide undei- such circumstances is not rare ; the early 
Jews and neighbouring peoples put to -'eatli girls found guilty 
of looseness. Some of the Papuan tribes keep their maidens in 
cages to ensure that they may be uncontaminated at their 
marriage, and analogous customs of Polynesians have already 
been mentioned. From such coarse discipline sprang the 
modesty of the maid in the eai-ly civilisation ; it grew and 
gathered a personal dignity of its own, and as it grew there 
must have arisen in the minds of men who were in any way 
sympathetic a certain reluctance to cause unhappiness and 
degradation to the damsel still in the fresh joyousness of 
youth. How very imperfectly the lesson is yet learned may 
be easily seen in the average conversation of men even in the 
most cultured of existing nations. How many there are who 
would scorn to lay siege to the virtue of a girl, and yet 
would scarcely hesitate to take advantage of the girl who 
ofiered herself, a plain proof how much less, in huge multi- 
tudes of cases, the chaste life of a man depends on a sense of 
personal purity than on a .sympathetic reluctance to blight a 
young life. 

This is, of all the three, the most strongly operative cause 
in producing the ideal of male chastity; and cases have 
been far from uncommon, even in societies where profligacy 
was fashionable, in which the pity of the practised rake 
has saved from degradation the otherwise helpless victims 
of his power or his craft. We reckon that the man 
who can seduce a girl of tender years is an absolutely 
heartless scoundrel ; and in the face of the huge temptation 
which the sight of young, innocent, and unsuspecting beauty 
presents to the passions of men, this feeling of sympathy, this 
aversion to the deep cruelty of deception, is the chief protec- 
tion to the purity of maidenhood. 

It is the spread of this syniijathetic feeling which, in part, 
renders po.ssible the free and little distrusted sociableness of 


f the lower 


the sexeH in our modern communitie.s, a freedom of inter- 
■course which exists in savao-e races merely because modesty 
IS not es eemed. But so soon as the virtue of women comes to 
be pmed n, barl)arian races and those of lower civilisation 
tins hberty disappears because the chastity and honour of the' 
men cannot be trusted, and women are more an.l more secluded 
until ni the course of progress, people may be-in to rely on' 
the absolute pure-mindedness of the cultured younij lady and 
the per ect honour of the g'entleman. founded on the scorn he 
would feel to injure confiding innocence. In that case an 
amount of freedom may be allowed tliat would scandalise a 
race wherein female chastity was value.l, yet little trusted 
■and male chastity a (luality scarcely conceivable. 

Thus we perceive that, in its broad practical aspect tlie 
diastity of men has depended on sympathy for women, and 
has grown along with it. The progress of this idea must 
always, therefore, have been roughly proportional to the 
estnnation in which women were held; where they have been 
the drudges of men, where they have been little more than 
tlie iiLstruments of their gratification, there it has been vain 
to look for any widespread ideal of chastity in men; where 
they have been considered immeasurably inferior to men so 
that these have felt a le.ssened sense of .sympathy towards 
them : where their lives, their pursuits, their happiness, their 
^experiences, have been considered of small importance as com- 
pared with of men, the obligation to purity in males 
may have been felt, but only in small .legree. But in pro- 
JDortion as women have been made the cjuals of men, to share 
their hopes, their aspirations, to be companions not only of 
the home but of the inner life, so has the ideal of male 
•chastity asserted itself. 

From the level of lower civilisation onward, therefore the 
.status of women and the chastity of men have been inti- 
mately bound together, depending, as they have always done 
on the same cause. For only by the sympathy of man can 
woman be raised to his own level. He has tlie power to keep 
her m subjection, and the early selfish instincts bid him 
exercise that power. Not till .sympathy has secured a wi.le 
empire over his mind can women hope for equality • and 





. ^ n 

I \ 


Hinco hy that time tlu. ideal ni womanly purity had -rrown 
strorif,^ an.l the de^a-a.lation of the lo.s8 of virtue most pro- 
nouiice,!, the .same sympathy must have operated in mvinir 
rise to the ideal of chastity in men. 

The Status of Woman not the Same ah the Treatment' 

She Receivks. 

We must, however, make a clear distinction between the 
status of women and the treatment ^aven to them. A woman 
may have no status whatsoever, and yet may be content 
enou^-h with her treatment. She may have no ri^d.ts. her 
life may depend on the caprice of her husband, who may be 
at liberty to thrash or wound her as he pleases: she may be 
set to all the menial drud^rery of the daily life, vet withal l)e 
thoroughly happy. Brought up from infanc/ in complete 
submi.s,, .she is .so subservient to her husband that her 
hie IS secure; wounds are rare, and blows only uccasional ; 
her drudgery follows its own routine, and in her own life of 
child-hke dependence and tractableness .she is happy. 

But this is not the condition out of which the ideal of 
male chastity arises. In proportion as .sympathy grows the 
distinctions of strength disappear, and the woman, while 
perhaps not visibly happier, gathers around her an increasing 
dignity. It IS this status, therefore, that we have to examine 
as the concomitant of male chastity. 

As far as happiness is concerned, we may very reasonably 
conclude that where health is present, it is tolerably evenly 
distributed through all grades of progress. In her own way 
the savage woman is perhap.s as happy as her most hi.rhly 
cultured sister. The (juality of the happiness may vary 
enormously, but the amount of it is probably not nearly so. 
variable. The traveller who observes a .savage give his wife a 
kick or a blow concludes that her position is a wretched one 
but to her that treatment may be less unkind than a harsh' 
word to a civilised woman, or a passing .slight or a loveless 
look to a cultured lady, whose sensibilities quiver in the most 
delicate susceptibility. 

Sir John Lubbock, speaking of .savaj 




y had ffi-own 
Lie pro- 
ed in giving 


between the 
. A woman 

be content 
) rifflits, her 
who may be 

slie may l)e 
et witlial be 
in complete 
ml that her 

occasional ;. 

own life of 

;he ideal of 
^a-ows, the 
man, while 
1 increasing 
to examine 

ibly evenly 
r own way 
lost highly 

may vary 
t nearly sO' 
! his wife a 
itched one,, 
an a harsh 

a loveless 
ri the most 

that " true: 


love is almost unknown among them ". It is a rash -reneral- 
inat.on founded on the reports of travellers who liave"jud.-e.l 
them by a standard wholly inapplicable. For instanccsa 
can.h.l wnter on Melanesia relates that when h,. suo-.r,Hf..d to 
the men that instead of idling about they should alsist the 
wo.nen ni the labours of the plantation, he was with 
derisive laughter. He thence concluded that the position 
■ot the women was very miserable. Yet suppose he saw an 
English navvy out of work, and advised him to go down on 
m knees with the scrubbing brush and help his wife to get 
through her long .lay's task, would he not bo met by very 
much the same degree of scornful surprise ? Yet it would he 
a rash thing to assert that "true love is almost unknown" in 
these classes. Love, as it seems to manifest itself to us in 
Its liighest phase, is unknown, yet that navvy would face 
hard toils ot his own department, would undergo sufterin-'s 
^nd brave a cruel death rather than that want should ove"- - 
ake her whom he loves in his own fashion. Only save him 
rom the degradation of the scrubbing brush and the wash- 
tub : Ihese men have to be ju.lged by their own ideals and 
prejudices, and so have savages. Hence the discrepancies in 
the reports ot travellers. Some h'x their attention on the 
sta us of women, others on their actual share of happiness- 
each of these classes varies very much in the amount of effort 
1 makes to see things rather from other folk's point of view 
than from its own. 

For instance, of the Australians, E. J. Eyre says (Dis- 
^cerus, li., 320) "it is easily to be understood that the love 
betwixt married people can scarcely be great ". Yet Brou^h 
Smythe says, " A common error is that there exists no settled 
love or asting atiection. Though men make drudges of 
women, the latter are cheerful, and married couples are bound 
by strong atiection" (i., 29). And Curr tells us " a man 
might I 1 tre^vt his wife, give her away, kill her, or do just as 
he liked with her and no one in the tribe interfered". (Souat- 
tm,vn Vutoruc, p. 248.) Yet "the women were generally 
chatty and merry " (p. 250) and "a very noticeable t'eature of 
the ,.ribe wa. the harmonious way in which its individuals 
hved together' (p. 264). "Most women bore about their 









pt-rsijuH proofs of Hava<,'o treatment at the haiulH of their 
husbands, but puttin^r aside occasional ill usa^a-. it always 
seemed to me that the women were happy enou^d and ^^ot on 
very comfortably with their lords" (p. U7) 

Of the Tasmanians Bonwick says, "Our fair friends, with 
all their trials, includiiifr an occasional waddyin^r from' their 
enra<(ed or jealous partners, were a merry .rarrulous party" 
(JMU// Lifo, p. 5()), and a-ain (p. 10), "The conju^ral ittach- 
ment had not the romantic character of civilised' nations, but 
was not vvantin-r in real kindTiess. As in almost all countries, 
they considered tlui woman to be inferior to the man, and' 
treated her accord! n^'ly." 

Of the Ainus of Japan, Savaf,'e Landor says (p. 296) " love 
is very animal, and there is no si<(n of true ati'ection ". Yet 
Mossmann declares {Joinm, p. 36) that the wedded couples are 
very companionable and faithful to the conjupd tie. Of the 
Todas amoufT the mountains of Southern India, Colonel 
Marshall says that women at betrothal are sold, and it is not 
unconunon for several men to club to^^ether and buy one wife 
between them, " yet thou^di the woman has no property she 
enjoys a real influence and has a good position ". {Todns, p. 21 3.) 
Nansen aays of the Eskimo (Across Greenland, chap, x ), 
" As a rule the men are good to their wives. Domestic strife 
is not unknown and it sometimes leads to violent scenes, the 
end of which generally is that the woman receives either a 
vigorous castigation or the blade of a knife in her arm or leg, 
after which the relations of the two become as cordial as ever, 
especially if they have children." Bancroft says that tlie 
Eskimo husband is not unkind, though the Avomen certaiidy 
do the most laborious yet not the most formidal)le work. 
The Thlinkeet womon, he tells us, have great influence. The 
Aleuts and Tinnoh, though they buy a wife and sell her again 
without ceremony, " are fond of their wives and jealous of 
them". (Native Iiace.i, i., 123.) So among the Nootkas and 
all the Central American races, the status of the women was 
low, but their treatment not unkind. They were always 
bought to be wives, and might at any time be resold or ex- 
changed ; but they had much influence and were constantly 
consulted. (Native Races, i., 196.) 



ikIh of their 
(c. it always 
i and ^'ot on 

friends, with 
i,' fniin their 
iiIoiiH \mvty " 
]U'^i\\ ittacli- 
riatioiis, but 
all count rie.s, 

10 man, and 

). 296) " love 
stion ". Yet 
1 couples are 
tie. Of the 
dia, Colonel 
nd it is not 
>uy one wife 
jroperty .she 
"odas, p. 213.} 
'I, chap. X ), 
iiestic strife 
t scenes, the 
^es either a 
arm or leg, 
dial as ever, 
ys that the 
■n certainly 
lahle work, 
lence. The 

11 her a<4'ain 
1 jealous of 
ootkas and 
women was 
'ere always 
sold or ex- 



Of the Cherokee In.lia..s. C. C. Jones states that "women 
were doomed to perpetual dru.l^eiy; marriages were often 
temporary, but it was not unoonnnon for two people to live 
together ,u peace and harmony to an a.lvance.l aire" 
iA.nynfi,-s uf the .Sunflurn hullans p <:n.) I,,wi.s a.ul 
Clarke say "the women are the pro ,erty oi ,heir husbands 
and are always kept in a very subor iin.te sta. . yet thev are 
a ways consulted and have much inh.e...e. T( e youth must 
always get the consent of his sweetho , ^ :,.,iore buying her 
and the parents rarely try to force a daughters inclinatio„,s.'' 
{Travels to thr Paciju; p. 149.) They conclude a long review 
by saymg " the North American Indians are not in general 
void of conjugal affection ". 

Schoolcraft, in an excellent little work called The Indian 
m Im Wypoam (p. 73), .says that " the wife rules the lo.ltre 
assigns the sleeping places, and directs where each is to place 
his effects . He feels certain that the usual severe ju.lgment 
formed of con.jugal life among savages ought to be greatly 
modihed. ;. The In<lian in his wigwan. is t mild consWen^te 
man, who interferes little, but leaves things to his wife to 
manage. However, on shifting the camp the women carry 
tlie utensils, hxtures and tents." 

Of the Patagonians, Captain Musters relates (p. 196) t!,.t, 
"the finest trait in their character is their love for wife and 
children, matrimonial disputes are rare, and wife-beatinjr 
unknown . A. R. Wallace iMahni Archipcla^p, p. 91) .nves 
a vivul picture of the hard labours of the Dyak women but 
Karl Bock, speaking of the sam. women (Hmd Huntn-s of 
Bonu-o, p. 210), states "that though they are the beasts of 
burden and are soon worn out, yet the men show great 
respect for their wives, the husband never does anything, of 
con.sequence without the advice of his wife, nor the wife 
without the advice of her husband," and H. Brook.. Low 
{Anfhrop. Inst., xxi., 127) entirely agrees with this latter 

For the negroes as a whole, the testimony is somewhat 
confficting; but, using Fetherman's laborious compilation we 
Imd that 01 tifty-seven peoples who are described in it there 
are twenty of whom it is stated that their women are treated 

V-Ui i- 



.. ) 



with affection and consideration : twenty-two for whoin the 
record is tliat wives are fairly well treated, and only fifteen 
of whom an evil report is ^nven, that they treat their women 
with little affection and allow them little influence. 

Among the Polynesian races, it is true, as Quatrefages 
says (A« Pol/inesims, p. 45), that "woman is regarded as 
inferior to man, made to serve him and submit to the rudest 
labours," and yet in all these peoples the women are very far 
from being unhappy. Of the Maoris, Taylor says {New 
Zealand, p. 338), " Wives in general were treated with great 
respect, and had a voice in all theii- councils ; in fact, they 
enjoyed great liberty, and perhaps there are few races who 
treat their wom^n with more deference than the Maoris ". 

So also among the Malays who are upon this level of pro- 
gress, women are treated with no little consideration, though 
almost invariably at the level of the upper barbarian, we have 
the same record of a general domestic equality arising out of 
natural love and sympathy, along with much that indicates 
the superiority which man arrogates to himself by reason of 
his superior strength. 

Niemojowski in his Siherimi Pictures (i., 142) says that 
the Tatars have an idea that women are very much inferior 
to men, and yet the women really manage everything. And 
Hue says (Travels in Tartar >/, " Nat. lUu.s. Library," p. 187) that 
" the women lead an independent enough life. They are far 
from being oppressed and kept in servitude. They come and 
go at their pleasure, ride out on horseback, and pay visits 
from tent to tent." In iMarco Polo's description of a great 
Tatar feast (chap, xv.) the 1; lies sit at the banquet in honoured 

The Decline of Wife Purchase. 

When, therefore, we begin the story of the progress of 
conjugal syn athy among civilised peoples, we must under- 
stand that two things have been already fairly well established 
at the higher barbar" ,i level: first, the general obligation to 
chastity 'nnung women, and second, the right of a woman to 
be treated with kindness by her husband. But just as her 


3r whom the 
i only fitteen 
their women 

regarded as 
to the rudest 
are very far 
' says {Nev: 
I with great 
n fact, they 
w races wlio 
Vlaons ", 
level of pro- 
tion, though 
ian, we have 
■ising out of 
lat indicates 
Dy reason of 

) says that 
ich inferior 
thing. And 
p. 187) that 
'hey are far 
y come and 
pay visits 
of a great 
in honoured 

progress of 
lUst under- 
'ligation to 
woman to 
ust as her 


Obligation to chastity is not accompanied by any notion of a 
snnilar obligation on his part, so the right she has to kind or 
even courteous treatment in no way diminishes the sense he 
teels of his own great superiority. 

The legal relations of a married pair are that the wife is 
the property of the husband: that she may be put to death 
or, when that right has become obsolete, may be chastised by 
tJie husband, who, moreover, has the power of divorcing her 
when he pleases, while no amount of proHigacy on his part 
can justify the wife in demanding a separation from hi i 
let though this is the law, in everyday practice the wife has 
quite a dirterent positioi: For whatever may be the male 
bluster and the assertion of manly superiority, the wife within 
the home has employed, to secure a real influence, not only 
her natural charms, but also the ..kill ac<iuired through Ioup- 
centuries during wliich a quiet pertinacity has been concealed 
under the semblance of docility and submissiveness ; in short 
there has grown in the sex a certain feminine tact by which' 
while appearing to yield, she contrives to make at least all 
household matters drift imperceptibly in her own way. Some 
women would prefer it so, being perfectly willing that the 
men should lay down the law as much as they please so 
long as they themselves the actual policy yet 'he 
progress of the conjugal sentiment throughout civilisation has 
consisted in the removal of female disabilities, and a gradual 
a<lvancement towards a status of equality. For conjugal 
sympathy is certainly only imperfectly developed when the 
husband has the right, however rarely exercised, to buy to 
sell, to divorce, to thrash, to kill his wife as he pleases. 

Of these rights the first to die out was that of pro- 
perty, which, when civilisation began, the husband regularly 
asserted in the person of his wife. He had bought her for a 
price from her male relatives who were her previous owners 
and she was now his possession. But on the level of the' 
lower civilisation, the purchase money ceases to appear except 
as a symbol in the marriage ceremony ; or, if articles of real 
value are given by the bridegroom, it becomes a matter of 
honour foi; the parents of the bride to hand them over to her 
either to be her own peculiar property, or to form her con- 
VOL. I. 10 

t ' 





I u 


tribution to the ostiiblisliinent oi' tlie joint houseliold. Tliis 
is the natural result of a f^rowino- parental affection. The 
barbarian father is fond of his (lauj;-hter: when she is a baliy 
he caresses her and makes much of her ; but as she throws 
older his love distinctly declines, and it cannot prevent him 
from makin<r a callous profit out of her when her charms 
liave inspired some lover with the desire of possessing- her. 
But the civilised father loves his daughter with an ecjual 
affection when she has grown to the i'uU stature of early 
womanhood ; and love of that soi-t is intolerant to the 
thought of making a 'nercenary bargain of her. It grows 
to be a custom honoured by every affectionate father and 
admired by all who can appreciate the kindly and condemn 
the sordid in conduct that the price should be handed over to 
the bride, or else tlie purchase money sliould be refused alto- 
gether, though sometimes perhaps continuing to b^ simulated 
in the wedding ceremony by reason of the veneration of old 

When this stage has lasted some time, and the purchase of 
wives lias grown obsolete, parental atiection, in its still con- 
tinuing growth, brings about a system which is its complete 
opposite, the custom of giving a dowiy with the bride. The 
father, in his love for his daughter, is anxious that she sliould 
marry well, which means that he desires for her a husband 
of as much wealtli and social position as he can secure for 
her. Along with this kindly feeling there go the moir .selfish 
motives of family pride, and a desire for that influence 
which arises from -'ll contrived matrimonial alliances. Ex- 
cept in the case of people whose rank gives a political or 
semi-political cast to their domestic alliances, we may regard 
the latter motive as subsidiary, and estimate that in regard 
to the average father, a strong parental affection, fortified by 
growing usage and the weight of public opinion, would make 
him more and more inclined to use some share of the wealtli 
he possessed a^n a means of securing for his daughter a good 
hu.sband, and wliat he would reckon a happy match. 

There have been nations of high civilisation in which this 
dowry system passed practically into tiie purchase of hus- 
bands. A young man who was considered particularly 



sehold. This 
fection. The 
she is a baby 
as she otows 
prevent him 
1 her oluu'ins 
)sseHsing- Iier. 
itli an eijual 
ture of early 
!rant to the 
L'. It gixnvs 
J fatlier and 
md condemn 
inded over to 
refused alto- 
br; simulated 
ration of old 

i purchase of 
its still con- 
its complete 
In-ide. The 
it she sliould 
r a husband 
n sen.ure for 
more seltish 
at influence 
iances. Ex- 
political or 
may regard 
it in re^^ard 
fortiried by 
would nial-e 
f the wealth 
liter a good 

n which this 
ase of huH- 



eligible would select among the young gids of whom he had 
the refusal, her whose father offered with her the hi-dxest 

n!^I^i • "' "' P^'"P^^^^°"^«^^'»«'"«»t«of genuhiesvm^thy 
punad m a commumty, this feeling, equally sordid in 'the other 
ex reme, to be condemned. That , niniary interests 
either on one side or on the otlu.-, .hould L.spicu uslv ent; 
n-o the motives which lead to marriage l.cLes repulsiVe 

he increasmg delicacy of feelh.g: and so we find Lt in 
cultured commun.ties the <lowry dies out, Just as the purchase 
nioney declnied in the civilised stages. Love and. love alone 
the pure afTection of youth for mai,l, a.ul maid for vouth i'' 
now held to be the only motive for marriage which nior 
sei^iment can allow with any satislactio^, and we may 
.lUHt y regard this as being, so far as it goes, the of th' 

1 est general spirit of conjugal .sympathy that tl/e human 
race has yet known. 

We may observe three stages of progress : the ),ride-price 
the dower, and t„e dowry. The dower .-uises when fh. flthe; 
refuses to accept the price which the bridegroom offers, and the 
latter hands it over to the bride ; but wlien fathers have grown 
accustomed to this .legree of disinterested feeling, they be-dn 
to augment their daughters' property, so that the. laay ent r 
the mai-ried state with sufficient honour. The porti,m thus 
«-.veu by the father is called a dowry. This .Kstinction 
be ween dower and oowry is rarely made in our language, 
bu , corresponds exactly to the difference between L::e 
and ,iot ,n French, an.l as there are marked contrasts both 
historic and legal, between the marriage portion which the 
oride receive,s from her husban.l and that which she receives 
bom her father, I shall take the liberty, for the .sake of 
ble^ ty, ot_ using the two words in these contrasted meanin..s 

det.^t'""^ T\ T ''''*' """^ '''^"^ ""'^ "♦■ P^SvessIn 
detail we nave hrst to consider the manner in which the system 

wife declined. It is a process of which we have 
no e ban a hint m many of the barbarian rac^s of the 
u^^ best eve ; for even among a people whose ordinary 
custom ., the .sale of daughters, there \nav be those who 
>vould feel ashamed of so callous a transaction. The Jav- 
anese f.ther, according to Crawford, receives the payment 



\.\ m 

n l-:i 



which is customary, l;ut lie liands it over to the bri.le iiii- 
mciliately after lier inarria<i,e, to be her own property ; and 
the same kindlier usao-e obtains amon^^ the more refined 
classes of the Tatars and Arabs. Indeed, there are barbarian 
races in which ^'le better classes oven ^o further, the father 
addino-, to the p: i i thus returned, a sum 'vhich testifies to the 
affection he bears hii, dauj^diter; and so it happens that in 
races of" a gentle disposition the system of giving a dowry 
with the bride is reached at a comparatively early stage. 
For instance, in Madagascar the bride generally brings with 
her a dowry, which, even though the husband may use it, 
must always return to her in case of divorce. 

But w'dlst we find, U this lower level, abundant indica- 
tions of the intrusion of worthier motives and more amiable 
customs, v/e may say, on a broad estimate, that only in the 
progress from the lower .o the higher grade of civilisation 
does the system of purcliasing wives gradually die out. 
Among the more civilised Tatars, according to Hue {TrctirU 
in Tartury, " Nat, Illus, Lib.," i., 185), the form of marriage is a 
contract of sale, and tlie bridegroom has to pay tlie stipulated 
price ; but at the wedding itself the parents and relatives of 
the bride always bring sufficient presents to form an equiva- 
lent of the price paid. This is a point of honour among them. 
In Afghanistan, according to Ferrin, while marriage is in- 
dubitably the sale of a girl to be a wife, her parents, if people 
who hope to be at all respected, give with her a dowry of 
carpets, or of iron and silver goods, which are supposed to equal 
the value of the price that has been paid, {i: Afghanis: an, p. 
74.) In Morocco, as Rohlf declares (p. 44), the bridegroom 
pays a price equivalent to about thirty pounds to tlie bride's 
father ; but the latter, if a man of respectable position, never 
keeps it ; he lays it all out in a suitable trousseau for his 
daughter. In Fersia, Sir John Malcolm tells us that a man 
may take a wife into his family in three ways: either by 
purchase, or by hire, or by marriage proper. In all cases the 
woman's consent is necessary ; she cannot be sold or hired by 
her parents against her will. A man may resell an inferior 
wife or a conculiine, but public opinion i.s now .strongly 
against it, and it is rare. {History of Persia, ii., 589.) In'all 



10 bride im- 
oporty ; ami 
iiore refined 
re barbarian 
r, the father 
stiiies to the 
)en.s that in 
iig a dowry 
early stage, 
brings with 
may use it, 

Jant indica- 
ore amiable 
only in tlie 

ly die out, 
Juc (Trai;:Ift 
larriage is a 
e stipulated 
i-elatives of 

an eciuiva- 
mong them, 
iage is in - 
ts, if people 
a dowry of 
sed to equal 
Jianis-an, p. 
f the bride's 
ition, never 
eau for his 
;hat a rnan 
: either by 

11 cases the 
or hired by 
an inferior 
tv strongly 
i9.) In all 


OF MEN. 245 

respectable classes of society, however, the purchase of wives 
IS now obsolete, and in general the father of the bride endows 
her as liberally as he can, the property she thus carries with 
her into the marriage state being strictly her own. 

E. W. Lane, in his Arahimi Socui// in the Middle Jr/cs, p 
229, explains that when a girl was married the bri<le'.n-oom 
had to pay for lier a price which might range between five 
shillings and thirty pounds, yet the usages of refined society 
insisted that this money should not be accepted by the father 
for himself, but should be spent by him in providing furniture 
tor the new home ; all things, however, which were so pro- 
vided remained the bride's personal property; a very clear 
cast of the transition from the purchase of wives to its 
abolition. Of twenty-five existing racs which one may 
enumerate as of the Arab stock, twelve of the least advanced 
still have the custom if purchasing wives: in six others a 
form of sale is retained, but either the price is returned, or 
else it is reduced to a mere symbol: in seven of them even 
the form of purchase, though known to have once existed 
has altogether died out. Professor Robertson Smith (Kim/nn 
and Marria„r, pp. 78-84) shows how among the ancient 
Arabs the purchase money became gradually transformed into 
a dower. The words of the Koran, " that ye max- with your 
substance provide wivesfor yourselves," seem very plainlv to 
indicate the old system of purchase, but the verse which 
follows indicates that the price no longer passed to the bride's 
parents, but became the property of the wife herself, "and 
tor the advantage which ye receive from them, give them 
their reward according to what is ordained ". (Koran, chap. 
IV.) In the same chapter it is decreed that if a man proposer 
to divorce his wife he must by no means take away from he-- 
this price which he gave to her as a compensation for the loss 
of her maiden state. By degrees this has passed into the 
modern .Mohammedan law of dower, according to which a 
man at his n.arriage must settle a certain proportion of his 
property upon his wife, which she and her children can claim 
and secure in a court of law out of his estate in the case either 
of his death or her divorce. (Creighton, HuoryofA mbia,^. 246.) 
iViss Cort, who lived for many years as a teacher in girls' 


I ill 


r 11 



11, I 


! ' i 


i '!. 


i r 


schools in Siain, states that i)! that country the or hodo.. rorni 
of marriao'u is I'or the bride to bo pui-ch.ised, but Uiat ve. / 
oi'tei) the price is a mere ioan, for wJui^ever it i.-., her 
parents keep it only till the biith of tlie lirst baby, when it 
iH handed over to tlie youn'.' mother. (Siam, p. 19'),) Aivon^ 
the Chinese the actual purchase o.*' . bride piovaiis in all tlie 
lo'.v-er classes, but people witli any pretence to refine., lent or 
good breeding shrink from the meanness of taking money for 
a .Uui^-hter, ,u'd thouo-h it is still the fourth essential of tlie 
wedVling formalities Uiat the bridegroom should send costly 
p^-eserits to the pa-vnta of his intended (Prof. Douglas, SW;. in 
Chni.' p. !!>.l;, tbe.i, are always at once handed over to her 
lor hui own use, or are employed in buying for her a wedding 
outfit, iforeover, a family that has any pride will tak. care 
to avoid any semblance of meanness, by adding theret) as 
much iaore again in order that their daughter may enter her 
hus])and'..; family well enough provided for, to do honour to 
the Iriends whom she has left. 

Archdeacon Moule {Old Chiim and Ne,>\ p. 623) states 
that, according to the letter of Chinese law, " the legality of 
marriage consists in the interchange of papers, and in the 
payment to the bride's father of the sum fixed on at the 
betrothal. Yet this is hardly purchase money, for the sum 
IS, in theory at least, expended on the bride's trousseau, and 
IS thus eventually returned to the bridegroom's family." In 
the lower classes, however, the old form still prevails in all its 
grossness. Thus Doolittle, who lived fourteen years in in- 
timate daily life with the Chinese, says that when a poor 
family is unable to afford the price of a maid to be wife to 
tlieir son, they often scrape up enough to buy the wife of 
some man who is willing to get rid of her. Yet the woman 
must herself express her willingness to change, aii.l the for: mm- 
husband is boun.l to make out a formal deed of sale, if n- 
marriage of the new cnv is to be valid. (^Social '^fev, .he 
Vl,lii,!,r, i., 107.) It w. ;;i ; be safe enough to reckor^ :, he 

larger half of the Ch' 

'se disdain the mercenar\ of 

marriage which is still practised among the classes of l,>ast 
refinem-nt. In Japan, of the old feudal times, there .-.^ ■, ... 
to have ueeii the same mixture of customs indicati-' rf 



■ hodoA lorm 
it that Vf. , 
1' it if,, lier 
ihy, whon it 

lIm in all tiie 
•'inoiiioiit or 
[f iiiojKjy for 
iitial of the 
send costly 
yla.s. Sue. iti 
over to her 
I' a vf' (lliiig 
1 takt care 

thereto as 
y enter her 

honour to 

623) states 
legality of 
ind in the 
on at the 
)r tlie sum 
tsseau, and 
nily." In 
Is in all its 
mrs in in- 
Len a poor 
be wife to 
le wife of 
he wouiDi 
the foi i'c 
sale, ij .\" 

n I'lidi he 
^ 'irni of 

« (.(■ least 
eiij oi'! •!<(>( 
icativr -oi' 


transition ; amon(.- them tliere has apparently been no inar- 
riaiio by purchase withiji recent times, but Westermarck Cp. 
8!)5) thinks that the punctiliousness with which the exciian,i,re 
cf i;'ifts is observeil during the wedding ceremony is a clear 
proof of a once prevailing purchase of the bride. Her parents 
must give to the bridegroom presents of exactly the same 
value as tliose which he Ijrings to them. 

A similar .state of instability between the old usage of 
purcliase and the newer feelingM against the .sale of daugliters 
must have attended the early civilisation of the Hindoos ; for 
we find in the ordinances of ]\Ianu a frecjuent wavering be- 
tween the old view and the new. Chapter viii., verse 204, 
provides that if a man has been promised a girl in marriage, 
yet another is palmed ofi' upon him at the actual wedding, 
"he may marry them l)oth for the same price". That this 
was the old custom, yet opposed to the existing state of 
feeling, is shown by the addition of the excusatory words "so 
said Manu," yet we read (chap, iii., ver,se 51), "A father who 
knows the law should never take any consideration, not even 
the smallest article, when his daughter marries, for a man who 
takes anything is a .seller of his child". And still more 
•strongly (chap, ix., verse 98), " Not even a Qudra " (the lowest 
class of peasants) "when giving his daughter in marriage 
should take purchase money ; for by taking money one makes 
a secret sale of one's daughter ". The Mahabharata (xiii., 45) 
declares that " he who sells his daughter goes to hell ; the sale 
of a daughter, although practised by some people, is not the 
eternal rule of right". After comparing twelve ditierent 
passages of ]\Ianu, one of his most recent translators, Dr. 
Burnell, .states (p. 261) that among the Hindoos "the purchase 
of the l)ride was the more ancient form, which the later wi-iters 
.sought to eradicate ". And these passages plainly state the 
reason: it had grown repugnant to temperaments of increasing 
sympathy that all the love of a father for his little maid should 
end in a heartless sale of her to a stranger. 

in the India of the present day among so vast a popula- 
tion, so much mixed and of so many varied degrees of ad- 
vancement, liitferent customs prevail in .litierent parts, and 
ni spite of all that sacred books may say, the sale of daughters 

! I' ■ 


i : 

f '-'i', 


ii I 

I I 



i 1 

I'- ■■ 

i I 





■it s 




is with the lower classes a clail_ 
who pretend to respectability, 
fesH to follow the precepts of their religion, it is mos"t dis- 
graceful to accept the smallest gift from a bridegroom, lest 
there should be even a remote semblance of a sale. Elphinstone 
in his Hidonj of India (p. 158) says that "the point of honour 
in this respect is carried so far that it is reckoned shameful to 
receive from a son-in-law or brother-in-law any assistance 
whatsoever in after life ". 

In some parts of India, not only did the system of selling 
girls decline and grow to be a thing disgraceful, but the system 
of dowry arose to take its place ; and in Rajpootana, the most 
extravagant importance is attached to the provision which is 
thus made for a daughter on her marriage. It grew under 
the influence of religious zeal and family pride to be so great 
a burden, that parents, rather than face the disgrace of having 
inadeciuate dowries for their daughters, used to destroy some 
of their female infants at birth. 

Among the Jews the mohar or price paid for the bride 
lasted for long centuries. It existed even in the civilised times 
of King David ; for when he was offered the honour of be- 
coming King Saul's son-in-law, he expected to have to pay 
for Michal, the princess whom he was asked to marry: but 
Saul demanded a price of such a kind that David by his valour 
was able to secure it. (1 Sam. xviii. 25.) This must have 
been about a thousand years before the beginning of our era : 
three centuries later, the bride-price was still an institution, 
for the prophet Hosea says he bought a wife for fifteen .pieces 
of silver and a homer and a half of barley. (Hosea iii. 2.) 
The bride by this purchase became the actual property, part 
of the household chattels, of the husband. Several expressions 
in the Koran seem to imply that this stage lasted among the 
Arabs down to the times of Mahomet, but the Jews made 
earlier progress, and VVestermarck ciuotes Mayer's account of 
the laws of the Israelites to show that first of all it became 
customary to hand over to the bride herself a part of the price 
paid for her, and at a later date to give her the whole of it. 
{Histortj of Human Marriaye, p. 413.) But by degrees it 
ceased to be the bridegroom who furnished this bridal portion; 


inion^ those 
ie who pro- 
8 most dis- 
?<ifroom, lest 
it of honour 
Aainoful to 
' assistance 

fi of selling 
the system 
la, the most 
3n which is 
rew under 
)e so great 
3 of having 
stroy some 

the bride 
lised times 
our of be- 
ve to pay 
lany; but 
his valour 
must have 
)f our era : 
;een 'pieces 
lea iii. 2.) 
)erty, part 
imong the 
Bws made 
iccount of 
it became 
' the price 
bole of it. 
iegrees it 
J portion; 


for in the Talmudic law the p,-ice became merely symbolic, and 
at a later date the father of the bride himself supplie.l a 
marriage portion for his daughter which, according to .Mayer 
was called the nedunia. In later days it became a religious' 
duty for a man to give a dowry to his daughter, though in 
their own original code of laws, so different a state of things 
had been ordained. But in truth it is not surprising to find 
that the steady development of the same principle of parental 
sympathy has had in almost every race the same general 
effects. ^ 

Rise of the Dowry Sy.stem in Europe. 

Among the Greeks we see, even in heroic times, some 

little scruple among fathers at taking the whole of th.. bride- 

pnce to themselves, and this feeling ha.l so far progressed 

that in the early days of Athens, the bridegroom's presents 

were made, not to the father, but to the bride herself; either 

{oTrrripca) when she was first brought out from the seclusion 

of the gynfeceia, or (dvaKaXvirrnpia) when she first uncovered 

before him, or (i7ra6\,a) when she took up her abode in his 

home. But if the wife died without children, these presents 

returned to the husband. {Kc^,mg^^^^grier, JStudcs Eistorirnu-s p 
24.) 1 ' f 

A century or two saw the transition from this system of 
dower to the .system of dowry. Men sought for their 
daughters the pick of available husbands, and for them- 
selves the strength which alliance with wealth and position 
can give, so that Isaeus speaks of it as a custom inflexibly 
established at Athens by the time of the Peloponnesian war- 
and declares that no decent man would give a legitimate 
daughter less than on.- .-nth of his property. (Jones's ^VorLs 
vol. IV., p. 205.) BvJ ideed the custom was beginning to 
grow oppressive befoie that time ; for according to Plutarch 
bolon legxslated against the new and burdensome system of 
dowry for brides. 

Among the Dori'-.n races, we have no record of the earliest 
transition from the ..ayment of a bride-price, common in the 





heroic timeH; Miiller .say.s {Dorir Jikius, ii,, -208), " We know 
with ct'i'tainty thiil (laii<;hterH liad ori^nnally no dowry, and 
were married with a <j;it't of clothes. Af'tonvp-1'i, however, 
they were at k'ast provided with inon y and other niON . alih' 
property." At a hiter date, the briihil portion Ijecanie a souie- 
wliat burdensome institution. 

Precisely tlie same clian^'e occurred at Rome. It is clear 
that the en Jy sale of the bride, wliich was a real transrci- of 
proj)erty, declined until it was only a symbolic sale, and a 
fictitious transfer. Not that the wife any the less in the 
eyes of the law became the property of her husband, but what 
the law supposed, and what the feeling's and ideas of the people 
Ci'used them to practise, were very diti'erent thinjrs. And yet 
this lei;'al view of the matter mi^ht have i.een the reason why 
thei'e .seems to be no ti'ace of dower, no si<fn that the husband 
ever paid tlie marriaye price to the bride herself. Whei'ein 
could be the utilily of such a i^ift when in law the woman 
herself and all she ha<l, completely passed into the possession of 
her husband :* But the custom whereby the fatlier ^mve his 
daui;hter a dowry crept steadily onward, and Legouve says 
that in the annual pretorian edicts there is to be seen a suc- 
cessive development of the idea that a dcwry should go with 
a bride in ortler to mal (lie marriaj^e a ' spectable ceremony. 
(///.s/. Momli', drs Friiinic.,. p. 122.) 

Hence the usages of Home, as they stood in the be^^'inninj;' 
of our era, re(juired that )h bride should receive from her 
fathei' (Z'c.s jirofciiitia) or from a I'elative {Doi^ ndtAiitifia) 
some contribution towards the establishment of the new home. 
" The sum would depend upon the statio:. md means of the 
parties, but somethinf>' was considers' dispensable." (Ram.say, 
lioDuiii Anlviuitics, p. 2.53.) If the ba ' died, the dowry 
belonoed to the wife, but if the wif iied ildless, while yet 
her father was living', it returned to him ; the idea apparently 
lioingthat the alliance wliich he had purchased for his daughter 
having failed, he was entitled to the return of the payment he 
had made. If the wife left children, one-fifth of her dowry 
was retained by the husband for each child. If a divorce took 
place b}- reason of grave miscontluet on the part of the wife, 
she forfeited her whole dowry ; but for misbehaviour a 

!. ! 


portion only could l)o rutainL'il by this hashiind. If the hus- 
biUiil clioso to (livorci; his wife without jn'ool' of I'caHonable 
cause, he had to refund the whole dowry. 

IJut nowhere is the transition half so clearly seen as in 
the case of our Teutonic ancestors, for their primitive condi- 
tion had the rare combination of Ix'inf; synchronous with 
writinir, imported no doubt from abroad, but none the less 
invaluable as ^'iviui;' us authentic reccn-ds of the manners of a 
race when passin<;' through the transi' ii from barbarism to 

Th'' editor of the Aiic'n'i(iti:i jjiin (/,:■< Fnin^'ids declares that 
"the history of marriage in early Gei'man law is the story of 
its fi'radual enfranchisement from the forms of a sale, and the 
substitution of other forms more consistent with its ethical 
character". A study of the Gei-manic codes of the early 
midiile aj^es shows that as the l)arbarian entered the sta^'e of 
civili, ion, a father made it a point of honour to decline the 
price whir-h by usa<4'e oujfht to be paid him by the bride- 
{rroom. ': "t the bridegroom on the other hand nuist have 
felt it to be a "leanness to sneak out of the customary pay- 
ment because r< ■ geiierous feelin<f of his father-indaw. If 
the bride<;Toom nisistid upon profi'eriii- it, and the father 
upon refusing it, the money would assuredly be given to the 
damsel herself. It became then the custom for the bride- 
groom at betrothal to pay a certain sum for the tirst kiss, and 
on the morning after the wedding a r^rtain further sum, the 
acknowledgment that tl. .n for the first time the bride had 
left the virgin state. The former was technically known as 
the kiss (oscle) and the other us the morning-gift (morgengabe). 
There seems to have been a little of the bargaining s])irit 
nnngled with too gallantry underlying these altered customs, 
for a widow on her second marriage was not entitled to the 
morning-gift, having lost no maiden state for which compen- 
sation might be gi\ru: yet the more gallant side of the 
question '^ clearly seen in the laws {A the Longobardi, who 
seem to think it needful to assign limits to the increasingly 
extravagant amount of the morning-gift. It was not to 
exceed a quai'ter of the bridegrow-ui's t;;)tal property. (Linden 
brog, book ii., tit. 4.) Kcvnigswiirter has collected a body of 



! I- 

details from tlu'Hc harhanaii laws, sliowiiiii' li<nv tlicyt'Xfnipliry 
"the hridd-priec, the m()niiii<,'-jj;il't, and tlie dowry as the three 
Hucce.s.sive phases in the ejiiancipation of woman ". 

The Scandinavian hail precisely the same course of pro- 
^'ress. First is tlie sak; of the woman. The father, the' 
brother, or, in the case of a widow with a ffrown-up family, 
the eldest son, had the rijfht to sell her, and if she ha<l children 
by any man who liad not paid for her, these were re^mrded as. 
bastards and intruders. In the seventh and ei<,dith centuries, 
of our era we tiud that the price is {,'iven to the woman lier- 
self; and then arises the necessity of limiting' the amount 
thus made over to tlie bride in the warmth of his weildin^ 
enthusiasm by tlie enamoure<l bride^Tooni. The limitation 
became necessary for various reasons, chief amonj,' which was 
the fact that there could be no witness to the compact made 
as to the morninf>'-ffift. Hence if at a subse<]uent date the 
husband died, the testimony of the widow was all that could 
substantiate the reality of the claim she made. She was by 
the law of early mediaeval Europe allowed to place her hand 
upon her heart and swear that the mornin<,'-{,dft assij^ned tO' 
her by her dead husband had amounted to so much. Thei-e 
was no appeal from that cmth. ( Lri/oiirf', p. 1 20.) Unscrupulous 
women would from time to time swear to the whole or i^^reater 
part of the property, which, thou^di a fair enou^di destination 
of her husband's belonjrin^s accordiuff to our ideas, was far in 
advance of these times ; and therefore the laws expressly set. 
limits to what a woman could claim. The evident outcome of 
this would be a system of Jointure, for the bride would be^ 
little satisfied with the husband at her side on the bridal 
morninjif if he assijrned her less than that fourth part which 
the law allowed ; and if he were surly enou{,di even then to 
refuse it, she would always in case of his death be able to- 
maintain her right by a little false swearing, whicli under tlie 
circumstances would seem fairly excusable to those rarely 
scrupulous ages. 

Among our Anglo-Saxon progenitors there ^ s exactly 
the same succession. First the sale: the laws ol Ethelbert 
are clear as to that point; for in.stance, law 76 says, "if a 
man buy a wife, let the price be paid ". This would be about. 


till! three 

<e of pro- 
itlier, tlie 
ip tuiiiily, 
il children 
ija riled as 

man lier- 
e amount 

,'liich wa.s 
)rtct made 

date the 
hat could 
ic was hy 

her hand 
siifued tO' 
I. There 
n- f^reater 
fan far in 
ressly .set. 
itcome of 
tvould be^ 
he bridal 
irt wliich 
then to 
i able to 
uider the: 
id rarely 

I exactly 
J-H, "if a 
be about. 


the middli- of the sixth century. Four centuries later the 

laws of Edniun.l the Eldt-r witness to a ;,'reat chancre for the 

belter; not only is it enacted that the free consent of the 

bride is absijlutely necessary in every marria^'e, but the in- 

tendino' bridey:room is ol)lio(.d at his betrothal to Hx tlie 

amount which he will ^rive his bride as a morninir-^rift 

(mor<;vn-u^ifu, on the day after his weddinjr. Nay, more, 

the custom of dower is prof,a'essin{r, for he must also state 

what proportion of his property he will settle on his wife to 

be hers if he die before her. Lappenberjr .says (ii., 33H) that 

the purchase money {riven to the father of the bride was at 

first the all-important itmu of the weddinj,' ceremony ; but 

that " afterwards the mornin^i-jrift to the bride herself <rrew 

into an object of {greater importance, while the purchase price 

l)ecame either a symbol, or was left to the iroodwill of the 

bride{,a'oom ". 

We trace the same aia^en among the Celtic peoples. In 
the earliest times the Welsh bought their wives, but in the 
laws of Howell (000 A.!).), as Woodward relates {ffiston/ of 
Wales, p. 185), it is provided that, the morning after her 
wedding, the bride, before she leaves her bed, must demand of 
the bridegroom the fee of her virginity, and he was bound 
either to give it, or to declare what it would be. But if the 
couple separated within seven years, he was entitled to receive 
back the payment he then made. The Celts of Gaul had 
reached a decidedly later stage ten centuries earlier ; for in 
CiBsar s time it is clear that the purchase money paid by 
the bridegroom was eiiualled by a present made to the bride 
by her father ; the united sum became the dower of the bride, 
to be her own absolute property if .she chanced to be left a 
widow, but passing into the possession of her husband if she 
died before him. (Cajsar, vi., 19.) 

By a singular coincidence, I possess Koenigswarter's own 
copy of his Etvdix Jfistariqnes, which is interleaved through- 
out and profusely annotated and enriched with additions for a 
second edition which he never publi.shed. In one of his manu- 
script notes he says, " A crowd of u.sages prove the ancient 
purchase of wives .unong the French ; but the price, which 
had originally been serious, became merely symbolic, a penny, 


t '■: I i 



a white slieep, a basket of fl 

and it i.s 

owers : or a bouquet was otferod 

more tlian^ probable that the nuptial H 

generally presented in French weddin..H d 

owers SO' 

from this aiicie 


■nt sj-ndjol of pure) 



08) to 

purcluise ". 
quotes the Ancintf Ir/ns 
the Ir 

raw theii- orimn 

of lirhdid (i., L 


•show that, amoiiL 
pnce went to the father of the bride, or, i/ he were dead to 
he head oi the tribe, but another portion was given b tl e 
^^^n to h. wife after their n.arriage. ^anke'sl': 
tha m Servia.even so late as the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, ,t was u.cund.ent on the bridegroom to brin. a co v 
in-esent and that the bride's father wis expected t^ ri f^ 
much, the whole going to form the dowe!- of the brid^ I 
cus on. d,st„.ctly redolent of the once prevailing p I;^: 
system, softened by the lapse of time, (i../, ,, 37) 

Ihe Christian Churcli in medi^Bval times took up ^he 
process of anjehoration at the point wherein the morniri-.-ift 
ad displaced the then forgotten p,„.chase money. It became 
the strumous cl.unpion of the en.ancipation of woman, a,: 
proportion as it strove to alter the marriage ceremony from a 
custoimay to a religious institution, it asserted and made .ood 
Its c aiin to interfere in all the wedding arrangements:^ It 
absolutely repudiated any i^nn of purchase, and maintained 
Mth all the thunder of excommunication and superstitious 
Icar, that marriage was the union of immortal souls, which 
cmly he Divine presence and sanction could ratity. How this 
Christian ideal arose ami fathered, its strength, I shall briefly 
consider the close of this chapter. Here I am concerned 
only with IS etieets upon the already half-etiected transi- 
ion ol purchase money into dower. It «-ave no countenance 
to he heathen practice by which the bride, still in her bridal 
bed coaxe her husband to make her an ample moriiino..,if 
All ha.I to be done under the eyes of the Church ; but mimdane 
questions o property must not be brought to the holy altar 

loo , the bridegroom. Ill the presence of the wedding .„ests 
declared the provision which he made for his bride, a m.rvisi„a' 
whieli was necessarily inoperative unless she became 1 wi ^ 
^M.en she could claim as her dower whatever property liad 



been montioue.l. It wus a .system that only oave method and 
pnbheity to tlie more ancient custom of the mornin<(-(.-ift. hut 
^t had immense advanta<,a>s, even in its pul.Hcity and^metliod 
Moreover, the priest was th.-re as an arbiter to see that justice 
was done, and it must constantly have liappened tl'iat lie 
refused to proceed with the marriage ceremony till he had 
heard the promise of some adequate provision undertaken in 
case the wife should become a M'idow. 

Sir Henry Maine truly says (Anrimf L>iw, p. 22-4) that the 
Church " never relaxed its solicitude for the interests of wives 
who survive.! their husl,, winning, perhaps, one of the 
niost arduous of its triumphs, when, after exacting f<n- two or 
three centuries an express promise from the husban.l at 
'uarriage to endow his wife, it at length succeeded in en- 
grafting the principle of dower on the customary law of all 
Western Eur.jpe ". By degrees this provision for the widow 
])ecame a more and more sacred thing. Even the condemned 
criminal or traitor, who in tlie earliest times forfeited all he 
had to the sovei-eign, was made participator in its beneficent 
nitontions. For the law was so altered that, while all else 
he had was ...nfiscated, the wife's dower was safe to her even 
agair.^it the most royal rapacity. (Pike's Huston/ of Crimr in 
Eiujlond, i., 428.) WJien this st ige was reached", no longer 
was the cruel spectacle Ijeheld of widows becoming the 
p/'oi.)Lrfy of their husbands' nearest male relatives, or of their 
own sons, to be ,sol<l as it seemed good to these. M.niy a 
woman w^as seen in the proud position of the head of a family 
holding in hoi' own right a large estate and dwelbng in her 
own castle. Or, it might be, the citizen's whlow, owner of 
the house she dwelt in, could draw the profits of the business 
left her by her husband. We sluiU have reason to see very 
shortly liow grudgingly men permitted the change, and 
with hoAV many limitations it was at first fettered. Truly 
human prog' has been slow and hardly won; iKiver the 
work of a timgle i,riumphant generation, but moving with 
a creep so invisible that only by the compaiison of periods 
many centuries apart can we see any sign of its glacier-like 



M i 


Woman Acquires a Status. 

It was of course inevitable that along with the transition 
Iron, the purchase of the wife, to the wholly opp^ iT^Z 
ot in vestn.,. her with property, there should ,'ow up T^Z 
dxfieren estunate of In,uence we hn thai 

::rti:'' T. t^-^^- —n Wan to ac,ui:^t 

status. In saNuge and barlianan life she has none ; whatever 
inHuence she n.ay have is not of rio-ht but only of avo no 
«ecure.l to her by law or custon. or any sense of justi ' u 
only by the n.lul,.ence, the condescension, the itiectionato 
,x>od-hu.nour of her husband or other owner. But w U tt 
tage of c,v,hsat.on, the woman slowly acquires a s tt^s 
«he IS no longer dependent for everything on the autoes' 
nod of her lord and master. She li rigJt, and th t^! 
.sense of the comnuinity will assist her in maintaining Them 

It would be useless, and tedious, to describe all the channds 
of history wherein the progress of woman's status is visiWe 
but I shal orter three as typical of all. I shall describ t 
decay o the power which the husband possessed m of 
.slaying, (2) of chastising, or (H) of divorcing h^^Jll^ 
pleasure. A glance at the laws of the inherit' nee of „ 
in so far as it artects females will conclude a sketcli tlL. n us't 
be —ly brie, and can have I. ^ 

Though the savage possesses the full right of superior murU 
ami may kill the wife whom he has bought to I J ^o^^ 

^:i:t x'''''^''' ^- 1^--- ^t - a right bij; 14 

exeic^sed Ihe woman bred to dependence and obedience 
f roni_ the beginning secures her safety by absolute and serv ie 
obedience, and as man is at no grade an absolute monster Ji 
auction and self-interest will combine to secure her Gener 
a ly also some little play of public opinion occurs to teml; 
his furies. Curr states that, even among the Austr^^hn 
n^ives, theexecration, the disapproval of the tribe, sc^ ^^ 
the active intervention of her friend, will deter a man fi'on 
actually speanng his wife to death, though no one v:il b 
likely to ,.t.rtere with hini if he merely beats her 

THE STATUS O,- WOM.. ,,„ „„ „„^„^^. ^^, ^^^^^,^ ^^^ 

-y t» »,,.„, „,„„„, „.i„,». iii.t at i * ; .■'I'Kiiur'','" ■' 

iuuina if von do nnt wn..f •* i . ^'^ "'"<,'. Kill tlic poor 

market value secures her a .«fW \' "^ ^''''"'^' ''^'' ^^ 

-selves the .ln.r ' , "•,7 position, as amoriL' our- 

-tuas the .lo^r which has cost umch money is ,„ore cert^ir, ,!f 
«ood treatment than the one which haf .strave.l ^ to 

JlOSSt'ssinn TUr. K i • nwayed nito OUI" 

nl^^rT. '«"-''""''^" niay stiJl slay his wife when he 

VOL. , ^^ '° ""■'■™»""'l. tl.„r»toi-e, l,ow c„,sto,„H 




1 1 


of various sorts ^a'ow up whicli, wliile nominally allowin<,' 
the husband the power of life and death, must practically 
limit it to a large extent. For instance there are races in 
which it very commonly occurs that, when a husband is 
dissatisfied with his wife's conduct, he calls lier relatives 
to<fether, or perhaps the chief men of the tribe or villa<,^e; he 
explains his grievances, and they incjuire into her conduct ; 
but if their sentence is death, none but the husband himself 
has tlie right to inHict it. She is his property; he has of his 
own free will, and to keep himself right in the eyes of his 
people, called in outsiders to judge between himself and her; 
but his alone is the power of life and death. This is a stage 
fully reached by the middle barbarians; among the upper 
barbarians it has attained to such a degree of prescriptiveness 
that no man would dare to kill his wife without the preliminary 
inquiry, and when that is the case there is a great tendency 
for the right of executing judgment to pass out of the hands 
of the individual and become a tribal matter. 

Thus we find in the patriarchal times of the Jews that the 
husband or nearest male relative has absolute right of life 
and death over the woman. But after tlie return from Egypt 
it is plain that this power is steadily merging in the com- 
munity. The unfaithful wife is still to be put to death at 
the husband's instance, but the execution is by stoning at 
the hands of the people. This death penalty for the un- 
chastity of woman belongs to the latest grade of barbarian 
life, and it declined among the Jews until, as we see in the 
Gospel according to John, it had become obsolete in practice, 
though still standing in the law. 

Even in the Mosaic law some little sign of mitigation is 
evident, for wdiile the wife is to be put to death, the concu- 
bine is only to be scourged for want of chastity. Yet the 
old personal jurisdiction of the husband is very clearly seen 
in regard to divorce ; for this lay wholly in his own hands 
and at his own pleasure. Under no circumstances whatever 
could a wife obtain a divorce, but the husband might dismiss 
her merely out of whim or su<lden suspicion. '• VV'Jien a man 
hath taken a wife, and married her, and it hath come to pass 
that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found 



lly allowinjf 
t pmctieally 
are races in 
liUNhanil i.s 
iier relatives 
r villatje ; he 
ler comluct ; 
band himself 
he has of his 
i eyes of liis 
elf and her ; 
is is a stage 
g the uj^per 
L'at tendency 
)f the hands 

ews that the 
fij4-ht of life 

from Egypt 
in the com- 

to death at 
'• stoning at 

for the iin- 
jf barbarian 
3 see in the 
! in practice, 

iiitigation is 
I, the concu- 
y. Yet the 
clearly seen 

own hands 
lea whatever 
ight dismiss 
k'hen a man 
jome to pasis 

hath found 


some uncleanness in her fhon ln+ i • •. , 

^Hvorcement,a„dgive in t'l , "V'"'' '^"' ' ^'" ^^ 
house." (D^ut xxiv 1 ''\,^'' ^ ^^"'^ ■'^«"^J ''er out of his 

l>ei.>g divorced, >„l,en positt T : ' "■■"; ""•'* ™' "' 

Ent.rta,nments is clear upon that point. It is said tlit t! 

"-V .■»g»i..«o,„ which wcr^:^;:!'l;':^''« °?.'' "- 

I'-iKip. iv.iprovidinrrfhnf U-f --^^-"-'- ■-louuced vivorau, 



I I 


■ ^ 



: 1 



was to l)(! slmt up in a scpiirub' room until eitlier her husband 
should rulent, or she sliould die in ordinary course. Here it 
is plain that the natural jurisdiction is supposed to beion.,^ to 
the husban.l ; and, indeed, with re^^ard to personal chastise- 
ment, the Koran is ([uite explicit. In chapter iv. we read: 
" Thosij (wives) of whose pi'rverseness ye shall be apprehensive, 
ye must rebuke, or remove them into separate apartments 

and chastise them ". 

But the Mohammedan law assuredly exhibited a certain 
proy-ress in the pcjsition of women. It copied horn the Mosaic 
law the principle that a husband mij>-ht repudiate his wife for 
the slightest disgust, but it allowed the wife the right of 
divorcr " for ill-usage, for want of suitable maintenance, or 
for neglect of conjugal .luties ". (Sale's Koran, " Prylim. Dis- 
course"" p. 96.) And then she had important rights of dower : 
" Your wives shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave 
if ye have no issue, but if ye shall have issue, then let 
them have an eighth part of what ye shall leave after the 
legacies are paid ". Tlie daughter always shares her father's, 
as'' well as her deceased brother's estate, and husbands are 
warned to deal fairly with all property thus aciuired by 
their wives. If a man divorces his wife, he can prove 
against her great immod(,'sty or notorious disobedience, he 
umst restore to her the dowry her father gave her, and all her 
inherited property ; but if she secure a divorce against him, 
whate^'er be her just ground of complaint, it is very rare that 
she can recover iicr dowry. And yet during many centuries 
past, the Mohammedans have been better than their law, for 
they " are seldom known to proceed to the extremity of a 
<livorce, notwithstanding the liberty given them, it being 
reckoned a great disgrace to do so ". (Sale's Koran, " Prelim. 

Discourse," p. 90.) 

Even the right to thrash a wife, though so explicit y laid 
down in the Koran, has yielded to the silent flow of the tide 
of sympathy. It is rai-ely exercis.'d by people of any re- 
spectability in Mohammedan countries. Thus in Afghanistan, 
though the right is admittedly a legal one, no man of any 
self-respect would strike a woman : it he did, it would be 
reckoue.1 )> • Indelible disgrace. ( Perrin, Z* .1 f'/ha n istan, p. 81 ,) 




ler hnsbaiKl 
e. Here it 
() l)eloiig to 
ill cliawtise- 
V. we read : 

m1 a certain 
1 the iMosaic 
liis wife for 
he right of 
[itcnance, or 
Prelim. Dis- 
ts of (lower : 
e shall leave 
,ue, then let 
ve after the 
her father's, 
nsbands ai"c 
acquired by 
he can prove 
)bedience, he 
r, and all her him, 
ery rare that 
my centuries 
heir law, for 
tremity of a 
em. it being 
'•a 71, " Prelim. 

jxplicit \ '.did 
w of the tide 
le of any re- 
. Afghanistan, 
man of any 
, it would be 
rninlnn, p. 81.) 


Polygamy itself, which is always a symptom of incomplete 
conjugal affection, is steadily yielding to the same growth of 
.sympathy, and in general the position of women in lands that 
are under the control of Islam is extremely characteiistic of 
the lower and middle civilisation. It is very mucli like that 
which Rohlf as.sert.s of the women in Morocco (p. 42), that on 
the one liand the wives are lun-er badly treated ; that they 
are rarely set to do the hard bodily labour ; and that they much influence ovei' their liu.sbauds ; but that on the 
other hand the men have an overwhelming sense of their own 
superior clevei-ness and importance; the females are rarely 
taught to read: and their place is in the background, whei-ein, 
if they modestly content themselves, the males as a rule show 
them much condescending kindness. 

The Chinese, who are at the same stage of progress, treat 
theii- women in similar fashion. Dr. Williams says {Tin; 
Miilillr Kiiif/dom, ii., 2.38) that the position of woman, legal, 
.social, domestic, is fairly high, even though she is kept (pxite 
uneducated, very few ladies even of high rank being able to 
read. In the book of rites it is prescribed that after the age of 
ten a girl ought not to go out of her father's house till she 
is married. Even then her father should bring a palanquin 
to the door ; she should step into it, and the door should 
be locked, the key being taken to the bridegroom, wlio alone 
has the right to unlock the palaiKjuin at the door of his own 
house. (Martin's Chiii'i, i., .39.) And yet Dr. Coltman, who, as 
a practising physician among the Chinese, .saw for long years 
their inmost domesf 'C life, declares that women have no little 
influence, and lie describes anuising cases in which wives 
successfully defied their husbands to bring concubines into 
their houses. (T/ic Chinese, p. 99.) 

It is impossible for the wife to obtain a divorce from her 
husband on any plea, but the husband can divorce her Avithout 
difficulty. Nothing is needed but th(! formal expression in 
writing of his will that she should depart: and yet divorce ia 
extremely rare. (Doolittle, i., 107.) A man has in law ihn v'vj^t 
to kill a faithless wife if caught in the act, but he muwt kill 
her paramour also. Yet in modern tirtrr^ the priictice and 
the law are at variance, husbands being cowlennied by public 

f t « 

c. ;■ • ! 


opinion lor any such act of violence. It i.s doubtful, however, 
whether the new syHtem is at all times an improvement, for 
Arcli.leacon Gray tolls us {Chiiw, {., 227) that a really faithless 
wife IS sold by her liusband, aiid as a rule lie receives the best 
price from the keeper of some house of vice. 

The early Chinese precepts rcfjuired a woman to be sub- 
missive rirst to her father, then to her husband, lastly to her 
son ; but it is one of the benelits of Confucianism that it has 
destroyed the last form of bondaj^re ; for the <,a-eat philosopher 
taught the extreme beauty of filial devotion, and in thu- deep 
respect which is due from the son to his parents, the mother 
is treated as of eciual honour with the father. R. K. Douf,das, 
in his little work on Confucianism and Taouism, thus sums up 
the position of the Chinese woman (p. 124) : t' A slavish sub- 
mission is a woman's highest duty; it is only when she 
becomes a mother that she receives the respect which is due 
to her, and then the inferiority of her sex disappears before 
the requirements of filial love, which are the crown and glory 
of China. For conjugal fidelity on the part of tlu' husdjand 
Confucius has no overweening respect, hut it is the inteivst 
as well as the duty of the wife to pay him due reverence in 
all things, to be courteous, humble, and conciliatory. It is 
regarded as a matter of course that the husband of a childless 
wife should take a concubine, a practice which is a fruitful 
source of great misery." The same views are exemplified in his 
chapter on Marriage in his work on Sodrtii in China. Ac- 
cording to Doolittle (i., 27), husband and wife generally eat 
at the same table together, as do also the adult children. But 
if guests happen to be pre.sent, the women must retire into the 
inner apartments. 

In Japan the position of women a gen«^ration ago was 
somewhat of the same kind, though they wore undoubtedly 
rather less subservient, and the men were more gallant to- 
wards their women than was customary in China. Miss Bird 
(juotes from old precepts ( ^«/yc'a^'« Tracks in Japan, p. 823) 
that " the wife has no lord or master but her husband ; there- 
fore she must do his bidding and not repine. A wife must 
not be jealous if her husband be unfaithful to her: she shall 
alwa^ys keep to her duty, rise early and work till late at 

! : t1 


il, however, 
.'ement, f'oi* 
ly faithless 
'es the best 

to l)e Hub- 
stly to lier 
that it ha.s 
a the deep 
;he mother 
.. Douglas, 
IS sums up 
avish sub- 
wJien she 
ich is due 
ars before 
and glory 
i< husband 
le inteivst 
'^erence in 
'ry. It is 
X childless 
a fruitful 
lied in his 
ilia. Ac- 
erally eat 
ren. But 
6 into the 

ago was 
illant to- 
MisH Bird 
% p. 323) 
d; there- 
•^ife must 
she shall 
1 late at 


night." Steinmetz says {Japan and her People, p. 253) that 
the women "an sulijcct to no seclusion; they hold a fair 
station in society, and share in all the innocent recreations of 
fathers and husbands, the fidelity of the wife and the purity 
of tiie maid being generally left to their own honour. Yet 
women are in a state of tutelage, and without legal rights ; 
tiieir evidence is inadmissible in a court of justice. A hus- 
band may introduce as many concubines as he pleases, and 
women so introduced are not regarded as dishonoured. A 
man may divorce his wife at his pleasure, but, unless he can 
show good cause for dissatisfaction, he must support her for 
the rest of her life." 

A Japanese woman could never on any pretext obtain a 
divorce, and no sort of obloquy attached itself to the incon- 
tinence of the men, which was general and continuous. It 
is a well-known fact that the Government of Japan kept in 
its own employment something like 20,000 courtesans. These 
girls were bought from their parents at the age of seven or 
eight years, and trained to the accomplishments most appre- 
ciated in Japan. They entered on their career of ministering 
to lascivious pleasures at the age of about fourteen, and re- 
mained at it until twenty-four, when the Government, which 
had meanwhile supported them and made a profit from them, 
jjHve them a sum of money and discharged them. It was 
open for one of these girls at any time to marry if the bride- 
gi-oom compensated the Government for the loss of her 

These courtesans were divided into four classes, and re- 
sided in special districts, two parts of Tokio being reserved 
for them. Of these the most fashionable was Sinagawas, to 
which the wealthy citizen repaired in the afternoon with his 
wife and family- to be entertained. As the evening grew late, 
it was the general custom for the husband to send hou.e the 
family, while he remained to indulge in the more immoral 
pleasures to which the night was devoted. (Laurence Oliphant, 
China and Japan, ii., 494.) Sir Henry Loch corroborates details, and the Rev. GvAy iyixon{Land of the Murning 
Sim, p. 474) rather intensifies the picture. ITa s, 7=^ that the 
real state of morality of married women in Japai .. not easily 

i ! 





"i \ 





! r 



(liscovore.1, but with the men th.u-e is no prt-tonco of morality 
m our sense. Courtesans use.l to fonn htrj^e districts uud.M- 
Crovennnent nianaj,^ement, and the wife had n.oro the appearance 
of a liousekeeper than a true partner. Concubina^^e everywliere 
prevaded. This last writer tells n.e that in nianv country 
hotels there is inserted in the scale of charfr,,s affix.-l to the 
doors the price for a female companion to be provided by the 
landlord, ,f re.iuire.l. I ^mther from the narratives of several 
inissionanes that an analo^^ous custom exists in several parts 
ot Chuia. '■ 

Thus we are preparetl to some extent to agree with Heiu-y 
Norman when he tells us (The Ecnt Japan, p. 180) that "the 
ove which comes of a perfect intimacy an.l mutual know- 
ledge can rarely be between man and wife". The asse.^tion is 
probably too strong, for the fundamental affections of human 
nature must exist in Japan as elsewhere, and many circun.- 
stances nulicate i^.y ,,n-eat conjugal tenderness, though not 
the sweetest, nu., ,i.,U alongside of nnich male unchastitv 
Norman nmself u lis us (p. 174) that the won.en are treated 
well; and thai 1 1.03- are singularly characterised by "an in- 
born geiitleness, terrierness, and sympathy". For 100 .lays 
after her confinement a mother is nursed as an invalid with 
every sort of care )oured lavishly upon her. Girls receive 
the same education as boys, even the humblest being tau-dit 
to read and write. (Steinmetz, p. 262.) All visitors to Japan 
are struck by the pleasing address of the men, and the natural 
civdity winch they show to all. Women are characterised 
throughout their lives by a school-girl happiness ; a smile 
IS ever ready, a ripple of laughter runs through all their 
days. It their status is inferior they desire no other; just as 
a girl of ten among ourselves feels it nowise irksome to be 
dependent, and contentedly tills her life with the rosy happi- 
ness of irresponsibility. ^^ 
In Siam the position of the women is equally happy 
though considerably lower in legal status. Miss Cort tells us 
OS'_rn», p 168) that "they are never educated, all the schools 
being filled only with boys; yet they are happy, bright and 
winning ; they have plenty of influence, yet are made to 
understand their complete inferiority to men ". Karl Bock 


of morality 
itricts under 
i iippcfii-aiiro 
iiiy country 
ixf'l to tlie 
ided ])y the 
s of several 
iveral parts 

vith Henry 
') that " the 
tual know- 
a.sso'fion is 
i of luiman 
ny circuni- 
houj^-h not; 
ire treated 
)y "an in- 

100 .hiys 
ralid, with 
rls receive 
n^' tau^lit 
s to Japan 
he natural 
; a smile 

all their 
'r; just as 
onie to be 
)sy liappi- 

rt tells us 
le schools 
■i^'ht and 
made to 
arl Bock 

myHiTen,p/rs a,,/ Elephants,^,. m\) that the "Sianu.s.. wife 
akes rank with her husband, and has ail the ma.ia.en.ent .>f 
the household The won.en in Lao, as well as in Sian.. 
exercise a good deal of authority. But of education there is 
none for the female sex and little more for the other." Miss 
Cort asserts (p. 200) that the husband can divorce ' ife 
whenever h.. ,,l,.ases, and that neither the law nor t,, ...ral 
-se_nt„„ or the p.ople interieres with bis right to turn his 
wife out if it suits him to do so. 

In Burmah the position of won..,, is analogous. JJ.ut - 
General Fytche as,sures us {H„nn.k,n.,n) that "woman is 
there not the mere slave of passion, but has e.,ual rights, and 
IS the recognised and duly honoured helpmate of A 
Burmese seldom .loes anything without first consulting his 
wife. \\ omen are generally married about seventeen to nine- 
teen years of age to the man of then- choice, the parents very 
.sehk)m u.terfering, n.ore than to advise. A wife can demand 
a divorce for ill-treatn.ent if her husband cannot properly 
nmintam her. He can obtain a divorce for barrenness or 
nihdeiity. Serious quarrels however are rare, polygamv very 
unconnnon. and the ol,server cannot but be struck wiUi the 
contentment, happiness, goo<l-humour, courtesy, and well-bre.l 
treedom of tlieir manners." 

Effect,s of Vaiuou.« Religions. 

The main factor in .securingthisgreatersecurity, this kindlier 
consideration and truer eompanionship for women has been 
the ,st,eady growth of human sympathy, which has placed a 
benehcent restraint on the rule of superior strength. But the 
reign of sympathy has been immensely favoured where it has 
been methodised and emphasised in religious form: for if the 
founder of a religion is an enthusiastic preaclu^r of humanity 
ifhis^soul IS filled with tenderness and pity, if he can add to 
the charm which people see in gentleness and compassion, all 
the terrors of future penalties for cruelty and oppre.ssion, 
then he may do much to make the highest ideal of his time 
become more rapidly current among the generality 




I 1 1 


■s" ^ 



"«IE8 125 

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" lis iio 

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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 








Four religions have iiotiil)ly assisted in tliis process : the 
En^yptiaii, tlie Zoroastrian, but more especially tlie Buddhist 
and the Christian. Tlie Eg^-ptian was the" first religious 
system known to us into which sympathy (or love as it is so 
often called) entered as a distin?tive element. As Tiele says 
(Histori/ of Em/ptian JMir/ioi,, p. 220), "Some of its maxims 
are very beautiful, inculcating pity and loving-kindness, 
mildness, chastity, the protection of the weak and a kindly 
(h'sposition towards inferiors". He juotes the eulogy of a 
nobleman descril)ed as being " laitliful to his mother, zealous 
for his mistress, sweet of speech and courteous towards great 
and small. His love was the food of the poor, the blessing of 
the weak, and the riches of him who liad nothing." 

The conse(|uences of a teaching so sympathetic, whenever 
it became iiiHuential, must have been to improve the position 
of women : and so we find at a very early date a comparatively 
liigh female status in Egypt. Sir J. G. Wilkinson asserts 
{Anciait Hm/ptianx i., 4) that "in the treatment of women 
they seem to have been very far advanced. It was not a 
mere influence which they possessed. It was a right ac- 
knowledged l)y law both in private and public life/' He 
describes the great mutual atiection of wedded couples, and 
notices the terms of endearment whicli on the monumental 
sculptures they use to each other as well as to their children. 
" In short," he concludes, " they were the most Darby and 
Joan people possible, and they shared the same chair at home, 
at a party, and even in their tomb where sculpture grouped 
them together" (p. 145). 

^ Diodorus (i., SO) asserts that polygamy, except among the 
priests, was common in Egypt, but Herodotus is very explicit 
(ii., 92) in declaring that monogamy was the rule. Both may 
be right: for Diodorus, though, the later writer, was describing 
very ancient coiiditijns, while Herodotus, though the earlier, 
was describing what he saw : it is no way unnatural therefore 
to suppose that religion may have introduced the custom of 
monogamy among the priests, and that it may have slowly 
spread even to tlie highest of the laity, while among the 
common people it was of course bound to be the general rule. 
But all authorities are agreed that the Egyptians had 


rocess : the 
V. Buddhist 
t reli^nous 
as it is so 
Tiele nays 
ts maxims 
. a kindly 
iloffy of a 
er, zealous 
■aids ^freat 
ble»Hiiig of 

le position 
on asserts 
of women 
.vas not a 

right ac- 
ife." He 
uples, and 
' children. 
>arhy and 
1' at home, 
3 grouped 

Linong the 
•y explicit 
Both may 
lie earlier, 
custom of 
^'e slo'Ady 
nong the 
leral rule. 
tians had 



concubines always either bought or captured. Yet Eb.n-s says 
iJ^fWt a,,. /.. Bool. ./ JW,, i., .-307) that "wives lived as 
honounjd la.hes of the hcn,se, and e.ijoyed a free intercour^ 
bung al ou'^d to appear n. public, and at social gatherings 
I the higher ranks, especially, the mutual tenderness of 
iiiairied couples en.led only with their lives. Adultery was 
one o the forty-two capital sins, and it is worth nl^r: 
that the husband as well as the wife had to declare his 
mnocence of it when passing the judges of the lower world " 

.£!T\ Tr ^"- ''^' '^'''' '" "°'"^^" ^°»-^t-l of 

:; ci:;ja^: '^^ -^^^^ ^^"^'^ '^- p-^-- -« -tigatea 

On a somewhat equal level was the ideal of woman in the 

uuly cradle of the Aryan races; in the sacred book of Zara- 

lashtra the young couple at marriage are thus addressed 

if et' ;;■' ^' " " P"'^' ^"" "'"^' ^«*^^ -^^''^ '- -- the love 
•o each her, only thus will you be led to joy". 8ir J 

Malco in declares with justice that from the earliest times of 
their known history they were monogamous, and that their 
nannei. were softened by a certain .spirit of chivalry. P. . 
es.sor Geiger thinks that in the primitive Avesta people 
ol gamy was not forbidden (ii., 09), but he agrees (i., .53, 
hat m the old Iranian home the wife was the house-mistress 
the con.pan.on in all things of her husband. "At marriage' 
lie bridegroom demande.l that the purity of the bride .^hould 
be unstained; after her marriage the wife was to be obedient 
but by no nieans slavish." Rawlinson also says in his Audcnl 
J/.».r./a,.(ni.,7C) that "the Aryan races seem in ohl times 
to iiave treated their women with a certain chivalry which 
allowed them the full <levelopment of their physical powers • 
I" the \ ispara.l. we find that all respectable women are 
summoned to partake of the sacred meal prepared for the 
sp.nts (Haugs /'..,s;,, p. i;);^); ,,,1 i„ tj,, Ven.iidad, it is said 
that when a youth after his tiftee.ith year fre.juents the house 
ot a courtesan, then at the fourth step as he departs from lier 
the ev.l demons take possession of his tongue and of his marrow,' 
and proceed to destroy all the goodness that was in bin, 
(Hang, p. mi) Alu,rtion is one of the sins Never- 
theless we know from hi.story (Herodotus, i., 135 • v 18 • and 



Hi i 


■ii^:i-i(f ; 


8tral)0, XV., '.]) that when tlio Persians wciv Mrst known to tlie 
Cirouks, concuhines were i'reely taken hy the men. 

The tisachiiif^.s of the Zoroastrian religion run into tliose oi' 
Brahniiiiisni, in the sacred l)ooks of whicli we tind niucli more 
c'xphcit statements as to tlie early status oi' women amon(;' 
Aryan peoples. They indicate that condonation oi' legal 
inferiority with practical kindliness of treatment which is 
characteristic of civilisation in its middle .stages. The 
ordinances of Mann, enjoin (v., 14S) that " in her childhood a 
girl shouhl he under the will of her father; in her youth 
untler that of her husband ; in her widowhood under that of her 
sons; a woman ought never to enjoy her own will, but him to 
whom her father gives her, she must obey while he lives, and 
wdieii lie is dead she not disregard him ". And yet we 
read (iii., ,55), " Women are to be honoured and adorned by 
their fathei's and brothers and by their husbands. Where 
women are lionoured, there tlie gods rejoice. Where women 
grieve, that family (juickly perishes. In whatever family the 
husbanil is pleased by the wife, and so also the wife by the 
husband, truly prosperity therein is ever firm." 

Manu provides that husbands may atlminister corporal 
punishi.ieiit to their wives. " If your wife, • slave, pupil, 
or younger brother commit a fault, beat tli( th a cord or 

with a bamboo cane, but only on the back of cuo body" (viii., 
299). The liusban<l is not allowed the liberty of divorcing 
his wife at pleasure ; on the contrary, there is to be " mutual 
lidelity ending in death alone" (ix., 101). But while the 
unchastity of the wife is to meet a fearful penalty, that of 
the husband is regarded as venial. " If a woman should prove 
false to her husband, the king should have her devoured by 
dogs in some iiiucli-fre<iuented place." The paramour who. 
seduces the wife, and so interferes with the husband's rights, 
is heavily punished—" burned on a glowing hot iron couch 
until con.sumed" (viii., ;}72). But a small tine is all that 
punishes the man who gratiHes himself with wanderiiKr 
women, actresses, and servant girls. If he deflower an un- 
willing maiden, he is to receive corporal puni.shment, but if , 
the girl coii.sent a small tine is inflicted. This infidelity on 
the husband's part is not to be resented liy the wife. " Thou<di, 

own to the 

to those of 
tnucli iiiore 
It'll iunoii^ 
11 of le^al 
t whic'li is 
\^tiH. The 
hilcUiood ii 
lier youth 
that of her 
hut him U) 
hvus, anil 
11(1 yet we 
;loriie(l by 
s. Where 
-•re Women 
family the 
ife hy the 

• corporal 
sive, pupil, 
I a cord or 

i " mutual 
while the 
y, that of 
)ul(l prove 
'oured by 
uour who 
:l's ri^dits, 
ron couch 
I all tliat 
.'r an un- 
lit, but if 
idelity on 

" Though. 


■of bad conduct or debauched, or even devoid of o(„),l .pialitius, 
a husband must always be served like a o-(I^l l)y a o-oo.l 
wife" (v., 154). And yet the man may divorce his wife " if 
he find her blameworthy, sickly or corrupt" (ix., 72). 

But Buddhism, as the first relio-ion in wdiicli the law of 
sympathy was made' supreme, effected much in promotinfj 
the elevation of women from this standard which was only 
nioderately liigh. Bishop Bi^ra„,let, i,i his Lifr of Gaudnnw 
(n., 88, footnote), says that "the comprehensiveness of Bud- 
<lliism, its tendency to brinn' all men to the .same level and 
allow of no difierence save that of superior virtue, all 
have mi<,ditily worked in elevatino- the character of woman. 
Hence in those countries where Buddhism has struck a deep 
root, the condition of the women has been much improved, 
and place<l on a footing far superior to what she occupies in 
those countries where that system is not the prevalent one." 
Rhys Davids, in a footnote to his Jliuhlhist llirth ^Vw/vV.s (p. 
204), declares that it is a " striking proof of the high estimate 
in wliich women were held among the early Buddhists that 
they are several times declared to have I'eached the highest 
>itage of spiritual excellence, rarely reachi'd by any one "r 

Without exception, those religions which have the feeling 
of humanity, and a deep sentiment of .sympathy as their 
foundation, liave proceeded from an elevated estimate of 
woman to an appreciation of male purity. For as the duty 
of the woman to Ije chaste has been established in previous 
stages, as she sufi'ers degradation by the loss of purity, the 
man of right feeling will hold it a cruel and dishonourable 
thing to seduce her. This tendency co-operates with the 
sentiment of conjugal .sympathy and other less efiicient causes 
to form a sense of purity in men which then for the first time 
appears. In the ordinances of Manu (ix., 50-52, 59, 146) a 
very worldly and rather sordid view is taken of chastity in 
men. But the teachings of Gaudama, the Buddha, constantly 
reiterate, " Beware of the passions and particularly of concu- 
piscence ". Bishop Bigaudet (Life of Biuldha, ii., 50) says that 
the great teacher "desired to maintain the members of his 
assembly in a stale of sjKitlesH purity ". He went no doubt 
to a mystical extreme, an extreme to which the good bishop, 













as a Koman Cutl.olio, is ,,uit,o wiHi,,.. t,, ro||„,v hi.n • Imt to 
us It .sce.ns us if |^„,l,llui ov.ishot ih. nmrk he'forlm.le 
ti.o inmiites of lus so ,„„ch as to look u,,on a 
woman. " By conversin^^ with women, one becomes ac,,uainte.l them ; ac,|uaintance he^^ets familiarity. kin.Ues passion, 
li^culs to tlie h.,ss ot virtue, an,I precipitates into the four states, 
ot punishment. It is, therefore, most prudent not to have anv 
conversation with then,.- But if a n.onk re.pnres to sp.-ak 
to a woman " let him consider as mothers those who are ohl 
enoufrh to he n.otlu-rs ; as elder siste,-s those who appear a 
little ol.ler than he: as youno^er sisters or chil.lren those tliat, 
are youn^^er than lie ". 

Buddha st.-ained his point nuich too far, no doubt when 
he msisted on the celibacy in addition to tlie unbroken 'virtue 
ot the protc-ssed members of his comnumity ; and the o^eatcst; 
of all .juahfications in the Buddhist eye was the triumph of a 
lite ot absohite repression of all sexual instincts. Tlie rtluri 
var-a, containing,, the record of early Bu.l.lhist morality 
insists in the loftiest way on tlie fundamental beauty of 
pur,t,y. "The pure man knows not death, he who is impure 
dwells with death " (iv., 1). " Morality brings happiness ; the 
body ,s free from pain ; at ni«-ht one's rest is peaceful and on one ,s still happy - (vi., 8). " He who is virtuous in 
body, speech, and mind obtains increasiiiir happiness here and 
m the other world." " They who -nve tiiemselves up to lust- 
tulness run after old age and death, as does the calf after its 
mother whon longing for milk " (iii., 4). In short, throughout 
Uiudama s teaching, the obligation of chastity is laid on meu 
even as upon women. 

The Tutelage of Women. 

But on the whole the Buddhist and Brahmin represent in 
modern tunes only the Aryan ideal seen of old in early Greece 
and Rome. Grote tells us (i., 475) that in Greek leo;nd and 
poetry a certain reverence attaches to women. Duruy ao-rees 
with this opinion, but h.azards the risky a«.sertion that "love 
111 our sense of the word was 

-ntiiig," whicli is true only if 


iiii ; hut to 
lio rorl)ji<lo 
<)l< upon a 
I's passion, 
I'our states. 
) Iiavi' any 
■< to spoak 
ho are old 
' appear a 
those that 

lubt, when 
•cell virtue 
le <i;reatest 
nupli ol" a 
le rdaiia- 

1 Morality, 
Jeauty of 
is impure 
iiess; the 
ul and on 
rtuoiis in 

here and 
p to hist- 
' after its 

i on 


fcsent in 
y Greece 
end and 
y agrees 
at " love 
i only if 

it nioans the sensuous si.le of the sexual relations still 

c S , ^'^.">""l''^^''<'^■- 'i^'- ->"-n was hound to, while lor man there was .„> sueh ohli^ation. At 
Athens n. her most polished time, a woman could not possess 
P-perty, nor yet be heiress to her own lather. If u man 


A woman was married at the a^^e of fifteen or sixteen 

apamnents. She rare^^ went abroad, was never seen at 

^utt.0., at .ames or at feasts, and even in her own house 

J not allowed to s.t at meals with her husband if male 

^uest were present. (Lecky, J^ur,,>e,n> Moral., ii., 2«7 ) Sir 

•la k and almost impenetrable veil are hid.len the wives the 

sisters, and the dau-diters of the ,n,.,. «,i 

,. ... . 'Will ^> ot the men whose names are 

amiliai words in Grecian history". "And yet," says 
Lccky, ni their own restricted sphere, their liv s we^^e 
probably not unhappy Education and custom rendered the 
purely domestic life a second nature, aiul it must have in 
.nost instances reconciled them to the extra-matrimonial con- 
nections in which their husbands too fre,uently indul«-ed. 
I he prevailing, manners were gentle, and domestic oppression 
IS scarcely ever spoken of; a feeling of warm afH-ction, though 
not of e,,uahty, must daubtless in most cases have spontane- 
ously arisen." (J/om/,s-, ii., 288.) 

Aristotle contrasts tlie honourable position of the Greek 
wife with the slave-like dependence of women in "he lit 
harian races. _ His picture of a good wife vividly realises for 
us an nnprovnig, though far from perfect ideal. " A L^ood 
and perfect wife ought to be mistress of everything within 
the, and she should manage the expenses laid out upon 
.such festivals as her husband has agreed with her to keep 
Nothing contributes so much to the commendation of a 
woman, as good management in .lomestic afikirs, and a noble 
and comely manner of life. She ouglit to show lierself a 
tellow-counsellor to her imsband, so as to assent to what 
pleases hnn; .she ought to be obedient to her husband and 

i ' 



272 T„K oHT.ix Ax„ r.nouTii or- tiik moral instixct. 
1. u to ho, ()I,s,,.v,no. sucl, .•UI..S as tlicse, tho wife ou.-ht 

/7. . . iii<^ii('i or lioher tic can cvi'^f " 

In 1,0th Greoce au.l Ron.o tho letter of oM laws ro 

k:: ,"::;, ""7"'" f r-"" '"-• -«" "»" oft::, iv L: ." 

"races Knt „ " T, ■* »B.lnrtivo clian,, of civiliscl 

« *. „" Vli; ;'" "T° "'■ ■""'"■"-' » "■'■"'« ™« bv tl, 

c na.tion ot the Roman ladies with those of Greece "For 
tvke he : r "' 7 • ^--vin^.-room ,loe,s the matron no 

in Smiths classical dictionary, out of 1328 Greek his 
Roman historical names h; per cent, are female, a 




cliiviioc wliicli indicates a 

veiy much iiicreaHod parti 


ol wo.u.n m tlu- life of the ti.„es : a participation ,|,nte e.|ual 
to that in the En^larKl of the eiohtventh century, for in 
Leek3-'s Instory of that pc^riod only (i per cent, of the persons 
named are female, and in Loi-d Malion's only (j-3 per cent. 

Sir Henry .Maine tells miAnrlnit Za//, p. 158) that the 
perpetual tutela^^e of women " was an institution known to 
the oldest Roman law, l)ut from mature Roman Jurisprudence 
It had entirely disappeared ". Monuusen (ii., 40«) dates the 
emancipation of women at Rome from the second century 
before Christ. But in the time of Justinian, to .(uote once 
more the learned Maine, "jurisconsults assumed the ecjuality 
of the sexes as a principle of their code of ecjuity ". Woman 
was somewhat restricted in the disposal of her property, but 
"control of her person was apparently (juite obsolete". This 
was no outcome of le^-islative enactments, but the result of 
silent crrowth. of an undercurrent of sympathy which is the 
most precious as well as the most potent factor of civilisation. 
It has already been shown, however, that this feelino- had not 
proceeded far enou-h to place the two sexes on an e(iuality 
m reo-ard to the obli^-ation of chastity. The " Lex Julia de 
Adulteriis," while it provided for the punishment of adultery 
on the part of a wife, was absolutely silent as to the least 
shade of culpal)ility on the part of an unfaithful bust ] 
The hiirhest point which Roman moralists reached wa , 
very much analof.-ous to tliat of Aristotle. " Of course," they 
practically preached, "a man is actin^^ within his legal' ri^irht, 
and no one can say he is doinj-- anything actually wrong in 
hvnig as licentiously as he pleases, but if he is wise he will 
marry, and, for the sake of the great domestic comfort it will 
brnig him, he will remain faithful to the wife he has chosen." 
No moral law was l^roken, but only the dictates of prudence: 
nmch as we should say that among ourselves a man who spends 
every penny he earns, though perfectly at liberty to do so if 
he pleases, is yet in his own interests to be warned against it. 

The nobler doct 
raised as an ethic i 
VOL. I. 

Effects of Chrlstianity. 

' of the beauty of 
1 among the Romans 

purity was first 
by Christianity, 

! I 

, H' 

i. I i 


■V !■; 



I 1 



vylMch tol,.mt,>.l no Hud. wurl,lly-Mm„l,..|, of n.axi.u. What 

I'- l.-.^MlMsts l.H.l tat.^fht with ,nu,.I, Fautastic a.ln.ixtnn. th. 

.nstams, at first without rxtmva;,^anc., as a 

WlH'u ('hnstiunity WHS Hrst ro,n,,l...| thnv wnv seattrn..! 
i.-ouo-h al .hu\.a su.all connuunities oi' JWurs, whos. ori-nn 
-as h,.n. th. sul,j..ct of ...ud. as y.t ineondusiv.. speculation. 
llH'y ha.l ^n'own up unr.otic-.l ,hn-in- the previous century 
unostentatiously perhaps, as iJappite and other reh'-ious con,- 
"imnti,.s have u,,,wn .hiring, our own time in America an.l else- 
v.-h,M-e. Hut no one who the fraKiuentary .lescrir.tions 
..I Josephus an.l I', aft..- an a,le.,uate perusal of Hu'hihist 
literature, can avoid the stron^r suspicion that n.ystic notions 
"t IH'nty ha.l percolate.l fnmi the east an.l hlen.le.l with 
•i^' n,.,notheisn, to forn. at least tlu- kernel ol' the new 
.■"thus.asn.. For while the Kssenes n.aintaine.l the .lutv of 
love and w.,rship towanls Uo.l, an.l had not only a .'.•eat 
veneration f..r the Mo..;aic law, hut also a strong, infiltration of 
Mosaic ceremonial, yet the features which .listino.uishe.l the.n 
ro,n then- neio-hhours were such as ha.l till then been tau.d.t 
l>y 1 u.l.Iha, an.l by him alone. They abhorr..,! the she.l.lh...' 
of bloo.1 of any creature; they abominate.l M-ar: they tauolft 
the utmost snnplicity of numners, an.l a love to all men that 
could suHer no bounds of nation or of race, thouo-h not unsus- 
ceptible to the biootry of cree.l. But, above all, they re.-ar.led 
d.astity m man just as in woman to be. as Lecky calls it 
the i.leal sanctity ". Most of them refused to marry, carry' 
HI- the suppression of the passions to that extent ; some were 
allowe.l to marry, but with the Bu.Mhist provision that no 
sensuous purpose was to be serve.l but only the holy .luty of 
peophn.. the world. Now Bu.l.lhism was f^ve cenhiries ol.l 
at his time. and. under the devout ascendency of Kin-.- 
Asoka. It ha.l reache.l its culmination of inHuence, sprea.lin" 
tvist an.l west its ramifications of enthusiasm. Wlu.ther the 
Essenes were in truth only Jews who had been infecte.l by 
the new i.lea s of sympathy and purity, it woul.l perhaps be 
rash to cunclu.le, but there is probability in the supposition. 
At any rate, we know that, in Syria of the time of Jesus, .-reat 
respect, though sometimes minyled with a little ridicule" was 

:ai- [Nsti.\(T. 

•r iiiaxiiii, W'lijit 
ie iKlinixturr tlio 
i'ava;,qiiiet', as a 

1' were scitttfrcd 
ifs, whose origin 
iivt' spoculiitidii. 
•cvious ci'Dtiuy, 
■r I'cliyioiis colli- 
iiiorieii and v\sv- 
n-y (Ic'scriptioiis 
sal of Huddhist 
mystic notions 
I hlcndi'd M'itli 
iit'l oF the now 
cil tlie duty of 
t 01 dy a ;,'n'!it 
J^ infiltration of 
nj,niislu'd them 
en been tauj,dit 

I the slu'd(Hn<,'' 
V : they tan^iht 
to all men timt 
iio'h not unsus- 

tliey reo-arded 
Lecky calls it, 

marry, carry- 
it ; some were 
k'isiou tliat no 
' holy (hity of 

centuries old 
incy of Kinf,r 
nee, spreadinj,'' 

Whether the 

II infected by 
*l perliaps be 
^' supposition, 
if Jesus, <rreat 

ridicule, was 

'-■il'":;:;:;:;;:,;:, • '■■ '-"""^- -y^''- >^'"™ 

the sensuous. ' ' "" ''"'ninioi, ,,r 

Wliat was essentiallv "ood ii, d,,. i.' , 

tl." baptist and -Jesus fund/' • iTl '''''"'"■ ■^"''"' 

""tl'ino. of its -nvs i. ^^ 'th redoubled .-n.phasis, losing. 

•■l."-.^s. n .; u u.7v'''l ■ ''"'"''""^ '^^ ''"'^-ti^ 
.at.MhecnutyC :s^;':/7'^^V^r-"«''tt '^i- 

insisted on visitin n .. > ■ '""''" ^"^"■^^•••--"•. '".t he 

-omenJ,ut it lu I: 'r ;'"''f •■'•■'' it^ I"'"I>--ty in 
^^^, ^^^ J. ^__ n as the n.ere u.strnn.ents for the ..atiHcalion 

■mpo». „,,„„ w,„„o„. lint ,vl,ilj , , V , ■ ''■"'>■"'■'" '" 

iimiK iiciii^r las actions witliout nmch externa) f.n.i ■,.Uy p..„f„„,.„, .Ut™, e„e aUif.r'oTt tvS 




) Tni'. oitrc.ix AND (iKowTir 111" Till'; mohal ins'1'in( r 

towiinlN the idea of cliastify, ami the slow percolation of new 
fiitliusiasin was a most usfl'til fat'tor in mora! advaiiccmciit. 
^(•t, in till' main, we may follow the course of pro^m-sH as 
Ix't'on-, seein<;- only a slow advance hut never any si;rn of 
marked i-evolution in the heliel's or practices of men. An 
Au^justine ndelit he suddenly convoi'ted from a i'aslii()nal)li! 
liliertinisni to a holy pin-ity. i)Ut even the cleriry remained in 
general what men had heeii, tlie fuss which wis ipade ovei- a 
continence that is now j^eneral en()uj;h without exciting' i-e- 
mark, the odoui' of sanctity which invested people for conduct 
which we should in our time rej^ard as merely proper for a 
respectahle unmarried man or woman, show that even in 
early times the old pi-acticus wer; in the main carried forward 
into the new faith. 

Looking' down the lonj,' list of tlie Canons of the Church 
Councils u-iven hy Gui/.ot in liis /fisfun/ <>/ Cifi/isuliDii (dates 
rani,dn,n' from A.l>. 814 to A.D. 1)80), we are struck with the 
futility of the fij,dit which the Church wajj^ed to maintain 
the chastity of its priests. From the fourth century onwards, 
Mosheim l)e^-ins to speak of " the extremely corrupt state of 
morals amon<-- the clei-ey". {('en/. I V., pa>-t ii., chap, ii., sect K) 
When the Teutonic harharians swept over tlie Roman Empire, 
Christianity ))ecame their faith, hut their morals were still 
barharian ; while the position of women and the chastity of 
men declined. .V capitulary of a.d. 81!) declares that in 
France a public penance must be performed by any man " who 
forsakes (jr kills his wife for no other reason but to marry 
another," the inference most clearly being that with rea.son- 
able cause he was entitled to kill or desert her. The husband 
retrained the riylit, lon;4' lost in Rome, of thra.shing his wife. 
In France, througliout the whole feudal period, the .sole limita- 
tion was tliat he must lieat lier only " moderately and without 
causing death ". (Legouve, Hid. Moral'- dcs Fcinmcx, \). IHi.) 
But this was a right claimed throughout all Europe until 
within a century or two of the present time. It lasted in 
England till the fourteenth century, when it began slowly 
to become obsolete, not as the result of enactment, but as the 
natural se(iuenceof milder temperament. (yWm.Historjnif Crime, 
i., 255). Blackstone, in his Cuininentarks (i, 444, edition 1844), 




-•ollltidll of new 
I iidviinct'iiu'iit. 
of |)i'<>t;i'i'.s.s n.s 
■1' fiiiv siyii of 

i <il' iiicii. An 
1 ii riisliioiiablu 
^y n'!niiiiio(l in 
iH iiijulf over a 
lit t'xeitiiiif rt!- 
plu for conduct 
y proper for a 
' tliiit rvi'u in 
jjii-riud forwanl 

of the Church 
i-iUmitiuii (dates 
:ruck with the 
d to maintain 
ntury onwards, 
corrupt state of 
hap. ii., sect 8.) 
ionian Empire, 
)ralH were still 
the chastity of 
.'clares that in 
any man " who 

))ut to many 
it with reason- 
The hushand 
shin^^ his wife, 
the sole limita- 
ly and without 
•mines, p. 18-i.) 
I Europe until 
It lasted in 

began slowly 
ent, but as the 
^ edition 18-14), 


Nays that "in the poh'ter r.M^m of Charles II. this power of 
correction lH.,.an to be doubted". It was certain that old 
us„;^es and laws allowed the husband to ^.ive his wife a 
nuMlerat.. correction within reasonable bounds either with 
.sc-nn-j,e or cudgel. H„t it is clear that from the reig„ „f 
Klixabeth onward it became less and less respectable for a 
-MUM to thrash Ins wife, until, by .hat process according to 
winch the judges n.ouhl the law to make it accord with im- sentnn,.nt, the once un.hmbted right was barred and 
'vudere.l nugatory by every legal contrivance, until it was 
recognised to be obsolete. The ancient laws of the Welsh 
-tilowec to the husband the express right to give his wife 
tln-ee blows with a broomstick. 

Hut not only ,lid the ascendency of the Teutonic bar- 
>armns bring back to last for a thousand years and more 
these unplea,sant sentiments an.l practices, it did much to 
. estroy t ,e growing sanctity of marriage, which in the latter 
days ot the Koman Empi.v had reached no little de-ree of 
stability Gui/ot .says that in the France of Charlema..n..-s 
time "the relations Ixtween the .sexes w, re ..xtivmelv ir 
•vgular, a man took and .piittc.! a woman without sci-uple 
;t;'<l almost without formality" (ii., 22.5). No .loubt the 
Church lought hard against abuses, but its own stan.lard was 
by no means high. The Council of the Gaulish Church held 
at \ermerie in a.d. 7-52, decree.l that if a man found it 
ner-essary to leave his abode, and if his wife refusetl to ac- 
company him he was to do penance and marry again: and 
'luite a little list 18 given of contingencies un.ler which what 
we should call the ortence of bigamy i.. permitte.l by the 
Church. But 111 .spite of the Church, the wealthier classes lon^r 
continued to practise polygamy, and in the case of kin-s the 
Church occasionally permitted it. ( Michelet, /fi.sfnn/ of Fnmre 
Carlovn.gian period.) The descrii^tion which Gibbon gives 
m Ins iorty-eighth chapter, of the state of .sexual relations in 
i-urope up to the tenth century, is calm and moderate, but it 
supplies us with a vivid picture .;f the looseness of moral 
toelmg. Ihe Church could fight with but little effect when a 
inajonty of its own ministers were incapable of any hio'h 
Ideal. Too much of may easily be made of the "mh- 


'I i 

'I t 



introducod women," the liousekeepers of the priests, who foi- 
wvvva\ centuries held a well-detiiie.! and in no way dis- 
repntiible position : I'or these were to all intents true wives. 
But auy one who reads Lappenhery-'s account of the priests 
of Enoland and France in the eleventh century (Jih/Io- 
Norvwa Kin,,,, p. 73) will see that they were at one with the 
moral notions of theii- time in their apparent want of all 
perception of the o])lio'ation of men to chastity. Lecky 
(luotes a number of remarkable passa<,res which show that in 
some <listricts of mediaeval Europe the parishioners com- 
pelled the priest to keep a " sub-intro(lu",ed woman," so that 
their wives and dauj-'hters mio-ht be the safei-. {Euvopmn 
Morah, ii., 33,3.) A sad comment on the life of these unlovely 
times! As a rule the prelates set a scanilalous example; 
and some bishoprics, as that of Non-andy, scarcely ever had 
a decent occupant in a couple of centuries. Sometimes the 
Church made a stand when the lives of prelates became 
notorious, and not unfre(juently the reason for deposing or 
refusiiio- to contii-m the nomination of a bishop was thai he 
had too many children by different mothei-s. An abbot-elect 
at Canterbury was rejected for liaving seventeen ille<,ntimate 
children in the one village; an abbot in Sixain, in A.n. 1130, 
was proved to liav(,> kept seventy concubines, and a bishop of 
Liege was deposed for having sixty-Mve children. (Lecky, ii., 
331.) It would be impossible iji any l)rief form to give an 
adequate idea of the sexual disorders of these times, but the 
more carefully one studies the records of tiie centuries from 
the sixth to the twelfth the more assured will he become that 
Europe had been restored to the barbarian level. Even the 
pai^al chair itself was occupied by men of more than barbarian 
lewdness. The tenth century, which was perhaixs the worst 
of all, saw three popes placed in the holy chair by the in- 
fluence of lewd mistresses: and for 150 years there was 
only one short interval in which the head of the Church 
was not, to use the words of :\[osheim (Ccnfnn/ X., part 
ii., chap, ii.), " libidinous and flagitious ". As Muratori puts 
it (Anfi'j. linl. }[,;1ii ^Evi, v., 82), "unheard-of monsters tilled 
not only many of the chairs of bishops and abbots, but like- 
wise that of St. Peter; everywhere might be seen the pi-o- 

:al instinct. 

priests, who for 
in no way dis- 
tonts true wives, 
lit of tlio priests 
centur}' (Aii/f/c- 
i at one witli tlie 
iut want of all 
lastity. Lecky 
ich sliow that in 
riahioners coin- 
woman," so that 
fei'. (Uin-i'pi'xn 
f tliese unlovely 
alous example ; 
Jarcely ever had 
Sometimes the 
^relates became 
Por dejjosino- or 
lop was that he 
All abbot-elect 
een ille<(itiinate 
in, in A.n. 11. SO, 
and a bisliop of 
en. (Lecky, ii., 
brill to iLfive an 
3 times, but the 
centuries from 
he become that 
ivel. Even the 
than barbarian 
■haps the worst 
lair by the in- 
ars there was 
of the Church 
•nfiiri/ A'., part 
Muratori puts 
moiist(!rs filled 
ibots, but like- 
seen the pro- 


OF MKN. 279 


llio'ate morals of the clergy and the monks ". Hallam says 

" a few respectable names appear thinly scattered throun.h the 

darkness, but all writers concur in stijrmatising the diss^jlute- 

ness and neo-lect of decency that prevailed among the clergy ". 

(JM>//r Aijrs, chap, vii.; A vast improvement in the papacy 

was witnessed in the twelfth aii.l thirteenth century, but in 

the fourteenth and fifteenth the scandal was almost as bad 

though cloaked with the polish of more refined manners! 

The " enormous vices " for which John XXIII. was deposed 

in 1409 included every form of sexual degradation: and the 

general dissoluteness of the w' • cardinal '^ody throughout 

the century was most .scandalous. Judged by the calmly 

dispassionate history which Ranke gives of the papacy in the 

sixteenth century, popes and cardinals, whilst they lost some 

of the ferocity and grossness of the earlier centuries, were 

none the less on that barbarian level wherein is no belief in 

the need of male chastity. 

It IS natural that the vices of the clergy should attract the 
mo,st signal notice. The laxity of men in general was taken 
as a thing of course, and the tone of the secular literature of 
thes(! ages most certainly leads to the conclusion that, what- 
ever religion might preach, the average man saw no harm in 
sexual loosene.s,s. Moreover, though men resenteil unchastity 
ni wife, or sister, or daughter, the general feeling towards 
female frailty, apart from one's own relatives, was rather that 
of amusement than of di.sapprobation. 

Not that these middle ages were without good men, and 
pure women. Tliey had that great advantage over the 
barbarian level into which no tradition of better things from 
former times maintains in places a nobler standard. And we 
must also remember that a lurid light is thrown on all that is 
amiss in those days, which makes them seem worse than the 
manners of a Malagasy or Tahitian population uiion the same 
general grade of advancement. Because, Hrstly, we have such 
ample records that statements which, by reason of vague 
geiieralit}', lose their force for an ordinary barbadau 
community, acciuire a .leep intensity with tlie reiterated 
scandals and outrageous details attached to well-known 
names. And, secondly, there is tim fact that the laxity of 






1 1 ' 

I If 


I I 

i ! 


I I 


those times is siindwiehed between better times that went 
before and better times that came after. Thus the C()n(Ution 
of women and tlie poor appreciation of cliastity wliich 
eliaracterised the middle aj^es, thou^'h perfectly natural to 
men in the stage of advancement reached by me(lij«val 
Europe, are matle to seem worse than in the nature of thin<^s 
they were. 

Effects of Chivalry. 

In tlic present day the formerly popular notion of the insti- 
tution of chivalry as a j^reat instrument in raisini^ the posi- 
tion of women has very properly declined; yet it had an 
element of truth in it. We must he cautious in ima<:'ininif 
that it made men more virtuous or women truly their (jueens 
and goddesses. But in its own way, and to a small extent, it 
marked the gnnvth of a worthier sentiment in regard to 
women. We may even give a guarded assent to Guizot's pro- 
position (Oiri/isatidii, i., 72) that it produced "a preponderance 
of domestic maimers " anil contributed to the growth of that 
love of home which characterises the modern as compared 
with the Greek or Roman world. Lecky thinks, perhaps with 
a little basis of truth, that the veneration of the Virgin Mary 
did something to ennoble the prevailing ideal of the female 
sex. " It supplied in a great measure," he says, " the redeem- 
ing element in that strange amalgam of i-eligious, licentious, 
and military feeling wliich was formed around women in the 
age of chivalry." {Enrupcan Murah, ii., ,S()7.) 

Sir Walter Scott speaks, in his A's-sv^// an C/iira/r//, oi the 
"gross licence which was practised during the middle ages," 
and gives ample illustratic.^ of the way in which "the high- 
flown and over-strained Platonisin of the professors of chivalry 
favoured the increase of licence and debauchery," but he 
speaks somewhat loosely when he says that " the marriage 
tie ceased to be respected and the youthful knights often 
chose their lady loves among the married ladies of the court," 
for these were no new things under chivalry. They were 
only the old licence in more courtly forms. 

U! I 
III ! 


noH that wont 
the condition 

;lia.stity wliich 

:tly natural to 
by nietlijBval 

ituro of thin<(s 

on oF the insti- 
,isin<^ the posi- 
j'et it liad an 
s in inia<;'ininj^ 
y their (jueens 
mall extent, it 

in royard to 
) Guizot's pro- 
;ro\vth of that 

as compared 
, perhaps with 
; \'ir^an Mary 
of the female 
, " the redeeni- 
3US, licentious, 
women in the 

/nni/ri/, of the 
! middle a<;'es," 
ich " the hinh- 
ars of chivalry 
lery," Init he 
'' the inarriaye 
kni^'hts often 
of the court," 
. They were 


But in truth, whatever its profession of woman-worship, 
the spirit of the feudal times was strongly hostile to all the 
nobler claims of women. There are, of course, many women 
who would rather be petted and flattered than treated with 
resjiect : who prefer the incense of courtly adulation to the 
silent devotion of a manly atlection. To these the extrava<,fant 
compliments of chivalry would be most y-rateful ; but to tlie 
nobler of their sex, compliments without respect, lavish 
caresses where simple justice is deniiHl, always have the aspect 
of a Inirning insult. Thus we may safely say that the attitude 
towards woman of the a<;e of chivalry, thou<ih an improvement 
on that of the previous centuries, was still defrrading and 
unhealthy. As Pike says, thou<;-h too strongly {Histurn uf 
Crhiic, i., 409), "that respect for women which is of modern 
growth and which is commoidy supposed to be chivalrous, 
is sought in vain among the records of the nnddle ages". 

In those tiines, the utter inferiority of women, whatever 
the language of sensuous love, was in practice everywhere 
proclaimed. They were refused inheritance to any important 
estate ; and to the smaller, only a surly accession was allowed 
them. If a woman was non\inally heiress, her sovereign lord 
always insisted upon her marrying the suitor who with money 
or witli promises could purchase fi'om him both woman and 
estate. In the assize of Jerusalem, that truest mirror of 
feudal ideal, we find that when an heiress has reached the age 
of twelve, the king shall for her three bnrous, one of 
whom she must select as her husband within fifteen days, or 
if she reject them all, she must forfeit to the king as nmch 
money as he could have got from the suitor, (./.s.s/.sv.s ilr la 
Cijur (A'.s Boiiri/cois, chap, x.xvi.) As often as she Ijecame a 
widow the king could thus impose a new husband upon her. 
A feeling of decency generally brought this tyraiuiy to an end 
when the widow reached the age of sixty, but Eilward I\'. of 
England compelled the aged Duchess of Norfolk, then eighty 
years of age, to marry young Grey, the ([ueen's family having 
greedy eyes on the estate of the aged widow. (Michelet, l)ook 
xvi., chap, i.) 

Reeves, in his Historii uf Uiif/lis/i Liar (i., 107), says that " in 
the middle ages a wonum was in the custody of her lord till 

1) ■ 




*2S'J TirK OliKUX AM) (MiOWTli of 


shr l„v,n.H' or full ;i„-c., ,u„l luT lo.'.l was tli.Mi hmuul to find 
l""r a prop..,' iMurm^r,>, hut she nhvays iviiiuiM,..! in custody 
till slu. niarri,.,! with his con.s.Mit". Sir Henry Muin,- tells us 
tlmt (Jnnrn/ hnr, p. |r,!)) .-the pure Kno-Hsh common i,uv 
wiieiv It IS untonched hy e.,uity or stutut.'s, p.-ovi.les lor a 
complete leoal sul.jeetion on the part of the wife, throuo^h 
every department of rio^Iits, duties, and remedies ". 

From tho Annvnn,'^ ImI, ,/rs Frmirai, we learn that, in th.> 
middle of the Fourteenth ee..tury, a woman was unahle to 
iippcar ..ither as witness or complainant in a court of law • 
iH'f,! must he her representative, unless in the case 
wlHMvn. she complained that he ha<l hroken her Innhs or 
.U-ou^e.louthereye, "hecause on,- ouo-ht not thus to chastise 
<i wite . '|^h,> foolish editor of these laws is struck with the 
undouhtod amelioration in tho condition of women which a 
couple oF centuries had since then pro.Uiced, and lie attrihutos 
it to a chan<;e in the climate oF Franco ! 

•Montoil tolls us {Histoirr ,/rs Fmurah, iii., 77) that, in the 
Franco oF tlio sixteenth contu.y.the executioner use.l puhlicly 
to Hoo- unFaithFul wives brou-ht to liinj For that purpose hy 
thou- hushands; but there was no possible redress For tho 
wito whose husband was notoriously and shamelessly un- 
l.uthFul. Duckin^^ stools (i., 34) and other tvrainiical 
customs were connnon, yet on tho whole ho considers that 
tho position oF women had boon slowly but materially im- 
provino- From the Fourte(>iith century onward (i., 12!)). The 
ji'rowth oF sympathy was rosumino- its beneficent prouress 
aided amon^- many other accessories by two o-reat a-encies,' 
the one oF o'ood, attractin^r upwards, tho other oF evil,1ste-nly 
pushin.' From behind. OF those the first was that ideal oF 
Christian o-entlenoss an.l purity which had ii.ivor boon extinct 
but had always boon held aloFt by some devoted souls r and' 
o\-en those a-'es that scotibd the most at virtue wore conscious 
oF somethinu- better an.l worthier than themselves in these 
purer lives. 

Effects or Diskase. 
_ Yet in sp,.;,kin- oF the proftToss oF chastity it is humili- 
ating to have to conFoss that the pow.'r sprun<r out oF evil in 




11 1)01111(1 to liiid 
'il ill his custody 
y Miiiiit! tells us 
ill coiniiion law, 
provides I'or a 
' wii'e, tlifou^'li 
es ". 

am tliat, in the 
was uiiahle to 
court oF law ; 
UHH in the case 
: lior linil)s, or 
hus to chastise 
struck with tlie 
i'oiiieii wdiich a 
d he attributes 

'7) that, in the 
r used publicly 
lat purpose by 
edress for the 
laiiielessly un- 
ler tyrannical 
considers that 
materially iiu- 
(i., 12!)). The 
cent pi-on-ress, 
■reat a<;'encies, 
)!' evil, sternly 
that ideal ol' 
r been extinct, 
ed souls ! and 
vere conscious 
dves in these 

it is buniili- 
out of evil in 


the shape of a loatlisome disease was the more potent of the 
two aovncies. Venereal diseases had doulitless been lonjr 
existiMit in Kurope, yet tlu;y s.'eiii to have been luit mildly 
inreetious. It was in 14!);}, as it is alleged on n-„„d authority, 
that the sailors of Columbus bi-ou<;ht from America the vile 
contan'ion „r syphilis, and it is a powi-rl'ul testimony to the 
utter looseness of morals that the disease spread with in- 
credible speed over all Kurope. Montes(iuieu, a sober writer, 
says (E.s/,ri/ ,/r.s /,ois, book xiv., chap, xi.) that "two centuries 
a<fo a diseas(^ unknown to our ratlujrs 'jassed from the New 
World into this. The majority oi' Uie noble families of the 
south of iilurope perished by a conta<,n()n which became too 
common to l)e shameful." i'rofe.ssor Draper ^ives a descrip- 
tion which may perhaps be somi'what vehement, but, (iven if 
we make lar<(e deductions, tiiere is still a strori},' indictment 
left. " If contemporary wi'iters are to be trustinl," he declares 
(Inlclhrh,,,! J)r,rlup,iin,f of Eumi),', ii., 2.S2), "there was not a 
class, married or unmarried, cleri^y or laity, from tlu; holy 
fatlier Leo X. to the b(;ii,-o-ar by the wayside, frei; from it. It 
swept over Europe, in a march, equable, unbroken, universal, 
makiiie- i,'ood its <,n'ound from its point of appearance in the 
south-west, steadily and swiftly takin<r possession of the 
entire continent." 

1 have .seen in medical works tins estimate that about a 
third of the population of Europe perished by the virulence 
of the disease in the Hrst ten years of its prevalence. Any 
such statement nnist necessarily be the merest o'uess ; all we 
can say is that a very laro-e proportion of the people were 
killed by it, an<l that, althouo^h its malio-nant and fatal char- 
acter steadily declined, it has since that time, j^'eneration afti.'r 
e-eiieration, always had a certain proportion of victims. 

Ijut the appallino- severity of the epidemic at the end of 
the tifteeiith and beoinniny' of the sixteenth centuries was 
conducive to the spread of virtuous habits. What the beauty 
of pui-ity had failed to draw men towards, the stern and 
almost inevitable punishment of impurity <lrov(! them into. 
Those most .ii;-rossly addicted to base sexual indule-<Mices dir.l 
out, and the ilisease was as a hu<;'(? besom sweepin^^ the viler 
•elements of the population relentlessly away. Parental love, 









uKvay. nunv lun.lauu.ntul an.I nun: opemtiv. than any 

otlier onn ol syn.patl.y. n.ust hav fo„n.l a new practical 

as we^tlu.ol. ethical reason, for ,.^^^^ 

itlnn ,ts power the chastity of the youno-. But perhaps 

he n.c.t strongly active cause would be that of ,LZ 

that 'V r"":-r ''' ''""' '' '^" -Hsuoush- inclined 
Imt a l.nel ^ratihcat.on have to be expiate.l bv a 

len^^thened suHerin^.. We shall subse,uently discuss 'the 

^ o be att..hed to the n.orality ^hicl/thus sprin,: 
ion , p,„ i,,,t ^^^^^^^^ seir-control." but whatever its 

utn„,s,c worth, it assisted nmch in the actual puritica- 

tioii ot Europe. 

In the period between the fourteenth and the seventeenth 
centunes a ^^reat in.proven.ent is visible, due in lar.a. n.easuro 
to the causes n.entioned. thouo-h others were auxiliary For 
"..stance, ,t can har.lly be -loubted that the revival of learn- 
ing-, the spread of printed books, the theatre as a reHnin- 
aums-->'t the .-rowino- euston, of travel, the expandin;: 

toi that healthful activity which is so useful an antidote 

b'nonT 1i"h^'''"""" """'' '■" ^'■"''^' ^''^' ^'-•-' '-n-n-taut 

tl TT ""^ '"""'^" ''" ^^'^^'^'^ "*^^"-' -^' tl- society 

hat was left alter many centuries in which lusts and laxity 

md bec-n rainp,int. If evexy couple on the average were to 

kave four clul.lren, then each man livin. in the tenth 

contury must have been represented by more than 1,000 000 

aesce,.dants m the : but as we know that instead 

o that number he ha.l less than three representatives, 

the population bemo- not more than trebled, there must 

>^n-e been all alono- the line a hu,e suppression of lives 

ossible and actual. Now there were beyond a doubt in- 

umerable causes at work determining, which were to be 

tlie lew survivors out of the possible 1,000,000, but none 

so potent by a lono- way as rio-btness of life. That strain 

of character which produced good husbands and faithful 

. ; '^';; ^^"^'\^^"t"^y ^vuuM larovly preponderate in 

he sixteenth ; and so. without depreciating, the effects 

of other causes, we may attribute the improvement of the 

.sixteenth and seventeenth centuries merely to the at length 

1 1 

I . 


Ltive tliiin any 
I new pnicticiil, 
l)y every means 
But perhaps 
it of prudence, 
ously inclined, 
expiated by a 
ly discuss the 
1 thus si)rinfrs 
'' whatever its 
ctual puritica- 

he seventeentli 

lar^fe measure 
uxiliary. For 
vival of learn- 

iis a refiuini;' 
lie expanding 
nds the scope 
1 an antidote important 
of the society 
sts and laxity 
era^e wei'e to 
in the tenth 
lan 1,000,000 

that instead 

there must 
isioii of lives 

fi <loubt in- 

were to be 
)0, but none 

Tliat strain 
and faithful 
)onderate in 

the ettects 
lueiit of the 
lie at length 


Visible ertects of a proc.s always ,tt work but for a while not 
clearly seen m its ivsuits. 

Htati-s of Woman ix Ex.ji.axd. 

In the stat.vte book of one finds in early times 
l.'w references that any very vivid idea of the position of ; but such as there are bear witness to only a very slow 
nnprovenumt in her status up to tlie sixteenth century. In 
l-.Jo we hn.l re;,ailations to prevent what is called the con- 
•stant^ practice whereby nobles defraud widows of their dower- 
n. 275 the violation of a modest woman is to be punishe.l 
with two years imprisonment, tliou^^h the forest laws of tlie 
same period .leal out much more serious terrors to the man 
who hunts a deer or boar in forbidden woo.llands. In an act 
of 14«6 a«-ainst the forcible abduction of women, the proviso 
IS added that none of the prohibitions therein expresse.l apply 
to the man who carries off on.> whom he claims as his bond- 

All through the mi.l lie ao,.s, and ,lown to a little more 
ban a century ao'o, men convicted of felony could be saved 
from tlie ^.allows if they could plead " b.meHt of clergy " that is 
It they could read and write : but no such Imn.ane fiction stood 
between the woman and the swc'eping s(;verity of the laws 
hhe went to her doom, if convicted, whether she could read 
or not. (Blackstone, i., 445.) For women was reserve,! the 
hideous punishment of being burnt alive, and this was the fate 
ot every woman convicted of treason against the kin.r or of 
petty treason against her husband. On the last occasion when 
a woman was burned in England (1790), the circumstances 
.s^iowed how deeply alter.Ml was the sentiment of tlie people 
For tliougli the sheriff who refused to do his duty and carry 
out the sentence of the court was liable to prosecution and a 
heavy hne, not a sheriff in England could be foun.I so callous 
as to supenntend the burning of a woman ; only a couple of 
centuries before, it liad been a no. uncommon duty rea.lily 
enough undertaken by sherifis. Sir Benjamin Hammet, the 
Home Secretary, was compelletl himself to see the law carried 


Ii,l -i 



this '• s;iva<;'e 

(JUt, i)ut he iutroducod a bill for the fibolitiou o ,.^ 

iviiuiiiis of Xornian policy," and tlie buniiii<,^ of women was 
.swei)t from our statute book without a dissentient vcjice. 

A couple of centuries a^^o it was customary enou^'li to llo^-' 
throuo-h the streets women stripped to the waist aiiil tied U> 
the back of a cart. It is hard to realise that only in 1821 
was this brutal spectacle abolished. {ShihdrH, Givnje I V., cap. 
Ivii.) But it liad been yrowin^' more and more obsolete until 
the altered .sympathies of recent times refused to endure it 
as a law of the land. 

Up to the beoimiino- of tlie eighteenth century, a husband 
could le<,^ally place over his wife's head an iron " braidc " or 
■'scold's bridle " which oaou-od her juouth ; and he could keep 
it there for days to<retlier. Or, if he preferred it, he could 
take his scoldin,!-- wife where the duckin^^ stool was ready, 
an.l, with a scurrilous crowd to help him, could phino'e lier 
repeate.lly under water. Chambers's Jiool of /),/</s »-ives the 
year 1745 as the last occasion on which this festive^ display 
was afforded to the crowd. A century before that, many 
towns had a chair so contrived as to wrono- the modesty of 
the woman tied into it, and on this she was hoisted shoulder 
hi<-h for small offences, and carried through the streets amid 
the jeers of men and boys. 

Nevertheless, it wouhl be ([uite safe to .say that by the 
be<,nnniny of the fifteenth century, Europe had reached once 
more the stay-e in the emancipation of women that had been 
before attained at Rome. In some respects it was better ; in 
none was it any worse. But from that time onward there 
;.as been a pro<,a-ess be^'ond anythin^r that the world had 
previously seen, and the cultured races of to-day are o-radually 
gettin^v the better of old prejudices and ^.ranting- to women 
a position of healtliful freedom. Yet it is to be remembered 
that it is only a century ao-o since the first European nation 
ventured to put dau<>hters on the same footino- as sons in the 
division of an inheritance, and that to this .lay not one of 
them re^-ards unchastity in a man as an olience e.iual in to that in a woman. The feelin^^ is still very 
much that which was expressed a century a«-o by David 
^lujne when he snoke of mot 




iistity as ljein< 


r this " sava^'L" 
)t' w'oiiR'ii was 
•lit Voice. 
L^ioui-'li to iloir 
st and titMl to 
only ill LS21 
'ivri/i' I v.. cap. 
obsolete until 
1 to endure it 

ly, a husband 
he could keep 
I it, he could 
)1 was ready, 
d pluno'e her 
)(ti/s o-ives the 
!stive display 
i that, many 
e modesty of 
sted shouldei" 
streets amid 

that by the 
reached once 
uit had been 
as better ; in 
inward there 
:i world had 
ire t;Tadually 
^ to women 
)pean nation 
s .sons in the 
' not one of 
ice ecjual in 
is still very 
u l)y David 
ty as beino- 


".hities which behmo. to the lair sex," and attempted to show 
that there is justice when mankind •' impose not the same 
laws with the same force upon the male sex". (Trmtm of 
Hnnuiii Nular,'^ book iii., sect. 12.) He held that while it is 
contrary to the interests of soci.'ty that men should have an 
entire liberty of in.luIoi„j. tJieir passions, yet there is no 
reason to expect in them the same de^n-ee of virtue as we 
demand of women ; and to substantiate his position he appealed 
to the practice and sentiments of all nations and ao-es. Truly 
the laws of every people until .,uite recently bm-e woeful 
testimony to the truth of his contention. In sexual matters 
they have been uniformly lenient to men and cruel to women 
In France, till within a few 3-ears, the law expressly provided 
that seduction and procuration were free from any penalty • 
every promise of niarriaoe was void, no matter thouo-h, under 
Its cowardly shelter, a man -ratified himself at the expense of 
a mai.l who fully trusted him; not even if such a promise of 
marriao'e luul Ijeen duly written, sloped, and sealed, could she 
have the slightest redress ; and there was an express provision 
that the father of an illeoitimate child M-as free of any claim 
for Its maintenance ; the burden had to fall entirely on the 
unfortunate woman. (Leo-ouve, Hint. Mora/e ,/..s Femvirs, p. 
70.) But any one who chooses to examine in detail the 
prevailing- leoislation will find the same tra.litions holdin-r 
their place from a past in which female unchastity was un*^ 
sparinjrly condemned, while no possible blame was attached to 
male unchastity which did not interfere with ri^dits of owner- 

The Dawn of Nohler Conjugal Sympathies. 

And yet the existin^^ sentiment of culture<I societies is in 
advance of their laws. As .Maine says (Ancievi /mw, p. I(j9), 
" the status of the female under tutelajre, if the tutelao-e be 
understo.)d of persons other than her husband, has ceas^'ed to 
exist ". The girl who has come of a<i-e is free from the possible 
oppression of outside power until she marries. And even then, 
althoiio-h in a sense the law j, ,r her under the tutela^'e of 
lier husband, custom restricts marital pow r within 



(I • 

.jf ' 



1 ! 


narrow limits, and legislation is by (lofjroos Lnvin<r lier riirhts 
us iv^ards property, ami in other respects, Avlilcli leave the 
actual tutela<fe hut the shadow of a once formidable power. 
Aniono- tlu' middle and upjier classes the marriai;e re'ation is 
now one of <rreater sympathy an<l mutual consideration than 
the woi'ld has ever Ix'foi'e seen on anythinif like so m'eat a scale. 
A retined type is becominir common in which the lower ^ratitica- 
tion.s of the relation are becomin<j wholly subsidiary to a sense 
of the most intimatt", the most sympathetic of all companion- 
ships. In the savaj^e and barbarian states, the animal 
passion is the fundamental basis of marriao;e ; \ hatever else 
there is can onl}' l)e superimposed. If a wife, by reason of 
illness or any other cause, becomes incapable of f^ratityini; her 
lmsl)and's desires, that alojie is ample <(round for divorce. In 
feudal Eurcjpe such a cause was everywhere allowed. Pope 
Greirory II. (Fleury, Hist. EcclMnHtiquc) permitted a luisband 
to take a second wife if the first were b}' illness rendered in- 
capable of satisfyinj^ him, tlie only condition beinj; that "he 
ou<;ht to ^ive to the sick wife all necessary subsistence ". 
Such a view of mai'ria<;e is veiy far removed from our present 
ideals. The larj;e number of men who lead perfectly chaste 
lives for ten or twenty years after puberty before they 
many seems to indicate thst ,ie sensuous side of man's nature 
is slowly passini;- under the control of sympathetic sentiments. 
Moi'eovei', there is ample reason to believe that educated 
women now largely enter upon marria<;e out of purely sym- 
pathetic attractions, in which sex counts for somethinjjf, but 
with all its oTosser aspects "one. Dr. H. Campbell (Bijfarnre 
ill, /III' XciTdiis Or(/animfioii. of Mnn mid Womnn, p. 200) .says 
that " it may be confidently asserted that .sexual desire enters 
not at all into the minds of a very ]ar<^e proportion of women 
when contemplatinj;- matrimony ". And yet what a world of 
room for profj^ress, as these peoples of lower culture pass 
onward into the state of middle culture ! What armies of 
prostitutes to sweep away ! What myriads of men diseased 
and .>■ -ared with vice to die out and leave room for better 
type.s ! 

Women have in the main secured of late years an equal 
right of inheritance and ecjual facilities of education. They 



iviiiiif Iht rif^hts 
,vhit'h leave the 
rinidablo power. 
I'ia^e relation is 
isideration tliaii 
' so jfreat a scale. 
i lower i,n'atiHca- 
(liary to a Hense 
' all coiiipaiiioii- 
CH, the aiiiuial 
; \ hatevor else 
fe, by reason of 
t' fj^ratifyiiii; her 
'or divorce. In 
allowed. Pope 
tted a husband 
ess rendered in- 
beini; that " he 
y subsistence ". 
•oni our present 
perfectly chaste 
;y before they 
of man's nature 
etic sentiments, 
that e<hicated 
of purely sym- 
somethinj;-, but 
pliell {JJiffcrnice 
nn, p. 200) says 
al desire enters 
I'tion of women 
I'hat a world of 
sr culture pass 
Vhat armies of 
f men diseased 
)om for better 

years an equal 
iication. They 


are by .le^^rees bein^r ufforded e.pial careers for the display 
of u.c.„,us or aptitude. Hut they have yet to s,,.cnre political 
rifrhts. Th.' Hrst citizen privileous ever allowed to En.disli 
women <late only from 1882, when the rijrht of votin^r ut 
municipal elections was jrranted to female ratepayers. 
\\_omen have yet to be truly placed upon an equal footin^r 
with their husbands in the marria^re relation. Certainly the 
laws of 18.57 in Eiiffland removed in part the semi-barbarian 
anomalies uf divorce, but even now, a man's re-nedy i.s 
much more ample than a woman's. In all probability a 
lew centuries will see the (juestion of divorce sunk into a 
matter of unimportance. At present the sense of obli<ration 
m marriao-e is too new to be rashly disturbed. All the 
loii<r tijrht of twenty centuries to impress upon men the 
sanctity and solemnity of the wedded relation has had none 
too much ertect. Nevertheless we move onward towards 
a period wlien natural love and conju<ral sympathy may 
be left to iake their own course. At present if a statute 
were passed permittin<j married couples to separate and 
remarry as they pleased, not five unions in a hundred would 
be atiected. The wife would clin<r to her husband, and 
the husband to his wife, from motives far deeper and 
worthier than compulsion of the law. In those states 
of America where easy divorce prevails fifty-nine marria<^es 
out of each 1000 seem to end a) divorce; but then.^o 
these states flock the dissatisfied of many states, and 'the 
proportion is really very much lower. Yet even as it 
stands, it is less than six out of 100. In France, where 
since 1884 somewhat easy divorce laws have prevailed, 
1-6 per cent, of the marria<jes have ended in divorce, while' 
ill En<rland less than one marriage in 1000 has been so 
•lissolved. In Australia, where Eiifrlish laws prevail, but 
with many liberal additions, only two in 1000, or l' per 
cent., have terminated in divorce. 

The time will doubtless come when it will be held a mon- 
strous thin^r to keep in chains of bondage those who have 
ceased to love or respert each other, to compel to the daily 
contact of eommou housekeepiny those who have come to 
despise or hate each other. Then it will be open to such 
VOL. I. 19 







i 1 


couples to separate as lively us tluy Im.l united; Init wlieu 
that time comes, sciirco a couple will wish to sepunite ; 
for if the world can only cuntiiuu^ for Hve centuries more 
that projrress in oonju<ral sy.npatliy which has characterised 
the past two centuries, uiarria^ri- will he naturally in.lis- 

i 'li i 





Parental Svmpah.v Npueahs out into Social Sympathv. 

The sympathetic type is thus tho om which is n.oiv ... 1 
--^^;^^^^y^^n^.^^^t as we ascen., i.. the :I;i.:, ^ ^;t 
o only does an ,„creasi„. p,,ental cure ^^ive to a sn -cies 
sone preference over competitive types- Imt .n hi 
con u^ral .stability also allies itself ui h M • ■'^''•^''i'^'"^' 

fn,.m fi. I • , ^^'^" ^'"•'^ parenta caro to 

tu,„l„,„c,,tal „y,„patl,i» toward, cl,iM , ■ I " u. T 
-c„ ,„ tl,„ H„„,t racs of ,„o„, tl,„ ,,„,,„,t ^.^^ ::„,': 
l>ut itwa, „„,x,»,,iblc that H„. nervo,,, „ •..■„,«,„ ,7 ' 

»u,,, ,,avo ,..„„„ ,,„e„,,t„„„ t„ ■„;;; :j' r t: r: : 

»o powerful, witliDiit giviiH. ran to a „„„■., . '^""'"V y' 

W f r '' " '^P" ^^"^'^^ "' ^°^^^' g'--J«« the exiox.ncies f 
mva have rendered only too common. It wouhl be feta 
to the ti«-er to have any .syn.pathy for the a> ies of the 

<loe were to waste her milk 

tlie herd, and left only inad 

m .sucklin- the orphan fawns of 

would be fatal to tl 

equate supplies for h 

le wandering- handful of 

er own ; it 

savages, always 





on the vei'<;'e of Htixrvation, if they liad any .scruples about 
Keiziiio' food wlien tliey could <>'et it, without considering 
wliether or not other tribes niioht have to starve in con- 

But the inio-hty roots of sympathy which the parental 
and conjugal relations have already established, are always 
tliere, prepared to spread out into a general social sympathy, 
whenever and wherever an advantage is likely to arise there- 
from. And this is always the case where the life of the 
species is furthered by a peaceful and harmonious gregarious- 
ness. It must on no account interfere with the development 
of the individual or of the family, for then the sum of its 
results is detrimental ; but wherever the well-being of these 
is first of all secured, a wide social sympathy gives them both 
an increased scope for good. Thus the emergent type in the 
end is that wherein parental and conjugal sympathies widen 
out, as possibilities arise, into general social sympathies ; for, 
where the individual favoured of fortune is impelled, without 
endangering his own existence or that of his family, to lend a 
helping hand to other individuals under happy circum- 
stances, the average chances of the race are thereby improved. 
But, as we shall afterwards see, all such altruistic feeling 
must be of cautious growth, spi-eading from within and 
embracing a small circle with efficiency before attempting to 
extend itself too far. A conquering tribe may owe its pre- 
dominance ecjuallj^ to the .strength of social cohesion within 
itself, and to its absolute want of any benevolent regard for 
all others outsiile. But where many conquering tribes come 
into conflict, that which finds itself most competent to embrace 
a large and still larger circle within its bonds of sympathy 
will emerge, while others too exclusive will wholly fail in the 
race for supremacy. Thus there is an agency constantly at 
work tending to enlarge the sphere of social .sympathy when 
once the permanence of the general means of sustenance per- 
mits the area of fellowship to be increased. 

The detailed progress of this development will in due 
succession be reviewed ; meanwhile we have to note, as nearly 
as may be, the point where it first begins to ■ low itself; at 
what stage in animal development the .social sympathies 



icruples about 
t considuriiig 
tarve in cou- 

the parental 
(1, are always 
:ial isympatliy, 
to arise there- 
le life oi" the 
us <fre<:jarious- 
j development 
lie sum of its 
)einy' of these 
ves them both 
it type in the 
pathies widen 
npathies ; for, 
)elled, without 
iiily, to lend a 
uippy cireum- 
eby improved. 
I'uistic feeling 
1 within and 
attempting to 
,' owe its pre- 
iliesion within 
jnt regard for 
g tribes come 
Jilt to embrace 

of sympathy 
jUy fail in the 

constantly at 
lapathy when 
iistenance per- 

t will in due 
note, as nearly 
how itself; at 
;il sympathies 



become faintly apparent. Here must be drawn a very shai-p 
distinction between three conditions that are similar in ap- 
pearance tliough widely dirterent in nature — mere agglomera- 
tion, seltish co-operation, and sympathetic union. It by no 
means follows when we find a large number of animals living 
together that they are united by any tie of sociability. 3Iag- 
gots wriggle in swarms over the same dead carcase because 
the blow-riy has there deposited a multitude of eggs. Being 
born in swarms, and finding food at hand, they remain in 
swarms. Nothing more than this seems in the main to 
characterise the cold-blooded animals. The shell-fish which 
cling by myriads to the same rock form only what Button 
calls a " physical assemblage ". ' 

Where animals are easily capable of extensive motion, 
they will in general scatter out, but if they still remain in 
large agglomerations, they must have some bond of union 
([uite distinct from mere contiguity of birth. Among the 
cold-blooded animals there is no indication that this is ever 
more than a merely selfish co-operation. Their nerve sus- 
ceptibilities place them under the control of hunger, fear, and 
sex appetite. Of these the first would bid a multitude dis- 
perse, but the two latter would on the whole tend to keep 
them together. Even among timid animals, which never 
think of fighting, fear causes a satisfaction to arise from 
society. The individual is partly relieved of the constant 
strain upon one pair of eyes and one pair of ears. For 
when 10,00u young herrings swim together, the prowling 
monsters which one of them might fail to see will surely be 
detected by some one or other out of the huge mass: and 
when it darts away, its neiglibours instinctively follow, and the 
whole swarm is instantly in full rtight. The advantage thus 
derived will tend to keep the harmless timid sorts in large 
agglomerations, and breeding will be facilitated when males 
and females live in close vicinity to each other. Yet in all 
this there may be no sign of sympathetic union. No herring 
when itself secure is ever known to run into danger to assist 
a fellow, nor even to carry food to a neighbour: no advantage 
is ever yivcn by one to another, but each takes what advantage 
it may from the company of others. 

i ! 





Alleged Sympathy in Insects. 


Were it not for tlu 

case ot certain of the insects we mio-ht 
say with accuracy tliat no sio-n of really sympathetic union" of 
societies occurs below the level of the wann-bloodecl animals. 
But the snio-ular social customs of ants and bees form a oTeat 
anomaly in the general course of progress. Jfany iirsects 
care for their eggs and for their young in a manner compar- 
able only to the parental solicitude of much higher forms; but 
111 none does this feature reach so singular a development a.^ 
in the Aculeate Hymenoptera, the acme of its progress occur- 
ring in the ants. The manner in which the eggs are tended 
the larva3 placed in sun and shelter, the pui);B nursed the 
emergent young assisted in their exit, cleaned, fed, an<l even 
taught, indicates a parental care which has no parallel till we 
reach the highest of birds and mammals. 
_ A review, however, of the evidence on the subject, which 
is^ now extensive, will suggest that this care has more in it 
of the nature of a mechanically working instinct, than of 
an emotion. I have been far from exhausting that evidence 
but after reading the works regar.led as of chief authority 
the impression left upon my mind is that while there is much 
that IS puzzling, the parental care of the ant is of a class with 
the spinning skill of the spider and the cocoon-makino- 
faculties of the silk-worm. No doubt, as we shall subse- 
(luently note, parental care is always fundamentally instinc- 
tive, and therefore in a manner mechanical, but there is a 
great .litierence between the play of instinct which bids the 
hen brood upon her eggs, and the sympathetic impulses and 
responses at work when that same hen is proudly stalking 
amid her pretty l)rood. The facts seem to indicate that the 
parental care of ants and l)ees is of the former, rather than of 
the latter class. Such as it is, it represents the termination 
of a .sort of 1)lind lane: parental care of this particular kin.l 
showing a steady rise among the class of insects and cul- 
minating in these families of Hymenoptera. It works for 
the same end as the paivutal progress we have already con- 
sidered; it lessens the number of young, but increases their 




laects we niio^lit 
ithetic union of 
looded animals. 
e,s form a o-reat 
Many in.sects 
lannor conipar- 
•her forms ; but 
levelopnient a.-> 
proo-ress ocour- 
;^H are tended, 
3ie nursed, the 
, fed, and even 
parallel till we 

subject, which 
las more in it 
tiiict, than of 
that evidence, 
hief authority 
there is much 
of a class with 
3 shall subse- 
ntally instinc- 
)ut there is a 
Inch bids the 
impulses and 
udly stalking;- 
icate that the 
I'atlu'i' than of 
e termination 
irticular kind 
sets and cul- 
It works for 
already con- 
icreases their 


chance of survival by unremitting care, and yet the means 
adopted are widely ditierent. In all the cases liitherto con- 
sidered proo-ress was secured by a steady lessening of the 
fertility of each female with an increase of her maternal care. 
Among bees and ants the same result is attained by with- 
drawing a very great proportion of the females from the 
possibility of motherhood. A female ant lays her thousands 
of eggs, and a (lueen bee something like 80,000, but for 
each female that is fertile 1000 are left sterile. Yet it is 
among these unreproductive workers that the parental in- 
stinct of caring for eggs, feeding larvaj, sunning pupae, and 
teaching the young is found. All mate-nal care of the insect 
type has hitherto been ignored in this book because it leads 
no further. Parental affections of the type which culminates 
in man begin at the level of the tish ; such as exists among 
invertebrates is of its own, reaching its highest per- 
fection in ant or bee, and being there definitely arrested. 

Returning now to the subject more immediately in liand, 
we have to note the very decided social instincts of these 
insects. An ant-liill or a bee-hive is no mere agglomeration 
of individuals, for there are undoubtedly strong .sympathetic 
necessities in the nervous constitutions of these little creatures. 
They seem to pine away if left in solitude, however well fed 
(Lubbock, Ants, L'crs and JFasps, p. .5); their powers of co- 
operation are great, though probably much exaggerated 
in the average description ; and they are capable of living 
with as many as 500,000 in the same nest, working, feeding, 
and playing, without sign of ([uarrel or ill-humour, even 
though every conununity is filled with an absolutely mortal 
hatred of eveiy other community, whether of its own species 
or not. They are able to recognise their friends after an 
absence of months, this, however, not as the result of affec- 
tions arising out of daily intercourse, but, as we gather from 
Lubbock's experiments (chajx vi.), from the same sort of 
nistinct which makes turkey recognise turkey, and fowl 
consort with fowl. Moreover, there are, among al)undance 
of anecdotes which invite much scei)ticism, well observed and 
carefully recorded instances " showing care and tenderness," 
as Lubbock puts it, between individual ants. 

1 1 

■' r, 

UW 1: 






I li 


And yet tlie sympathies of botl 

1 ants and bees have b 


exa^rgerated. Tlieir lowers of connnunication, thoimh 
considerable, shrink, as we see from Lubbock's experiments 
(cnap. vii.), to limits by no means plienomenal, and love or 
charity seems to be a quality remarkably absent from creatures 
whose lives are so social. Sir John Lubbock <leals very 
summarily with the claims of bees in this respect. " Far indeed 
from being able to discover any evidence of affection amoi... 
them, they appear to be thoroughly callous, and utterly i," 
different to one another. It was necessary for me occasionally 
to kill a bee, but I never found tliat the others took the 
slightest notice." (A^its, Bees and Wasps, p. 28G.) 

As to ants, the distinguished observer is a little more 
cautious. But it is evident from the whole tone of cliapter v 
that he has no great faith in their alleged affections. Thirty- 
five different experiments are recorded, in which as many 
individual ants were subjected to various troubles, either 
stuck m honey, or buried in sand with only their heads appear- 
ing, or else half-drowned and left unconscious to recover by 
s ow degrees, or chloroformed or intoxicated. Li each case 
the ants lay in their various plights full in the track of their 
fellows, yet .vere never in any way noticed ; although stran<rer 
ants dropped beside them, were immediately attacke<l aud 
killed. When he enclosed in bottles, with muslin covers at 
the mouths, a few friendly ants and a few strangers, the 
friendly ones, though easily seen, and though their antenna 
protruded through the muslin, were left to starve, while the 
strangers were soon reached by cutting througli the muslin 
and no sooner reached than slaughtered. 

As Sir John Lubbock warns his readers that extreme 
.Iifierences may lie l^etween various species, I carried out a 
series of the same sort of experiments on Australian varieties 
In the grounds roun.l my house there are seventeen different 
species active in the summer time. Daily for several weeks 
together during three successive summers I pinned down 
iiear the entrances to their nests, some two or three ants at a 
time. I used for that purpose thin wires bent into the shape 
of a hair-pin, and with sliarpened points. For species so large 
as the soldier ant (J/yr/^ccw sanquinca) or bull ixnt (F<rrmka 


bees liave been 
ication, tlioiio'h 
'k expuriiiieiits 
il, and love or 
from creatures 
ck deals very 
3. " Far indeed 
fection anion^r 
id utterly in- 
le occasionally 
lers took the 

a little more 
! of chapter v. 
ons. Thirty- 
lich as many 
rubles, either 
heads appear- 

recover by 
In each case 
track of their 
>uoh stranger 
ittacked and 
lin covers at 
trantrers, tlie 
leir antennse 
►•e, while the 

1 the muslin, 

hat extreme 
arried out a 
an varieties, 
een ditlerent 
veral weeks 
nned down, 
■ee ants at a 
to the shape 
eies so large 
mt (Formica 


^nsohrina) I ha.l fairly stout wire : for the little su-ar ants 
brass wn-es as line as a hair. In every case I fastened theni' 
-town hghtly, so that occasionally they escaped of their own 
efforts; but in general the fastening was too firm for that, 
hough always, I am quite certain, capable of being removed 
by the united etibrts of two or, at the outside, three ants In 
this way I fastened down at least ten specimens of each of the 
seventeen species. Their fellows passed them l,y in ceaseless 
streams on every side, and though I kept the sufferers under 
observ-iition for three, four, and even six hours. I never saw a 
«ign of sympathy or of the least desire to render help If a fiv 
was dropped in the same place, it was covered with six or 
e.glit ants in a second; if a .strange ant M-as placed there it 
was attacked and killed with fury. Many times I placed an 
mjure.l ant near the mouth of its own undergroun.l liome and 
watche<l It for an hour or sometimes two, making ineffectual 
efforts to crawl the two inches nee.led for reaching the entrance 
but never once did I see a .-ign of proffered assistance. Aft.'r 
i^T^^ting _the.^:e experiments during a total of six months, 
and watching the behaviour of ants to more than 200 of their 
strugghng fellows, I found the results uniformly negative 
iiothmg happened which would suggest that ants ^re sympa- 
thetic by nature ; yet these same ants were full of ener.-y ami 
apparently of intelligence, for if one of their su],temu.ean 
passages were dug up, the place would be a scene of ceaseless 
activity or lo. ty-eight hours, more especially, however, during 
the night, till a covered way was temporarily erected in place 
of the ruined pas.sage. 

Large numbers of the most famous anecdotes of sympathy 
among ants seem to be errors of interpretation. Romani 
{,nves (Amma/ InMlu,nia; p. .55) an account of a column of 
ants which was thrown into a panic .vhen some of th,.ir 
nnniber were killed, and others maime.l ; accor.ling to this 
.story, the sight of the blood and sufferings of tiieir comrades 
distres.sed them so much that the ants wholly forsook their 
od trail, exhibiting "signs of intense emotion " at the si-dit 
ot ants' blood. In many parts of th.> worl.l people are 
troubled with ants in huge columns. If so simple a thing 
could .launt them, glad would the inhal)itants be. In the 



country parts of Australia, how many thousands of house- 
wives have crushed and scahled, poisoned and t'unii<;'ated the 
k)n<,^ bhick lines, without tindin<i- the least relief ! Observe a 
line of l)lack su(>'ar ants on their way to that chink in the 
kitchen wall which yives them access to the sweets; blot 
it out with the foot, — smeariny tl\e line for a yard with 
the blood, the manjfled remains, the convulsive survivors of 
perhaps 1000 ants. It makes no difference; the cokunn 
.soon travels on as before, unmoved by blood or death agony, 
though for a time full of excitement. 

Biichner gives in his interesting little work (Mind in 
Aniiiui/s) (juite a large collection of instances of sympathy 
among ants: l)ut they are all, or mostly all, marred by a 
certain air of sentimentalism, sometimes by an evidently 
didactic purpose which renders them better suited for school 
books than for cautious works of science ; and the same is to 
be remarked of some of Huber's and Ford's best known 
anecdotes. And most of these are greatly discounted in value 
by the fact that they are altogether casual, not the result of 
experiment but of chance observation, and therefore subject 
to errors of interpretation. Belt is the only satisfactory 
writer {^'atu)•<lli■st In NimriKjua, p. 26) who describes actual 
experiments, though these are very few in nund)er, wherein 
one ant was seen to assist another; those buried in bits of 
clay being, as he observed, relieved from their position l)y 
their fellows. But, on the other hand, H. O. Forbes, in 
Portugal, observed that when an ant {Formica liynipcrdn) was 
Ijadly wounded, the others of the only hurried up to lick 
the exuding juices, and gave no assistance whatsoever. 

The case is full of doubt, yet there is left a balance of 
evidence showing something in the nature of sympathy, for 
Lubbock's experiments indicate how haijitually ants will clean 
each other : and the fact that animals so pugnacious towards 
all other living creatures are so amenable to discipline within 
thei' own conuuunities, so co-operative in their industry, and 
.so harmonious in their ordinary relations must point to the 
po.sse,ssion of .something analogous to what we call sympathy. 

Yet this has but an hidlrect bearing on our ]»resent in((uiry. 
For whatever be the amount of the (juality thus displayed by 


mnd8 of house- 
I t'umii;-ated the 
lot' ! Observe a 
it cliiiik in the 
!ie sweets ; blot 
w a yard witli 
.ve survivors oi' 
ce ; the coluiiiu 
or death agony, 

work (Mhul in 
sis of sympathy 
II, marred by a 
»y an evidently 
suited for school 
1 the same is to 
il's best known 
counted in value 
lot the result of 
herefore subject 
inly satisfactory 
describes actual 
number, wherein 
niried in bits of 
heir position In- 
. (). Forbes, in 
■I Ufjuipcrdn) was 
urried up to lick 
eft a balance of 
)f sympathy, for 
ly ants will clean 
^i'liacious towards 
discipline within 
eir industry, and 
lust point to the 
e call sympathy. 
• jireseut iuijuiry. 
has displayed by 


^•'ts, it is demonstrable that in its nature it differs widely 

mU^ Y!"P^^; y --h is seen au.on, the warn.-b.oolled 

A s t n *^''^"' ---: it is analogous but not sinular. 

m^r^Zl r.r •" '"'''^ -^'»— '-!« can; but how 
'1 ttutnt nuist be the vision of creatures that Jiave three eves 

tteiit character, and presenting- thousands of facets I Pro- 

n W hey any true retma to receive it. The visioli of an 

o a V. 7 "?"'"''"«' ""'^' ^■'^«"^''>' '"''^'"^-"•'^ to that 

o a V itebrate. Ants have no ears, yet they seem from 

^ZZ n ""' "''' ""'■ ^""'"'^ '^^^^ ^PP--tly only 

a 1 test possible resemblance to the sense with wheli we 

aie endowed. Ants, like many other insects, possess the 

p.nvei^ emitting sounds ; but how ditierent are'tLs:::^ 

fjoin the oices ot the vertebrates; no currents of air no 

vibratin,. chords, but c aly the strident notes of a metallic-'lik" 

tlus,^^hate^er power of communication the ant po. sesses is 
- ;>o way vocal ; it consists of some peculiar man pulatlii o 
antennae one a-ainst the other ^ 

■coJ^'^rr'T^'' ''" Hymenoptera, have reached the 
con tiois which make social life possible and advantageous 

h r,: '"""'"^' ^""•"^•■^ '"^'^^"«-'-'^ ^-^t not sii„ii;i. to 
Ik need ot social life has appeared. But we can see that the 
course of progress in the two cases has been utterly di tl 
an; that the senses, and therefore the of an s, tlu u i 

e :?biH "™ r"^™" ^^'"''^ ^" ^'^^ -»- -"Its! 

H sc of bud o. mammal, are yet the outcome of an alto-.ther 

depemU^nt histor, Thus we shall be guilty of no 

a cone u.hno. that the .piality which in them does duty for 

SS^f t "\T ?'" ""^^"^^ ^^ ^^'^ ^--- ^^ ^" ^^ 

it n V ■ • r «^^'>'^-luently see that sympathy is in 

t^ physiological origin an outgrowth of emotional nerve 
evelopments which can have no counterparts but on 

analogue in the insect world. 


1 ?' 



; ! 





Ill this (lioTcssioii the uxplauiitioii is oHiTcd wiiy our iii- 
vestiifiitioii lias heon at all points coiitiiicd to the (levelopiueiit 
of syiupathy in the vertebrates. We are concerned here only 
to trace as solidly and surely as possible the fountain of moral 
instincts such as they appear eventually in man, and what- 
ever (pialities of analoo'ous character we may perceive in ants 
have sprunjr from a ditiereiit source, and have found in these 
insects their culmination, perhaps because incapable of further 

I ! 

Tkue Sympathy First Appears with the Warm-Blooded 


Returnin^f now to our more immediate subject, we must 
notice that while in tisli and reptile a fairly f,mod foundation 
of parental sympathy has been laid, with some little indica- 
tion perhaps of coiiju(,fal sympathies, it is not till these have 
reached, in birds and mammals, a tolerable de<4Tee of efKciency, 
that the s^'mpathetic nature thus prepared shows much ten- 
dency to spread out over a society. We meet with liuye 
ao-frlomerations amonn;- fish : even co-operative unions of the 
selfish class may l)e reeoonised both in them and in reptiles ; 
but of actual sympathy not a si<>-n. Only in the warm- 
blooded types does that become apparent, and its development 
keeps pace with the f^rowth of vocal powers. In the main, 
this is more a case of concomitance than of causation ; a <feneral 
increase of complexity of type fjives rise to voice on the one 
hand and to sympathy on the other. Yet they have some 
relation of causation: for never can sympathy, and especially 
social sympathy, become lar^^ely developed without the power 
of communication. Before an animal could learn to realise 
the feelings of another and become capable of sharing them, 
the moan of pain, the cry of fear, the grunt or twitter of 
satisfaction, and the caressing notes of love, had on the one 
hand to be protluced, and on the other hand to find in the 
nervous organi.sin chords upon which they were capable of 
acting. Voice asserts its utility first in connection with sexual 
attractions. If it be true, as Emil Selenka asserts, that the 


'd why (JUr in- 
e (levclopiuent 
rned hwc only 
ntain of iiionil 
lan, and wluit- 
urc(!ivi' in ants 
found in these 
ible of furtlitT 


bject, we must 
)od foundation 
-' little indica- 
till these liave 
e of efJiciency, 
\vs much ten- 
iet with huiio 

unions of tlie 
nd in reptiles ; 
in the warm- 
H development 

In the main, 
;ion ; a (general 
•ice on the one 
ey have some 
and especially 
out tlie power 
:arn to realise 
sharing- them, 

or twitter of 
id on the one 
to find in the 
ire capable of 
m with sexual 
;serts, that the 


female of the Vir<,nnian opossiun in ready to receive the male 
for no more than thi-ee to Hve hours once in a year (K),f. 
y-'r/rr/int;/s;,rsrhlc/ar,ix 104), her chance of bein^r a niother is 
lost for a whole year unless she has the power of calling' the 
male to lier at the i'i;,dit time. In a somewhat less .le^rroe I 
have seen amon^r other marsupials the absolute need of^ voice 
if an animal of solitary life is to have any chance of mating- 
in the loneliness of a ^veat forest when the short period, last*^ 
in^^ oidy a day or so, of the annual amatoriness recurs. Even 
amonir animals which live in pairs or in flocks, thoujrh the 
need may be by no means so great, yet we see the sexual 
advantajre of voice ; the cow calls attention to her season by 
loud bellowing-s that cast the bulls into a frenzy, and the 
voices of the females of most of the more hijrhly orf^anised 
animals seem tlie most potent of all agencies for awaking the 
passions of the males. 

Vocal powers thus (originated are readily appropriated to 
the use of the parental relation, and most of the higher animals 
have a small repertory of sounds that convey each its own 
meaning. The signiHcance of these is in part known by 
hereditary faculty; in part by tlie teachings of acquired 
instincts. Hudson {Natiirallst in Ln Plata) shows that in the 
cases of three ditterent species of birds on which he experi- 
mented, the young, while still within tlie egg, recognised in 
some measure the meaning of the mother's note ; for a newly 
hatched bird, while still in the act of breaking its way out of 
the shell, with many a little cheep as it did so, would cease at 
the instant the mother's warning note was heard, and lie still 
and silent till an encouraging cluck would intimate that all 
was well. But this observant writer feels assured that the 
meaning of the majority of sounds is acquired after birth. It 
is well known that when a hawk or buzzard or eagle hatches 
out a brood of chickens or ducklings (see accounts of Brehm 
\arrell, and especially of Bishop Stanley), the young ones learn 
more or less fully to understand the notes of the foster-mother : 
but it is equally well known that a number of ducklings 
though they come to understand the hen that hatched them' 
never seem so readily responsive to her as chicken.«s would be,' 
or as they themselves would be to a duck 

I i 





But we may readily perceive a ^ron..ral hereditary or in- 
Htmctive finidainental part in this „atiirai hvv^un^v, i„ tlie 
lar^re raii^n, of notes that hav., a universal app.ication. Couch 
remarks {Ilhi.tmliom of Tmtind, p. 94) that throufrhout tht> 
whole of the warm-blooded animals, which alone are truly 
e.juipped with voice, certain sounds have always the same 
meaninjr; a scream shows fear or acute pain, and calls for the 
most immediate assistance ; a j^roan implies dull or suppressed 
paui, but makes no claim for help ; the hush or lullaby of any 
mother can be sootliin^^ to any infant; ami the ci.ll.s'of want 
or hun^rer of any younj,^ animals are readily undov^tood by 
annuals of widely dlHerent species. Any cat or do- will 
instinctively rcco^'iiise the difference in tone of words spoken 
an^rrily and others uttered lovin^rly. The meaning- of all 
these thin^^s must be hidden away in the or^mnism of each 
animal as it is derived from its ancestors. But experience 
must teach the poultry-yard to scamp-, all le^^s, and flutter 
all win«-s, at the first note of the o-iri who feeds them • the 
pil-'s that rush in a mad race at the Hrst rattle of the bucket • 
the cow that lifts her head out of the ^auss and trots to the 
inilkin^i,^ place at the sound of a certain voice— all these and 
others show that while much is hereditary, much also is 
ac(iuired. Or more correctly perhaps we should say that all 
of It IS acquired ; but while much is ac.iuire.l in the experience 
of the individual, much also has been acquired in the experi- 
ence of the race. And in proportion to the extent of thi^ 
aciuisition seems, in a ^.eiieral way, to be the development of 
the social sympathy. 

Voice is universal amoiif. all warm-blooded animals • it is 
very rare amono. the cold-blooded, the only notable exception 
beiiio- the froo-s ; serpents hiss, and some li.ards make sounds, 
but these can scarcely be considered as means of communica- 
tion, though the frog's notes are probably a sexual attraction. 
Amongst the lowest mammals, the monotremes, voice is 
). early absent, while in those nearest it in grade it is of small 
account. Inasmuch as we possess fewer of the links that 
join the birds to the reptiles we lind fewer forms with no 
capacity m that way, but the lowest orders are the least 
endowed; ostrich, emu, apteryx being very poorly provided 


't'dituiy or i'ti- 
^aiiij,^-, in the 
;ati()ii. Couch 
irouffhout the- 
one aro truly 
ays thu saine 

I calls for tiio 
or suppreHise J 
ullaby of any 
c<)ll.« of want 

nduv.itood hy 

or do<f will 

kvord.s Hpoken 

anino^ of all 

iiism of each 

it experience 

S and flutter 

s them ; the 

the bucket ; 

trots to the 

II these and 
iiuch also is. 

say that all 
le experience 
1 the experi- 
tent of this. 
X'lopment of 

linials ; it is. 
le exce2Jtion 
lake sounds, 
1 attraction. 
L'S, voice is. 
i is of .small 
links that 
ns with no 
e the least 
y provided 


ALS. 308 


reo-ard to vocal power. ISut 


flopment up to the w..alth of melody 

in each we Hnd a steady 


sound of the highest birds, and h, 'i^:^^'::n^rj^^2 
vocabulary of n.onkeys or the fifty richer vocabulary 
ot tlie lowest savage. ^ 

In c'.,"h1 gra.les of progress the capacity for .social 
sympathy. It ,s barely observable in .ny of the cold-blooded 
animals; ,t dawns among of wa u l)loo.l. and steadily 
.ncrease,s as we ascend through forms of greater and greater 
complexity But in very many species the tendency to social 
habits 1.S checked or wholly obstructed by the necessity of 
hnding food When a litter of half a dozen kitten.s are 
nursed together, the mutur.I comfort they find in each others 
warmth, their social games, and reciprocated kindness of 
l.cku.g and cleaning will naturally keep them together 
'"Hi If they are abundantly fed they will remain a .social' 
group throughout their lives, sunning themselves in slumber- 
ing heaps, or following each other for the larger part of the 
day. Yet these same cats in their wild life would be 
obliged to catch each some 800 or 400 animals a year ', 
rate which would soon exhaust a district of considerable 
diameter. Halt a .lozen might easily ke.^. an area of several 
square miles very bare of their particular sort of prey, and 
so It nugh _rea.lily enough come to pass that animals of a 
really social instinct would be compelled to live in consider- 
able Lsolation. Even the rhinoceros, though his life is in 
geneml so lonely, is declared by Andersson {Lake Nynmi, p 
4) to be very fond of the luxury of a few companions 
when the exigencies of nourishing .so many huge bulks are 
no too great a tax upon the district. In the account which 
ollows It must therefore be remembered that the -oneral 
tendency to an of .social feeling is all along tlie line 
subjec to the control of other causes which may reduce or 
even obliterate it. 

There is no satisfactory evidence for alleged instances of 
sympathy in cold-blooded animals. It is asserted, perhaps 
with truth {:sntnre., viii., 803), that the Ganges crocodile hunts 
lor hsh ,„ companies that show some co-opemtlon, yet this 
ot Itself IS no indication of sympathy Lacepede gives an 


' 'I 

804 Tin; oaiGiN and (ikowth of the mokal instin'.t. 

account oF Noiiio riiii^iMl .siuikcs which wci-c tiiiiicil and .sccmud 
to liavi' an allcction lor their niastfi-, and Ronianus nivuM 
Heveml iiLstances (Aniuio/ In/c/lii/nKr, p. 25})) of turtles, tor- 
toises, crocodiles, and siuikes which devclopoil similar atl'ec- 
tions. None of these stories, however, ring's iiuite true; and 
we are justified in feelin<f scepticism when we hear of a 
python dyine^ of shock at seeinjr its master fall in an 
apoplectic tit. Stories of <,'hosts and spirits, dreams and 
portt^nts teach us above all thini,^s th(^ mu-eliability of testi- 
mony accepted merely l)ecause the narrator is beyond the 
suspicion of wilfully lyin^-. When an observer like F. Day 
^rives the results of his own observations (Liimccnn Journal, xv., 
H'i), we may safely accept them as beinjf trustworthy so far 
as they <;'o. But then when the testimony is jrood it never 
y-oes far, and it certaiidy <,dves us little reason to believe that 
a cold-blooded animal is capable of any sympathetic emotions. 
I have kept troj^s and lizai'ds of various species, sometimes for 
a couple of years at a time, and never saw the remotest in- 
dication that the society of one was anything' but utterly 
indifferent to the others. 

Social Sympathy ix the Lower Bums. 

In passinj,^ over into the birds we find a j^vip, but not a 
great one, for the lowest orders seem little gifted with social 
sympathies. Of the fourteen genera in the ostrich order 
enumerated in the earlier catalogues of the British Museum, 
there are ten which go in pairs only, the conjugal sympathy 
having little tendency apparently to pass into one of wider 
scope; the remainder, emus, rheas, and ostriches, certainly 
live in herds of from three or four to about 100 mem- 
bers. But these seem more in the nature of agglomera- 
tions than of societies bound by ties of att'ection. No one 
ever sees them fondling each other, nor do they show any 
indications of those little offices of kindness whereby the 
social emotions of higher birds are displayed. . Emus and 
ostriches are often kept in domestication, but however much 
they may bii petted, they never reciprocate with the slightest 
show of regard. 


•i\ and Ht'cinod 
luuiiuiL'S y;ivoH 
)f turtles, toi'- 
siniilar attuc- 
lito tnu! ; and 
>vo lioar of a 
r fall in an 
, droaniH and 
bility of te.sti- 
H bt-yond the 
• like F. Day 
It Journal, xv., 
Yorthy so far 
^ood it never 
,0 believe that 
letic emotions, 
sometimes for 
3 remotest in- 
,f but utterly 


ap, but not a 
id with social 
ostrich order 
tish Museum, 
;'al sympathy 
one of wider 
les, certainly 
it 100 mem- 
f agglomera- 
ion. No one 
ey show any 
whereb}' the 

, Emus and 
Jwever much 

the sliirlitest 

THK C-ROWTir OF sncfAr, SY 



A tridiiii; advance 

birds. Of 201 

IS SL'on in the Aii^rr, 


ra all without exception ai 

or Wfb- footed 

ni C(mimunities that raiioc |V.)ip the littl 

'e social 


to the hum; associat 


le main only ao'^^domeratioiis, but 

ions of petrels and <;aiinets. Tl 

e covey of duek.s 

ese are in 


) one who watches tl 

lives of a few <lucks about a farmyard will fail 



„ , . ^. ,. .. ^ - - 'fill to observe 

certain ties ol affection that bind them to^rother. In this 
however, as in other cases, it is e.xtremely .litTicult to .lis- 
cnmuiate between a purely .social sympathy and the antecedent 
bond ot conjujral .sympathy. I remember having, for weeks 
un.h.r observati.m a drake an.i two duck.s which had been 
admitted into a j^arden for the purpose of keepin^r down the 
."nails. In front of the window where 1 worked I saw th.Mn 
all day lon^. and concluded from their extremely aHectionate 
ways that a strone- 1,om.1 of .social sympathy united them ; yet 
oil a little experinu'iitation, I fo' nd that if only a duck was 
ielt with a .Imke the two were perfectly happy a.ul showed 
no sense of the of a thinl. A duck or a drake left alone 
was most unhappy, but I noticed that if, while a .luck was in 
that condition of disc.mtented isolation, another duck was in- 
troduced, the two found no oreat satisfaction in each other's 
company. There was no possibility of mistakin^r their low 
spirits and g-eneral dissatisfaction with life, lastinjr the whole 
day lono-, t,ll the admissi.Mi of the drake woke the whole 
party to ecstasies of deliVht, indicated bv a ])obbin.. of heads 
u lono- ,,„ackino-, and mutual endearments lastino. for an hour 
or tM'o. 

It is practically impossible, therefore, in the species of lower 

development, to .lis.sociate the two forms of sympathy Yet 

111 any poultry-yard it may be observed that if the ecro-s of he„.s 

ducks, turkeys and <reese, be hatched under the same foster' 

mother, the accident of ])irth will not overcome certain natural 

instincts of .sociability, and while they are still too young to 

he actuated by sexual feelings, the turkeys will form a group 

by themselves, chickens will go with chickens, ducklings with 

ducklings, and ere they a^-e three months old the whole will 

bo completely sorted out and as.sociated together by certain 

social instincts pertaining to each '.ariety. 

A duck kept away for a time from her own set and then 
VOL. I. 20 

kS;' i 


-^«.?-E»i*»»— ••"wabiS** 

I i 


allowed to join it, phiii^'cs into the very heart of the crowd, 
and finds an excjuisite sedative to her fevered nerves in the 
sense of companionsliip. This is in the main a self-reo-ardiny- 
feelini;-, but the welj-l'ooted l)irds are alwa^'s capable of some- 
thing like disinterestedness. A drake or a j;'ander will at 
times be attracted by the cries of a sutt'erin*;' member of his 
association, and attack the eneni}- with intrepid coura<i'e. 
Romanes g-ives a record, on the authority of Edwanl, tlie 
naturalist, of a wounded tern which, when unable to fly, was 
carried off by a couple of companions, these being relieved, 
when tired, by another pair, whilst the whole flock fluttered 
ai'ound in evident care and anxietj'. {Aiiima/ In/e'lii/ciicf, p. 
275.) If such a record were isolated, I should be inclined to 
give it little weight. But Brehm tells us (Voy/, iii., 100) 
that terns are well known to give assistance to a wounded 
companion, and that they constantly exhibit a tender solicitude 
amono- themselves. It is well know)' also that sea-gulls will 
crowd round a wounded member of their flock, but whether 
this arises from sympathj'- or merely out of curiosity, it is hard 
to say. Yet the former is by far the more likely when we 
remember that they are constantly in the habit of joining 
together to drive away a hawk or crow, heron or fox, which 
has seized on one of their number. (Brehm, Vo//!-/, iii., 115.) Of 
the Arctic puffin {Morinini frafercvln), Audubon tells us (Oni il/io- 
loijiail Bioiimphij, iii., 10) that as often as one was shot and 
fell upon the water, some other would alight beside it, swim 
round it, push it with its bill as if urging it to fly or dive, 
and generally the helping bird would wait beside its wounded 
companion until the fall of a lifted oar compelled it to dive 
for its own safety. 

Whenever nerve susceptibilities of an emotional kind have 
been sufficiently developed to urge an animal, in opposition to 
the instinct of self-preservation, thus to stay and help in the 
defence of a comrade in distress, or to co-operate with another 
in mutual defence, a slight but very persistent selective action 
would arise to maintain and increase the tendency. In the 
case of the eider duck, for instance, where several mothers 
brood close tu each other and club together for mutual defence 
(Brehm, iii., 053) the chances of survival and of extension of 


of the crowd, 
nerves in the 
);iblt' of sonie- 
;ander will at 
neniber of his 
epid couraj^e. 

Edwaril, the 
ble to tl}', was 
iein<;' relieved, 
rtock fluttered 
Iiitr.'Uj/encc, p. 
be inclined to 
^ugr/, iii., 100) 
to a wounded 
ider solicitude 
■j sea-i^-ulls will 
:, but whether 
)sity, it is hard 
vely when we 
ibit of joininjf 

or fox, which 
■/,iii., 115.) Of 
■lis us {Oniilho- 

was shot and 
)eside it, swim 
to fly or dive, 
le its wounded 
died it to dive 

nial kind have 
a opposition to 
md help in the 
e with another 
;elective action 
iency. In the 
iveral mothers 
imtual defence 
)f extension of 

T„K c,„OWT„ o»- SOCIAL SyMLATHV ,. ,.,,,,,,. go? 

enemies of youn./birds P.. f l ^ inveterate 

Bool'ofBiJT%mt^ Iroh™ Ryn,er Jones (r.W/'. 

,/ -LJini.s, i\._ ^oij ^^^y ^ pan- of skuas suceps^f.,11,. i *• j 

^ , SUCH as the llainino-oes M-e can x^n fi.„ • i 

so ICltll(]ii (V... <-l,,, 1 ... n '•ii<iii lllJlt or 

< ,.l,u„ tl,„y take to H,j;he i„ regul,,,- „„|,r. TIk, ..l.k-st of 
fto flock, a, Brolnu tell. „,. i„ t,„,„ „,„„,^^ „,, " ° 
« o„y with t,,„ ,,t,„o„t ,,iffle,„ty ov-o,M.„ch ■ • T 

bL lltT ''""■' '■" ''"' »""■»■"»' ^ '« - "^i 

ttUnn tl>„t (l„m,„g„« are practically out of tlio ra„„c of 
"orva ,o„, except with the „»e of a good telescope. E -e ; ." 
the mi<I»t ol a thick population thty are uurao ,..te 1 H 
»port»u,.„ ,i,,„i„« that the lahourof'cir:;,:™ r '„:!' 

.■"peu^ p":;r° ™-^ '- ""™«" '° '-*■■ - "^■■■' <>■■ '- - 

svultilf "'■ '""'"""■ °'' " f"™"'-"'-!' Jevclopmeut of social 

z 'foTr ""'h'" "" '"'''^"""' "'"='■ »■■-■• '—'»"> 
SIP ^, ^ ^""'"'"'' "'»■ ■^'"'■"- SIS: Au,i„i,„„ iv 

'^'' , 1^ iLnner, 292 ; Jones iv 0'ia\ ^n i- . ' 





It , 

thoii- pi-cy into the centre ; at leiif>'tli tliensli, crowdoil to^-etlier 
in 11 small space, attempt to escape, and, when tliey make a 
dart I'oi' liherty through the rini^', the iinu'derons })eal<s of the 
pelicans snap tliem up as they pass. The hirds adapt their 
operation with some little skill to the nature of the locality, 
and il' they have a o'ood shore to drive the tish aj^ainst, they 
form only halt" a circle with the shore line for its diameter. 

The Gmlhr or stilt-hirds, and the GaUiiiir or pheasant 
order, are practically on the same level as the yl/zw/vw in 
re<fard to social feelinir. Of the 248 (genera composin<f the 
Gviilla: (in the earlier Jiritish MnMion Cdfu/iij/iir) forty-one are 
unsocial, 202 are more or less distinctly social. 

Amon^ the latter are cranes, herons, storks, ibises, spoon- 
bills, stilts, sandpipers, snipe, woodcocks, plovers and bustards, 
for whose comfort and safety it seems necessary that they 
should live in communities. Many species of plover, thouj^'h 
they rise with great timidity on the approach of a sportsman, 
will return to a wounded compaiiion, and show signs not only 
of distress, but of a wish to rende)' assistance. To the dotterel 
plover (O/inrfirlriiis iimruirll/is) Figuier in especial attribute' 
this sympathetic feeling (p. 379). But of the whole plover 
family. Professor Ryraer Jones remarks that, while the females 
are hatching, the males are in a tiock keeping watch all round : 
a cry from any one of them sets the whole in readiness either 
for coml)at or for flight. Of an allied family, the pratincoles 
(Gliin'd/inic), he states that if one of a pair be shot the other 
runs to its side in utter disregard of its own safety (iv., 14). 

It is well known that cranes when feeding set sentinels, 
and that if thej are attacked they form a circle, beaks out- 
ward, and so beat off the enemy. All the night-flying Grallw 
answer to the description given by White of Selborne 
(letter lix.). and we may hear them far aloft calling to each othei* 
through the darkness so that none may be lost. The bird 
which, when in safet\' in the midst uf the flock, thus calls to tl\e 
distant straggler to let it know in which direction it must fly, 
is actuated not bj' selHsh but by truly social instincts. In 
regard to storks, there is an abundance of anecdotes, some of 
them true, many more or less otlierwise, whicli indicate the 
strength of their .sympathies. 



iwdeil toj;'utlior 
I tlu^y make a 
s l)('iil<s of the 
Is iuliipt their 
I' the locality, 
I a^'ainst, they 
ts diameter. 
r (^r pheasant 
he Ansercs in 
3oniposinj,f the 
) forty -one are 

;, ihises, spoon- 
. and bnstards, 
lary tliat they 
plover, tliough 
t' a sportsman. 
sij^'iiH not onl}' 
Vo tlie dotterel 
:cial attrihut^^^ 
i whole plover 
lile tlie females 
ateh all ronnd : 
eadiness either 
the pratincoles 

shot tlie other 
uil'ety (iv., 14). 
f set sentinels, 
cle, beaks out- 
it-iiyiiiff Grallcr 
! of Selborne 
ii; to each other 
ost. The bird 
;hus calls to the 
ion it must tiy, 

instincts. In 
cdotes, some of 
'h indicate the 


The Gallmc are less distinguished by the stron<^ svnma- 

thetic tee nio-s of some species, but on the other hand tl/ey are 

more umlormly social in habits, the whole 115 gx-nera bein.. 

vithou exception fond of ..atherin,- in lar.^e societies, and 

incapable of hvn.. alone or in pairs. Some species, such 

;:...;: T""'; ''^^^"'' l^^'^^^^"^'^- ^^^-y-^ V^t^^^^^, pheasants, 
neHapo.Is an.l currassows, form at certain seasons of the year 
large flocks of one sex only. At other times the con.panies 
consist of both sexes intermingled, and even when, as in the 
case of a the pheasant family, they sleep scattered out at 
nitervals through the woods, it is said that the least appearance 
of danger causes a call to be made which is repeated and re- 
echoed far and_ wide through the midnight glades till' the 
whole community is awake and on the watch. This by no 
means agrees with whac is easily observed among .lomesticated 
fowls, which sleep so soundly that the poultry thief finds no 
ditftcu ty m bagging a whole roost without wakii:g them On 
the other hand, the most ordinary observation suggests that, 
while the sympathies of foMds are far from deep, they have, 
uniid all their pugnacity, friendly feelings which they display 
HI heir own fashion. It is true that a wounded or sick hen 
wU be passed by with the utmost indifference, or even pecked 
and ill-treate.l by tlie others. But on the other hand I have 
noticed hat if a rooster is having a bad time of it with a 
couple of turkeys, a cry of distress will often bring up hens 
and other roosters to the defence, and when tlie inmates of 
the poultry house are retiring to rest one may see, amid 
enough that is seiash, much also that indicates preferences 
and mutual good-will. I remember watching for several 
years the conduct of fowls that were by night cooped up in a 
■small yard with a high fence. A little hole in this fence 
tirough which one could pass at a time was generally opened 
about nine o clock in the morning, and admitted them to a 
Held wherein they enjoyed themselves amazingly They 
loved to get out, and generally stood waiting imiiid the 
ope,nng for a couple of hours before the time. Vet when 
the h tie shutter was lifted, I never saw the smallest of 

crowdniL'- oi 



ever e 


superior strength to push the rest 

a I'uusi 
aside, i 

■it make use of his 
iiid if two stepped 

•'J i: 



V ■ 

! I 


[ ■' 


■ --Ml 


up to the entrance together, one waited wliile the other passeil 
throuo-h. In sliort, tlie wliole lif'ty or sixty nianao-od tlio 
atfair with an al).sence of jostlinj^' or .selfisli haste wliicli, if 
we saw it anion;^- men at a ticket oiSce, or at any crowded 
place of egress, wj should attribute to a sense of orderliness 
and of that forbtarance which arises from o-ood social feelino-. 
Little more can l)e said of the pigeon order. They are uni- 
formly social: their habits are in general affectionate and 
gentle, 1)ut there are no species that display exceptionally 
sympathetic qualities. 

Social Sympathy in the Higher Birds. 

Beyond this order, however, we pass into the realm of 
those birds which we have already classed together as being 
marked by the possession oi' supei'ior intelligence. In these, 
along with increased vivacity and sprightliness of life in 
general, there is found an increas<.Ml activit\f and susceptibility 
to the emotions, in conse(iuence of which they have a greatly 
quickened capacity of sympathy. 

It is true that there is a whole order of the British 
Museum classirication, the Fimrin, which is generally char- 
acterised by unsocial habits, seventy-two per cent, of its species 
living either i?i solitary fashion or in pairs. But this is the 
group of birds over the classification of which there occurs most 
difficulty. Out of the seven systems, which I have to the best 
of my amateui- ability examined, this is the portion in which 
confusion and uncertainty most distinctly reign. Perhaps 
the truth is that it consists of the debris of once much more 
extensive orders of Inrds, just as the edentates are an ill- 
assorted set of mannnals grouped together only because it 
seems clumsy to found a new order for each separate irag- 
ment. Xow it is easily to be understood how such families 
of birds may have secured their safet}^ by developing solitary 
habits in face of the increasing preponderance acijuired by 
species of eminently social character. maid<ind, if a 
nation is large enough and united enough to meet a hostile 
nation in the Held, its success will lie most clearly in massing 



itself for tlio conflict: but after it lias ])oen .lefeate.l in several 
pitcluMl battles, its existence may depend nnich rather on 
scatternio-, tor ni a prolon-ed ouerilla warfare it may best 
preserve its independence. The race united in overwheiniin.- 
hosts will be the prosperous race, but the other will at leas^t 
secure a precarious existence by a lonely life amony- hills or 
crao-oy valleys, in the .leep forests or in the recesses of marshy 
lands. So It may happen that a contiiKmt ma^' liold a few 
great dominant widespread peoples, alonj. with scattered 
remnants of scores of others lingering, here and there an.l 
preservmo. themselves from extinction l)y isolation and ob- 

Such perhaps have been the savincr tactics of birds like 
the woodpecker, the wryneck, the kingfisher, trogon, an.l 
others of the order. Their means of .safety have lain chiefly 
ni the skill with which they coul.l escape observation A 
man may dwell for weeks in a forest wherein he can hear 
the woodpeckers at work, yet never catch a glimpse of one 
of them; and the Prince von Wied describes the extreme 
ditticu% of seeing a goatsucker. OouM .speaks in the same 
way ot the podargus family, whose shyness and the extreme 
resemblance of its colour to that of the tree branches form 
Its .surest defence {Handhooh J>mU of Australia, i., 84)- so 
also do the jacanars, buccos, and similar unsocial birds find 
their security in unobtrusiveness. They survive as the 
gypsies survive in Europe, or the hill-tribes in India-con- 
tinuing to exist, but not contesting the predominance of races 
more consolidated by .sympathetic bonds. 

Of these Dirds of higher intelligence there is another o.der 
not particularly characterised by social habits. These are the 
binls of prey, of which about half the species are social, the 
her halt living in paiv,s. Their great strength and powers 
ot Hight render co-operation in defence of little necessity 
while the exigencies of feeding will always tend to keei^ 
them asunder. The sea-eagles are somewha social, so also 
are the kites and the vultures: but the eagle, falcon and 
Duzzar. sub-families are unsocial, though often a small coterie 
will hul.l a di.strict in terror For y.-ars, while their own inter- 
course when they meet is harnioniou,s. 

I ! 

■ ' i 


i 1 


i! '1 







'H '91 ■ 

But all the rest of these birds of hi^dier )utelli<,fence are 
characterised by a very jjjreat dej^ree of social feelinj;'. Almost 
the entire body of the three great orders, the rasturi/oniirs, 
or sparrow-like birds, the Frint/illifoDncn, or tinch-like birds, 
and the Fsittaci, or parrots, are eminently social. I have 
been able to find from one source or another the habits of 
1009 genera out of 1149 ; and of these no less than eighty- 
seven per cent, are of a highly sympathetic disposition. 

Speaking of the largest division of them, tlie sub-order 
Passercs, Brehm says "most of them are in the highest degree 
social creatures. We meet but rarely a solitary bird : pairs 
occur only in the brooding season, but in the remainder of the 
year the pairs gather in families, and 'he families in troops, 
and the troops in multitudes, and the nmltitudes in regular 
hosts. And not only do the individuals of one species gather 
in company, but also their generic relations, wliich circum- 
stances have led to consort with one another for a month, 
together form a single community, and work in harmony." 
{Vd(/(i, 1,38.) This description applies to no less than 857 
genera out of 1009 for which information is to be had. A 
few others, though social, are not so much di.sposed to form 
large companies. 

That this capacity for union is a means of preservation is 
very fully known. Bishop Stanley describes (p. 1.54) the 
manner in which the smaller P^wcc-s set upon the owl, more 
especially if they catch him abroad in the da^^-time ; and 
Rymer Jones declares (Bunk of Binh, i., 303) that even the 
peregrine falcon, that terror of partridge, duck, pigeon, and 
([uail, will yield before the impetuous and united attack of a 
company of small birds. Brehm gives the testimony of many 
observers to show that the tree falcon is often baffled by the 
union of swallows (iii., 239), and Couch says he has seen black- 
birds mob a cat which was concealed in a bush. The group of 
the Motaeillhla', or wagtails, in their lively and confident style, 
are able by union to baffle their enemies. The elder Brehm 
records : " If the wagtails perceive a bird of prey they follow 
him with loud cries, thereb}^ warning all the other liirds of 
the forest. In such eiieounters I have, often wondered at 
their courage and adroitness. When a crowd of these little 



birds has put to flight a bird of prey, then resounds tlie .shrill 
song of victory, after which the combatants disperse." The 
same capacity for united defence may be .seen among buntings 
larks, and many species of finch. The whole of the crow 
family succeed by their capacity for union in makin-^ them- 
selves secure from all but the very swiftest and fiercest'of their 
enemies, and the whole sixty-two genera of the weaver-bird 
family assure their safety amid countless enemies, and especi- 
ally from snakes, by building their nests in aerial masses, 
over which they unite in constructing a single solid roof. In 
all this there is seen something very diflerent from the mere 
agglomeration of a shoal of Msh or a swarm of fro^-'s The 
societies are bound together by active sentiments of good- 
will. Among themselves, they have those little variances and 
ilisputes which prove their general friendliness to be the 
triumph of sympathy, and not that merely automatic workin.^ 
of an instinct which produces the mechanical uniformity of 
social_ life among the ants. They are united by an actual 
capacity for self-sacrifice. For instance, the crows, chou-hs 
and others of the order have the habit of po.sting sentinds' 
which refrain from feeding while the others are busy at their 
meal. Some families, such as the titmice, the missel-thruslies 
tlie wheatears, and the bush warblers, set no special sentinel,' 
but the instant that one of a company sees or hears an enemy 
It utters a sharp note, and like a flash the whole community 
IS out of sight. 

It is no doubt because of the cumulative survival of the 
most sympathetic forms that we observe so many of the 
species of these smaller birds in which the artl-ctions are 
remarkably strong and ardent. Audubon describes from his 
own observation the pretty sight attbrded by a row of red- 
polls {Fnnyilla Imarin) perched on the same bough, caressing 
one another, each of them from time to time popping a dainty 
into the beak of its neighbour, now to the right hand and now 
<> the left. iOrnith. Bioy., iv., 833.) He cjuotes the words of 
his riend xXutall, whom he certifles to have been a most 
careful observer, as to the strong aflbction among themselves 
cNinced by the chestnut-backed titmice. " When the gun 
has thinned their ranks it is surprising to see the courage. 







M ' 




r, j ■ ' 



anxiety, and solicitude of these little creatures. They follow 
you with their wailini>- scold, and entreat for their com- 
panions in a manner that impresses you with a favourable 
idea of their social feelin<ifs." (Oni.if/i. Blof/., iv., H72.) Cross- 
bills and bullfinches are well kiiown to {j^ather round a 
wounded comrade with piteous cries, and often with much 
di;-ire(,rard of their own dan(,a'r, aljout which at other times 
they are so circumspect. E(iually toucliini^^ is the conduct of 
thrushes {Tiirdinrr), includin<>- the redbreasts, which form 
extraordinary attachments to persons who are kind to them, 
beini;- wonderfully afi'ected by the stiinulus of their praise 
or the depression of their blame. Without puttin<>' too 
implicit a faith in all the narratives we read, there is yet a 
sufficient bulk of testimony on the part of competent observers, 
includini^- naturalists like MacGillivray and St. Hilaire, to 
satisfy us that the bodies of these 2)assei'ine birds are quivering,' 
with sympathetic emotions. 

But the parrot order excel all other birds as much in 
sympathy as they do in intelliffence. The whole of its eighty 
<renera are social, a solitary parrot being at any time of the 
year unknown. They live in pairs indissolubly united; at 
the breeding season these brood in small clusters, but during all 
the rest of the year the pairs unite to form flocks of varying 
size, from a dozen to several hundreds. A majority of species 
are in the habit of posting sentinels, and a very wary old 
watcher is the veteran cockatoo or parrot which mounts on 
some conspicuous branch while his friends are busy below, 
robbing the corn Held or the orchard. At the least sign of 
danger a harsh cry resounds, and in a moment a flapping rusli 
of wings is heard, and the whole flock are up in the air. 

The parrot, parrakeet, macaw, or cockatoo has required for 
its larger brain development, and the more intricate nerve 
organisation whicli must be at the basis of its increased 
intelligence, a prolonged period of growth. The blind and 
helpless young ones, needing, as we have seen, three months 
of assiduous care from their parents, would demand for the 
preservation of the species that coiicomitantly with increasing 
intelligence there should grow up a parental sympathy of the 
strongest sort, and the great advantage derivable from the 




juncture wouM 1,„ „,„;„„„«,. f„,„„„f,,,' ,„ |,^. ^^J " 
n ou. ,,1 t ,0 ,va,-,„o»t »ocial sympatlue,. „,„] », it eomo, t 

,n then- f,™ life „„ „,„, t|,«„ ,,i»ti„,,ui»l,e,) o , 
'"'■.k or a ,„„tu„l l,dpful„„„, „o »„„ „,:,„ i„ , 7; . 
o»pe=,,Uly noted a« tl.o iVi„nd, »„., e„n,pani„n» of ,Z 

Nun, ere,,, are tl,e anecdote,, of ti.e lovin^. care wide h 
pan-ot, d,.,pl.y to orphan, of their own or other npcie 

^«w, p. 275. ».:=., et^oA^^h^^acfi::,";,^:;:;;:: 

It tCt " ";■ "' '" ^'•''"^ "'■»" p»-* "■« w.« 


Wilson (y^«,r/OTyi Oruitholomsf i 380) ^n,^« fl, , .1 

hou, s}.ower,s oi tl;e,n fell, yet the atfection. of the .surv.Vot' 
seemed to mcrease, for after a few circuits round the 71 

^ maiutest symptoms of svnniafliv .n„l 

concern as entirely disarmed me " ^ ^ ^ ^ 

of Sk"1 f "^"!'"" •""^'^°" ^'"^ ''^'^^ -^ characteristic 
stro It 1 ? r"'"" ^^"™''^' "'"' - ^^-^^-''^^ >t is foun 

<^thci. ISO one can object that this arises out of stupidity or 







curioHity ; for under otlior circuniHtaiico.s they are amoii^^ the 
wariest and wisest of birds. Ouuld mentions tlie same hal)it 
in other species, and Sir Goor<,^e Grey tells us (.VoM-\ ,nid 
Jresf Ans/n>/l,(, ii., 2(S2j that "the sava^'e avails himvjif of 
the extraordinary attachir>ent which the cockatoos have for 
one another, and fastening' a wounded one to a tree so that 
its cries may inchice its companions to return, he watclies his 
opportunity to add another bird or two to his booty ". 

Tliere can be no doul)t tliat the l)irds as a class display 
successive sta^'es in the development of tlie social sympathies, 
and that these follow the -general advance of orj-'anisation. 
Thus, at the one end, a flock of (hicks, thou<,di of social habits, 
form little more than an a<,f^domeration, wliile at the other, a 
flock of parrots or cockatoos are distinctly a society welded 
together by the sympatliy of mutual i^ood offices. From the 
terrace where I now write I can see to the left, on the pale 
Avaters over tlu.' sandy bar '.hat skirts a peaceful shore, very 
nearly 200 of the .so-called Australian musk ducks {Biziura 
hibatn). It is a harmonious life they lead, arriving 
every morning after sum-ise, fishing all day long (mi the 
shallow bar, and returning inland at night in two long lines. 
But no matter how near or how long one may watch them, 
he sees little that indicates a loving intercourse. Each works 
for himself, and if danger approaches, the first that sees it 
gives no call, but flies for his own safety, and the otlu'rs, 
taking friglit at the spluttering of the water, llee in the same 
direction. But to my right, where the rosella parrakeets 
(Flaii/cercus exliiiias) are at work among the peaches and 
apricots, what a different sort of companionship ! There the 
life is one of noisy talkativeness, intermingled with playful- 
ness, and little endearments .such as the musk ducks never 
show. At the least alarm one of them gives the warninc, but 
.some of them stay with a young one to encourage its flight. 
I have lain for hours on a sunnner holiday among the liills 
and watched where a gum-tree with its berries had attracted 
a flock of cockatoos or parrots. If one flxed his eyes for 
half an hour on some particular individual it was never seen 
to settle down exclu.sively to the satisfaction of its own 
appetite ; it always manifested more or less of interest in its 



L' ainoii^f tlio 
le same luihit 
>rth- West >ni(l 
Ls him,' ilf of 
oos luivt! for 
truo Ko that 
J watches his 

class display 



social habits, 

the other, a 
ciety welded 
. From the 
, on the pale 
I shore, very 
cks {Bizliiia 
■ad, arrivinii' 
o\\\f on the 
D lony lines, 
watch them, 
Each works 
that sees it 

the others, 
in the same 
I jmrrakeets 
Deaches and 
! There the 
'ith playful- 
ducks never 
varnin^^ but 
'^& its tlig'ht. 
n^f the hills 
ad attracted 
bis eyes for 
s never seen 
of its own 
terest in its 


lUMKhbour ; ill the midst of a •■•arrulous vivacity there was not 
only all the harmony of th.^ duck life, but also a <-•,•, -at deal 
whieb forced one to conclude that they found a sense of satis- 
faction in lovinrr nn.l in beino- loved. \)\ them tlie words are 
strictly true in which Hrehm sums up the ovn.Tal charac- 
teristics of the whole r,00 species in the parrot order. " Their 
communities hold by one another with true d.-votion, and 
.share in counnon both joy and frrief. In danger they stand 
by one another loyally, and uuitualiy sti-ive to help each 
other to the best of their power." (Vrxjcl, ii., 266.) 

Social Sympathy ix the Ldwek Mammals. 

The n;ammals exhibit a much ^-reater i-anj;e in respect to 
-social sympathy than do the ])irds. They start at a lower 
level, and reach in the apes and in man a hifrlier decree 
«f development. The j,n-eat poverty of feelinj,^ in the lower 
families is due to the already specified, that the links 
which join the mammal io the reptile have been less com- 
pletely obliterated than those which led from the reptile to 
the bird. But the averao'es of the two cla.sses show no 
^'reat discrepancy. This is seen in the fact that while of 477 
^•enera of mammals 8:U are social in habits, which amounts 
to seventy per cent., the corresponding proportion is seventy- 
eio-ht per cent, in the case of birds. 

In the lowest order, the monotremes, I can lind no trace 
of any true social feeling. The platypus is seen in small 
companies on quiet ponds or secluded river bends. I have 
never had any chance of observing their habits, though I 
have seen them swimming and diving at a distance. From 
all I hear I am little disposed to credit them with more than 
that sort of agglomerative cohesion which is displayed by 
turtles or crocodiles. The other family of the order, the 
echidnas or porcupine ant-eaters, I have long kept under 
observation, having had sometimes half a dozen together for 
several months. I never saw one recognise another in any 
way. They inhabited, within the same enclosure, each \i^ own 
corner in a state of torpid inditlerence. They feed chietiy in 


'I ■ 

. i; i 
• i ' 

i I 



31S TifE nmcis axd cuowtii of ttik mokai, instinct. 

the dark, >uu\ ] l„nv tcstcl th,.i,i l.y taki.i- u luntrni „ut to 
siirprisr thL-ni in tlmt .soiiHon of thoir activity ; hut ncv.-r saw 
a sif,^!, of auytliiiin- ainoiif^rst tlu'iii tlmt would .s)i<ro-,.st atfoction 
or concern for cacli otli.-i-, thow^h it is of course always pos- 
sible cnou^-h tliat while shy uud.T observation they may be 
inoiv aflectioniite when free from human <fazo. 

The marsupials are a little in advance. It is true that 
Carl Vo^rt says in his M,ninu(i/i,> (En^dish trans., ii., lt)o) 
" they show not the sli<rhtest attachment," and Hreluu says 
(S,h>!/rfiar, iii., (i44) that thou<,di the female lon<j carries lier 
youn^-, and aHbrds them a secure retreat, her care for them is 
very mechanical, an<l exhibits none of that mother's joy which 
is so common in tlie hio'her animals. But I have already 
indicated that this is a trifle too sweeping-, and is not (piite 
true of .some species. Similarly when Brehm tells us that in- 
ditfei-ence to everythino- not connected with their stomach.s 
characterises all the marsupials, and that atiection and friend- 
ship are e(iually absent from all .species, we may take the 
statement as beiny- in tlie main fairly accurate, and yet too 
stron<,dy stated, 

I have kept and petted several species without ever seeino- 
any response that indicated the least atier.ijon. They learn 
to become quite tame an. I to reco^mise fairly well the person 
who feeds them regularly. One which uiy little dauohter fed 
with the leaves and fondled many times a da3- showed 
less resjionse than a hen or a turk y would indicate under 
similar circumstances. Thi.s has 1 -en in the main the ex- 
perience of those who have kept marsupials. But in Australia 
I have ])een told of persons who have been able to establish 
friendly relations with them, though no one pretends that at 
the best they are very responsive creatures. Yet I remember 
observing a long-continued instance of affection in the ring- 
tailed opossum ( I'luilnnijista nana). I kept a couple in a cage 
out in the open air against a wall, but ben \ith some spreading 
trees. It was impossible for them to get out, yet I used to 
notice every morning, when I went to feed them, opossum ex- 
crement on the top of the cage. Every day I swept it off, yet 
next day it wouM be there; on taking a lantern out at n'ight 
1 round that one and sometimes two free opossums u.sed to 


'iHK .m.nVTII or,- soci.U. SV.MI.ATHV IN ANIMALS. .Ml!) 

not vtt...ctc..l by any foo.l u. the ca^v, lor nothing, was -ivon 
u th.3 capt.v.. hut their natural .li.t, tlu- t-n,).; Lnv?. 

ho tuu-tn... ,)/./.,,,„,,, „.,, ,,,,, ^^.,.,.^, „,,„„,,,,,,, ,;;^ 

ee.s thc.u.s..|vos on dth.... si,!. „ot 200 yanls away 
Ah.M. one threw cautiously tlu- of a lantern on the cal' 

s-.k, while the capt.ves clun^. to the insi,le. an.l their pink 
no-.s were connnunicatin. through the nu.shes. Hut th^ 
JA'..s'.pW., show wi.le variations an.on,. then.selves, lV<,n. t Ic 
tter sol. arn.ess of the won.bat and koala, to the , v,; L 
"■ss o the kangaroos, a .re^ariousness. howev^., ^ / L 
"utrked by „ov.sihle play of affectionate en.otion. 

Ihe miscellaneous ;,a-oup classified tou.ether as the 3/rnfafa 
-• :.n. urn, at the lower level. Sloths, ant-eaters, y^Ju^ 
nnad. OS and aard-varks are all alike solitary ' thr^^^ 
too .lullo n.telect to combine: they owe none of thei p" 
servation toskill, or (,n;,.|,,K.,., ,,. f,, fh" •• I- ^ 7^ ? 

unio.i TI, ill , . " t" •^"^''I'l^'ii'ta-i'esotsocia 

u .on. Jiie sloth, 1 ,^,„^, f,o,n the bou^h like a ball of 
ned-up „,oss; th, rn,.dillo, defended by hi^ banded a. our 

concealed u Ins subterranean abode which he only .luits at 
n,|ht and that with extreme timidity, all of them^n L^ 

le s^^"^" "^r*'^----'«^ tJ--ore unobtrusive they 

aicthe safer; and society would to them be fatal. Of the 

ourteen <,.enera which Sir C. B. Flower reco-nises all are 

dnlLall are defended by their own peculiar d;;il,' | ^^ 

are absolutely unsocial. 

ordc!^' of Th''"' 'T^ " ""T^ '"^ '''''' **«^''"«- ^' '- ^vliole 
Older of the n.sectivores. Of thirty-five ^^enera, all, with a 

•single exception, are unsocial; some merelp with the inortbn of inditierence, others with pu^Licious I "x" 

canmbal tendencies. The one ,n-e,.arious ^enus is (/./..r 

the msectn ores, because of the anatomical difficulties of 

uanner of reproduction, it would more naturally i)elono. yf 
the remannno. thirty-four genera, the liedgehogs are th^'least 

I 1 


Ijt i 



\' :ifh: 

I ■{ 


unaniiable, the moles the most ferocious ; but all writers on 
genei-al zoology sum up the order as beinj,' eminently unsocial. 

The rodents form an order of varying habits, yet with a 
sliglit preponderance of species that are social in their life. 
Out of 119 genera contained in the order, a laborious search 
has failed to yield me information of the habits of more than 
fifty-three, but of these there are thirty-four which are social in 
their lives, a proportion, amounting to sixty-four per cent. The 
other nineteen genera consist of animals which at the breeding 
time go in pairs, but throughout all the rest of the year are 
absolutely solitarj'. But it is to be noticed that the species 
which are social are those wliich are present in large numbers 
over considerable tracts of the earth's surface, such as the 
squirrel, the rabbit, the rat, and the mouse. The unsocial 
species on the other hand, in spite of the (juills that protect 
the porcupine and the blind subterranean life of the mole-i'ats 
(Spalaridfc), are never numerous and are confined to narrow 

When an animal is so fertile as the rat or the mouse, and 
so mutually helpful, we need no other explanation to under- 
stand why it is so universally distributed. It is well known 
how stoutly a number of rats will unite for the defence of one 
that is attacked, and the lemming is even more gifted with 
the capacity for combination. Oetodons always stand side by 
side against a common foe. Both these and the mice co- 
operate in securing their nocturnal plunder; and the direct 
experiments of Romanes {Animnl Intdlif^cncc, p. 363) indicate 
how much of cunning and self-restraint there often is in these 
co-operations. The marmots and allied genera undoubtedly 
post sentinels which assiduously watch while the others feed, 
and at the shi'ill whistle of the observer on his elevated place 
all dart for their burrows. Other species, like the rabbit, post 
no sentinels, but at the appeai'ance of danger, the first that 
sees it often gives, before ruuTiing to secure his own safety, a 
drumming sound which is the signal of danger to the others. 
The cavy and the rat-hares (Lnf/oni.i/s) also give a friendly 
warning. Various species of dormice when attacked by the 
weasel make a signal which brings up the company to the 
rescue, when tiie enemy usually beats a retreat. 




■->i.uiAlH\ IN ANIMALS 3>>1 

together ho,Io^v out exte'n.sL ^ "^ S:'''^r'"'''^«" 
many avenues of escape • an.l fJ , ^'^'^"i^elves witli 

i-elates, on the authoritv of K IT T '*'"'"' ^^''^'"" 

that in hanl wintj .Ln ^h ^^'^-f^ ^^^-'^^^-■^. "- 528). 
frozen ovev, n.any hundreds unfte T k"''?""' ''''''''''' ^'"^ 
breathing place,s^h4h t" L '^:^'"^^- ^^--Ive.s 
(Z>o//V/.c;^zs) is said bv Carl vT/.t ^^tagonian cavy 

tlu-ou,.h the plains in sml 1 If ^^^--^-^ ii- 171) to n.ove 
old .nale. But v'l at'er tte'^- "f " '^' ^^'^^'^^''^^^P °^' -» 
order is chieHy see IL ," k' ■'^''^''^' ^^^■^^^P""^ "» ^J.e 

Beaver and Jus Works) we are told ' . . American 

Jive and act in colonies 7s.n /, "°*^^*'" ^^at they 

A pair of beavers Xor^^trr"^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^"'^^^^"^ • 
and second years a fami Iv o f. ' '^'P""^' ^*" '^'^^ ^^^t 

but two fan.^Hes oftt^oL 'Z^ th ^^^^'^ -^b-' 
operation rarely Pxten s bevorrfl ^ . '^'"' '^^'"- ^o- 

and twenty indiidual rT ^'"'"^"'^' °^ '^''°"t five 

TheytoilaUhelfbtrovvl tTcri"T^°^^^ 

i" lulling trees, in buildi.™^ ;;' ^^ey ^^^ together 

tlieir winter stores of bark for 1°", !^"\^'^'»«' ^" laying up 
the of the so^l 1 fV ..^ " '''''''' '^'^ "-''«ate 
highest birda Thanks to L-"" ^" '""'^^ ^« ^^ "^« 
-k and defence, ^::^ ^^ f -" '^^-tion for 
•>- 472), scarce an enemv ih.Tn^ ^'eclares (^'«..^c><^«,. 

The order of the Znr sJ "^ '' ""''''' "^^'^ ^^«^^«- 

-eial feeling, but on tt otC ^Uhr' '''T' ''^'^ "^ ' 
ception gregarious. an.I of the e^t'I "" '" "^"'""* '^^- 
m companies of very conside Iw^ ^ ^l '^ '"^''^^ ^^'^ ^"oun.I 
tims (4y.,.,,,., "^326) I'l ''"""; ^-^-^ «P-ks of then. 
-.St of the bat's ,„2i„ a^3 urT' '''''''' '' "«^ 
••egular associations which hurr«n ." "' "^''"'' ^^'"^ 

-er without some ^^i^J^^:!:!:^ T""'-' ''''^' 

cosy sleeping-place is suffi 


cient cause for discor 

"ty morsel 



i •' 


If i 




theless the strong will do their best to stand by a weak or 
wounded comrade, and often help it according to their power." 
Several writers assert that the flying foxes (^Ptcropodidai) 
will flock up to relieve a comrade at the slightest cry of 
distress. Brehm quotes Hensel as to an alleged sympathetic 
((uality of the I'hi/llostomata or leaf-nosed bats. " My servant 
once had the lucky thoaght (in South America) to put several 
living bats into three high open glass vessels, and to set these 
out at night in a suitable place. Next morning he found in 
the vessel 325 bats of the same species which had entered on 
account of the voices oi the bats already within, and which 
could not escape by reason of the smoothness of the glass 


I am inclined to doubt the soundness of the conclusion ; 
but if it be true of this particular species, it is untrue of 
others, for to test the experiment with Australian species I 
repeated it with deep glass jars every night throughout a 
summer month. The voices of the captive bats which could 
neither climb out nor find room to stretch their wings were 
clearly audible out upon the terrace, round which were many 
ivy-clad tree trunks inhabited by hundreds of bats; while 
from the eaves of the house the little creatures could be seen 
fluttering to and fro, and overhead against the starry sky one 
could see them dc.rting about in all directions ; yet never so 
much as a single bat joined the captives in the jar below, nor, 
while I watched from a window, could I ever see a bat descend 
to the edges of the jars. 

Professc^r Bell (quoted .Mammalia, p. 83) says that the long- 
eared bats iFlccohis and Meijadcrina) occasionally clean each 
other's fur , and Romanes speaks of a Mauritius flying fox 
{Animal Intdliycncc, p. 341) which liked to be petted by its 
owner, and would rub its head against him and lick his hands. 
But after a long search I have found little in the natural 
history books, and as little in observations on captive species, 
that would suggest the possession by bats of any great degree 
of sympathetic feeling. 

The order Cctacea is highly gregarious. Of its thirty 
genera, all without exception love to live in companies. The 
d )lphins go in schools that reach to about a hundred as their 



;• a weak or 
iheir power." 
itest cry of 
' My servant 
) put several 
[ to set these 
he found in 
:l entered on 
[1, and which 
of the glass 

! conclusion ; 

is untrue of 

ian species I 

hroughout a 

which could 

wing's were 

1 were many 

bats ; wlule 

ould be seen 

arry sky one 

yet never so 

ir below, nor, 

a bat descend 

that the long- 
ly clean each 
us flying i'ox 
petted by its 
ick his hands. 
1 tiie natural 
iptive species, 
f great degree 

Of its thirty 
upanius. The 
ndred as their 


upper limit. (United State. Fisheries Eeport US4> r, ^^^ tu 

sperm whales will often be found in one societT a d he 
vcn^heslrom personal observation for a fact wl fc'h ^ J 

When one Of a he:S^r wo^irr::^ -I-t^- 

eatd^tfr'^", t^'^ ^'^^ -^"^^ otherwis: W 
escaped , and, its death, some few remained for a lono- 

me at hand. (JVatnral Hilton, of the S,en. Whal.!^ 5 ) 

I^ .rder ...... affection is still more apparent ; iov 

flock: H ""T r '"^^^ ^"^^°"^'^ ^'" "^ comparatively mall 
flocks the^> devotion to each other is very manifest. (L-ehm 
in., 555 ; Vogt, n., 22 ; Jones, 38G.) ' 

Social Sympathy in the Higher Mammals. 

These lead on to their nearest allies the un-mlate anim'ils 
whose gregarious habits are well known. Eve^y . Ct' 
lum the ruminants yearn for company, so that as G^rerl 
^Vhlte says (.;W.«,./ mstor, of Set LJ letter xii" ,1 
and cows will not fatten by themselves: but will neglect tie 
hnest pasture that is not recommended by society ' D ,1 
speaksof the habits of cattle on the eLncias'o, La PI t 
Ihey divide themselves into troops of from forty to lOo' 
but during a stormy night they all mingle together- each 

■rZ' T"^'- ^'f ''''-''' '^' "''^ ^^'^"' distinli troops 
otfiei., . (AiitumlulH Vo;/,ii/,; p. ISO.) 

the little wh<«e habits he h.J .«, much lei/u^ w stu/v h 
bou^h A nca, that they do not love soeiety "as tlie iiioulfe;" 
. ;oi «.e o portuiiife, ,t atl™,l,„f „ f„„„. „„, „„„ ^J. 
me . Vet the ox eannot endure even „ momentary separa- 
tion from lus lierd. If he be separated from it liy l^Zl 





! I, 



, %» ■— ""< » 


or force, he exhibits every sijr.i of mental agony ; he strives 
with all his might and main to get back again, and when he 
succeeds, he plunges into its mi.ldle to bathe his whole body 
with the comfort of closest companionship." _ 

There is perhaps little that is altruistic in this social 
feelino-. The ox is thinking of the delight which company 
<nv sto himself, not of the assistance he may be able to yield 
to others. Yet something of the less selfish nature seems to 
be present. Andersson relates how it often happens that 
when a buffalo is attacked by a lion, his comrades, instead of 
leaving hhn to his fate, combine for his defence, and some- 
times succeed in beating off the foe, or even in goring it to 
death. [Lum and Elq>hr,u, p. 22.) The bison, the yak, the 
butialo, and some species of antelope form rings for defence, 
horns outward, young ones within ; while other species, such 
as reindeer and chamois, post sentinels for the safety of the 
herd ; others again secure their safety by subordination to 
some experienced leader. _ 

That all these and similar phenomena must have then- 
basis where we shall subsequently seek to find it, in the nerve 
,leveiopment of the animal, is rendered plain l^y the conduct 
of cattle in a slaughter yard. A cow will go wil.l with frenzy 
if she sees another cow killed, an<l its carcase flayed. Figs 
also, which see a comrade slaughtered, sufler from the same 
physical fascination or repulsion of horror which would de- 
moralise our own frames at the sight of some cruel death of a 
fellow-man. No matter though he were one of the most 
diabolic of malefactors, and that our reasons agreed that no 
punishment would be bad enough for him, our nervous or- 
ganism would utterly revolt from the gruesome spectacle of 
such 'A death as a traitor used to die two centuries ago. 
Where this physiological substratum exists, sympathy is a 
necessary consequence. A neighbour of mine once called my 
attention to a collection of cows gathered at one spot, lowing 
and groaning in an agitated way. He said at this place 
nearly a week before, a cow had died after a long drath 
agony. Till the body was removed, the others had sur- 
rounded it in a state of great excitement, and fur several 
days afterwards they gathered at midday about the same 


ho strives 
d when ho 
vhole body 

this social 
;h company 
,ble to yield 
ire seems to 
ippens that 
5, instead of 
i, and sonie- 
irorinn it to 
he yak, the 
for defence, 
species, such 
afety of the 
rdination to 

t have their 
in the nerve 
' the conduct 
[ with frenzy 
flayed. Pigs 
3m tlie same 
i\\ would de- 
lel death of a 
of the most 
o-reed that no 
• nervous or- 
i spectacle of 
enturies ago. 
empathy is a 
nee called my 
i spot, lowing 
at this place 
a long death 
lers had sur- 
id for several 
lOut the same 



spot. I thought at the time that the incident was unusual, 
but since then I have learnt that it is by no means un- 
common. It is therefore all the more unaccountable that, on 
the other haiid, many species of ruminants should gore to 
death a member of their own herd if it has been mortally 
wounded. Romanes accepts as satisfactory {Anrma/ Intdli- 
ijmcc, p. 334) accounts of instances in which the ibex has been 
seen assisting wounded conu-ades to escape. In their inter- 
course with human beings, the cow, the goat, and the deer, 
the antelope, the camel, and perhaps even the sheep show 
some little capacity for atiection. 

But the pachyderms are undoubtedly in advance of the 
ruminants. With the exception of the rhinoceros, they are 
all gregarious. The hippopotamus and tapir are highly 
social, though the necessity of large food supplies for their 
Imge bodies limits the herds to the comparatively small 
number ol' from five to twenty. The little hyrax lives in 
much larger companies, over which a few sentinels keep 
watch, at whose signal all rapidly disappear. (Vogt, Mnmrnalia, 
11., 41.) All three genera of pigs live in a thoroughly social 
fashion, and so do their congeners, the peccaries, which, 
though small, unite so resolutely for their mutual defence 
that the wolf or even man himself is readily beaten off. 
Bell speaks of two species of hogs which rove the woods of 
Central America with so fierce a clannishness that it is posi- 
tively dangerous to molest one of them for fear of drawing 
down the vengeance of the others. (" Alosiuito Territory," 
Roy. Geocj. Jour., 1862, p. 263.) 

The horse family is too well known for its sympathetic 
qualities to need much description. All are extremely social, 
antl m their wild state they go in great herds. The stallions 
are unselfish enough in times of danger to think less of them- 
selves than of the young and feeble, whom they drive before 
them, bringing up the rear themselves, and never exerting 
their superior speed for their own individual safety. Some- 
times a herd will range itself in a ring, if the foals are very 
young and helpless, all the stallions ready to kick out with 
the hoofs of their hind legs. Gilbert White most truly says 
{Srlborne, xxiv ) that " many horses, though (|uiet in conipany, 



! i 

•'! i 





will not stay one minute in a tield by themselves ". If I take 
:i j^aii' of ponies out for a day, there is at least one of their 
comrades that always is to be found at the corner of the field 
from which they may first be seon un their return. His shrill 
cry of delif;-ht on hearin^^ them trotting up the road, and his 
fashion of galloping along inside the fence, to keep abreast of 
their movement outside of it, proclaim the joy of his heai't 
at the prospect of reunion. 

Firm friendships usually arise between horses that are 
worked together, and many people know how much pleas- 
anter it is to drive a pair which have grown to be happy in each 
other's company. I remember when one of such a pair was 
hurt, the other showed much solicitude. The wounded animal 
was kept apart for several days. When allowed to return to 
its comrade, the delight of the two was quite idyllic. Horses 
habitually caress each other, and incite one another to games. 

Yet a distinctly higher level of sympathetic feeling may 
well be claimed for another of the ungulates, the elephant. 
No one can read the account which Tennent gives {Natural 
Hidorji of Cci/lon), simple and unafiected as it seems to be, 
without gathering the conviction that the nature of this great 
creature is most delicately susceptible to sympathetic impulses. 
The mahout, or dinver, directs the elephant at the most labo- 
rious sorts of work by nothing but his voice, and the obedience 
of this powerful assistant, as Tennent asserts (p. 221), is the 
result, not of fear, but of afiection alone. He is happy so 
long as he is in favour with his human friend ; miserable if 
spoken to in anger. He is conscious of disgrace, and keenly 
sensitive to degradation. Tennent speaks of cases in which 
there seemed to be little doubt that elephants had died of grief, 
and he describes another that came under his own observation, 
in which an elephant spent a supperless night in the jungle, 
watching patiently over the prostrate form of his drunken 
mahout, though he well knew the way home to food and 

Bishop Heber (quoted Romanes, An. Intell., 389) was 
struck l)y the almost humaii sympathy displayed by an 
elephant in assisting a sick comrade which had fallen down 
through weakness; and Tennent explicitly asserts that an 


". If I take 
one of their 
' of the field 
, His shrill 
Dad, and his 
p abreast of 
of his heart 

;eH that are 
much pleas- 
appy in each 
1 a pair was 
nded animal 
to return to 
lie. Horses 
er to games, 
feeling may 
16 elephant, 
ves {Natural 
icems to be, 
of this great 
tic impulses, 
e most labo- 
he obedience 
, 221), is the 
is happy so 
miserable if 
, and keenly 
ses in which 
lied of grief, 
1 the jungle, 
his drunken 
to food and 

., 389) was 

lyed by an 

fallen down 

!rts that an 


equal sympathy is shown in the wild state, the herd generally 
succeeding in carrying off' a wounded comrade, supporting it 
between their shoulders. Andersson describes how he shot one 
which escaped in a disabled condition. He subseciuently found 
It lying unable to move, and observed that for a long time 
thereafter another elephant brought it food and water every 
day. {Lion and Elqihanf, p. 263.) Livingstone knew of cases 
ni which elephants combined to lift young co.nrades out of 
the pits into which they had been entrapped. (Miss. Travels, p. 
70.) On the other hand Sanderson says of the Indian elephant 
that if a calf falls into a pit its mother stays beside it without 
trying to lift it out. In this part of his book, however, he 
is not contesting the great affection of the animal, but only 
the exaggerated estimate of its intelligence. 

Petherick relates (from hearsay, however) a case wherein 
an elephant that had fallen into a pit had been drawn out by 
its friends. He himself once saw a young elephant which 
was quite out of danger charge the assailants of its mother 
and relieve her; no sooner was she free than she placed the 
sturdy little fellow between her fore legs, and retired caressing 
him. {E(ji/pt, thi' Soudan and Central Afriea, p. 415.) Tennent 
saw a similar case of heroism when a young elephant, ten 
months old, charged again and again among its mother's 
captors, and tried to remove the nooses from her lem (n 
195). ^ ^^' 

Wissmann describes the playful happiness of the life 
within the elephant herds, and Major Casati tells us that 
when any danger is to be feared one always acts as sentinel 
for the safety of the whole. {Equataria, p. 27.) Major Skinner 
describes how in Ceylon he observed a herd of eighty during 
a moonliglit night. Seated in a tree in perfect silence he 
watched all their movements and saw that as they approached 
the pool near by, two or three patrols went their rounds, 
while there was no doubt that the leader, knowing the herd 
to be close to the haunts of men, took extra precaution and 
incurred himself whatever there might be of risk. {Forti/ Years 
in Ceylon, p. 88.) 

Brehm tells us (Sarrjetiere, iii., 18) that in domestic life 
elephants which live together form the most interesting 

1^ .■ 

:•' I- 

I \ 


if] ' |! 

attachments to one another, and anerilote.s are abundant 
wliich, it' reliable, most fully confirm tni.s .statement of the 

Yet on the whole the carnivores excel all the orders yet 
spoken of just as much in sympathetic qualities as they do in 
intelligence ; the tlog for ins' uice being in advance of any of 
the ungulates. It is somewhat difficult to characterise the 
carnivores as a whole. So many of them live in solitaiy 
fashion, that the order can hardly be classed as one of peculiar 
sociableness. And it is strange to notice how wide are the 
disci'epancies even in the same genus. The jackal is highly 
social, yet its ally the fox is unsocial ; the lish-otter of the 
rivers is unsocial, while the sea-otter is eminently social, and 
not only possesses the instinct of posting sentinels, but exhibits 
the most complete loyalty to the welfare of the herd. 

The gregarious species among carnivores are chiefly found 
in the family of the dog, the seal and the walrus. The cat 
family, the civet family {Viverridce), the racoon family {Pru- 
(■//onida;), and the sub-families of the badgers and weasels are 
all more or less solitary in life. Yet it is to be noticed that, 
armed as they are, the carnivores have no great need of union 
for their protection, so that there is nothing to hold in check 
the dispersive influence of food necessities. Nevertheless the 
singular tenderness of the maternal relations among them 
would seem to point to a large capacity for sympathy, and I 
do not doubt but that their social sympathies are really 
greater than one would judge from the general solitariness of 
their lives. A pair of cats licking each other's fur, a group of 
leopards, or bears, or even badgers, in their play exhibit a 
forbearance and mutual adaptiveness which suggest at least the 
capacity for social life. Watch a brood of half a dozen kittens 
at play together, their mimic battles are models of good humour, 
the claws are extended but never used, and when pats are 
given they are either with the velvet pad or else so gently 
delivered as to cause no pain. One of them will take the 
head of another between its jaws, and there is much pretence 
of biting, but never any reality ; and it seems clear from the 
care they must take not to hurt each other, that they are 
actuated more or less by sympathetic insight. A kitten 




playinjr with a chil.l of the hou.sehokl is a wholly .litferont 
creature iron, the .an.e kitten receiving' the a.lvance.s of a 
stnuipr or an unknown ilo^r, and however unsocial the cat 
i..ay be in its native woods we are forced to allow it at least 
tiie potentialities of ^a-eat social atiections 

Add to all this, that it is from this order that mankind 
as derived its most popular household pets, nearly half of 
tlie known species bein^. in some part or other of the world 
made the dai y friend of man, and we shall have reason to 
■suspect that the carnivores, whether j^regarious or not, are 
richly endowed with social feeling. Moreover, he who tames 
cat or leopard, civet, ichneumon, racoon, coati, badger, otter 
weasel glutton, jackal, wolf, or seal, has no mere drilled 
animated machine to deal with, but a friend of more or less 
tender susceptibility, happy in his company, restless in his 
absence, demonstrative on his return, and delighted by his 
caresses. The bear, the lion, and even species much less 
tmctable than these are capable of being placed on the most 
attectionate relations with man and other animals, if only 
relieved tor a while from the necessary play of that butcher 
instmct which must form the staple of their natural lives 

Yet It IS reasonal)le to expect that the most sympathetic 
forms will be found in species that are gregarious. The seal 
i« a most atiectionate animal if once it becomes accustomed to 
a household. Sir Frederick McCoy describes ^Prodroraus to 
the Zouloui, of Vutoria, decade viii., p. 9) the interesting life of 
a specimen of Otaria cinerea long kept in a fisherman's 
house asa fnend of the family; and similar instances are 
related in Brehm (ii., 301) and Rymer Jones (p. 174) 
Romanes sums' up a great deal of this interesting literature 
by saying that when tamed the seals are "atiectionate 
animals, liking to be petted, and showing an attachment to 
their homes . {Animal IntdUycncc,^. 341.) "The seals are 
remarkably social animals, devoted to their comrades, their 
consorts, and their young; they are animals which are pre- 
vented only by their helplessness on land from becoming as 
attached and obedient domestic animals as dogs." Very many 
■sportsmen have related how they found it impossible to shoot 
at the upturned face of a seal when its brown eyes looked out 

^1 i ' 



with a soft atiectionato feeling. Brehm says that in their 
wild state, seals are obedient to the warnings and calls of the 
leader of the herd, and the same assertion is made of the coati, 
which is the only gregarious species of the family Prnri/oniihv, 

But of course the highest level of sympathy of the order 
carnivores is found in the dog. . . . There is no sort of 
certainty as tc the wild species from which domestic dogs are 
derived (Darwin, VnrinHon of Animals and Plants, i.), and 
it is therefore impossible to determine how nmch of their 
sympathetic (jualities they have acquired from their contact 
with man. Doubtless tlie greater part has been so derived. 
Yet wo must be cautious not to unduly magnify man's share ; 
for we know very well that the Australian natives are able to 
capture puppies of the wild dingo and convert them into 
serviceable dogs, and there is much probability, as Darwin 
has shown, that the North American Indians succeeded in 
training wolves to be useful liousehold companions. Jesse 
records {Anecdotes of Dofjs, p. 6) several instances, one on the 
express testimony of Cuvier, in which wolves have exhibited 
devoted attachment to their masters. 

And, moreover, it is to be understood that when we speak 
of the change in the nature of the dog that is produced by 
contact with man, there is little reference to any absorption 
by the dog of his master's character. No doubt that takes 
place to a small extent in individual cases ; he learns in some 
degree to reflect his owner's disposition. But in the main the 
change in the dog has been due to selective breeding. Savage 
and intractable dogs have been all along the line most unre- 
lentingly destroyed. An affectionate and obedient animal has 
been tenderly preserved, and ottered every chance of propa- 
gating its well-esteemed strain. In their wild state the wolf, 
the jackal, and the dingo are known to have strong parental 
sympathies as well as social sympathies of moderate strength. 
Starting from that foundation, and remembering that, for at 
least 4000 years, domestic dogs have bred mainly according to 
the discretion of their human masters, the more sympathetic 
strains being steadily preferred, we could easily account for 
the present superiority of our four-footed comrades. If on 
the average each generation were only one half per cent. 



more en.lovv...l tha„ the preco.linM' ono with those 
tr.endly ,,ualitit.,s vvhicli men appreciate, the eluin-.e from 
«-enerat.on to generation wouhl he utterly invisihle, yet at 
the en.l of a century, reckoninjr Four year, lo a ^^eneration, 
tJie advance m (puUitieH woul.l h,- thirteen per cent 
Ihis would be an amount still scarcely reco^misai.le under the 
oircumstances. But at the end of 4000 years, still assumin-. 
tour years to a ^^eneration, the amount of sympathetic ..uality 
possessed by dogs would be 14« times greater than that with 
which they started. 

AH this, of course, is suggested m Darwin's work, but for 
.so fundamental a fact there can be no harm in a little addi- 
tional emphasis. And it is most astonishing to observe the 
degree of .sympathetic emotion of which many cla.sses of do<^s 
are capable. There is not a hint of exaggeration in Je.sscX 
description of the conduct of his dog. (Anecdotes, p. .3 ) " If I 
am melancholy, he appears to .sympathise, or if I am .lispose.l 
to be merry, he shoM-s by his mam, r that he rejoices with me 
I have often watched the effect which a change in my coun- 
tenance would prorluce. If I frown or look severe, the effect 
IS instantly seen by the ears drooping, and the eyes showin.-- 
uiihrpp,ne.s.s, together with a doubtful movement of the tail" 
It 1 afterwards smile and.look pleased, the t;iil wags jovouslv 
and the eyes are filled with delight." ' 

In truth even man himself is less capable than .some of the 
hner sorts of dogs of reading the signs of the emotions and 
entering into them by .sympathetic reflexes. Everybody has 
had or has observed dogs such as that described by Darwin 
(Descent of Man, p. 108), which was excessively distressed if 
any one pretended to beat his mistress. I have seen do.-s of 
generally quiet and geiitle manner ready to fly at the throat 
of a person who should lift a finger against any member of its 
iiousehold; yet most of these attectionate creatures had dis- 
ci-etion enough to distinguish between what wai, plav and 
what was earnest, and the bigger sort, whose anger would be 
most formidable, after a growl and a glance which seemed to 
take m the situation in a moment, would become pacified if 
not wholly content, on seeing that no harm was inten.led. 
But I have a collie which has never learnt the ditterence, an<l 





is tixtravaj^antly (li.stn'HHcil at tin; most playful stroke of 
liaiitlki'i'ohicl:' or {(love laiil on any on.o of the children. 

In Jesse's ^voiit colhiction of anecil')tes, there are scores of 
stories that are probably untrue, and scores of others wherein, 
thouffji the facts are {fenuino, the interpretations are sus- 
picious : ])ut even the most sctjptieal sifter will h^avt; at least 
thirty-ci^flit that are not only based on UJiiiiipeachable testi- 
mony, but also are so inherently consistent .vith our I'veryday 
experience of do^^s that we need have no hesitation in accept- 
in*^ them. TJiey deinonstrate a sinjfular wealth of sympathetic 
feeliufr. The do{(, a {jjreat lover of tires and accustomed to 
ni^dits of cosy comfort, which sleeps (hroui,di the cold dri/zle 
of a bleak midniy;ht })eside its drunken master ; the doy which, 
of its own accord, because it knows that it will thereby have 
earned the kind word and hearty pat of its human friend, 
works liard throuj^jh a ni{,dit of heavy snow to keep the sheep 
tu^fether and lose none of them ; the do^;' which slowly starves 
to death beside the body of its dead benefactor — these are 
animals of a noble type, yet by no means uncommon. 

Consider how full of a thrillinif susceptibility nuist be 
the nervous or<( of such an animal, aisl how serious a 
shock to the system may easily be delivered by reason of its 
responsiveness to explosive emotions. "The youn^' dojr," to 
use Miss Cobbe's expressions, " which leaps a score of times to 
kiss his master's face on his i-eturn from a \onjj; absence, and 
the older one which clinj^s to him in silent ecstasy," are, 
doubtless, liable to physioloi^ical derangements by the violence 
of such feelings, and we are therefore the more disposed to 
believe those inimmeralile anecdotes wherein the death of 
dogs has presented every appearance of having arisen front 
the strength of their sympathetic feelings. 

■ ! . I 

Social Sympathy in the Quadrumana. 

Much of this, however, has been the effect of man's selec- 
tive breeding of dogs ; if we wish to find the sympathetic 
emotions at tiieir liighest natural level we must seek it in the 
order of the monkeys and apes. Yet as this is a new side 



Ill strolvL' of 

iin; scori's of 
RTH wherein, 
OHH arc suH- 
eavo at least 
achable testi- 
Dur everyday 
ion in accept- 
' syinpatlietic 
ccUHtunied to 
e cohl drizzle 
le doy whieh, 
thereby have 
iinian friend, 
jep the sheep 
lowly starves 
)r — these are 

lity nmst be 
\ovv serious a 

reason of its 
nuv^ doff," to 
re of times to 

absence, and 
jcstas}'," are, 
/ the violence 
3 disposed to 
the death of 

arisen from 


man's selec- 


seek it in the 

s a new^ side 


branch, a word will be re(|uired as to the order of prosimians 
which leatls up to it. The two lowest fr,,,, the aye-ayes 
iC/iiruiiif/s) and tarsiers, are said to l)e ^r,.|iorally found only 
in pairs, but they are extremely ^^rcitle and f^'ood-nature.l, 
tluni^di dull. All the rest of the order, eleven jrenera, are 
uniformly social in life, .aid 1,1 their forest haunts leail an 
arboreal existence of pe; ceful companionship which is in itself 
.stron^dy Hu«;<.estive of 1 \eh relatici ship to tl ■; monkeys. All 
are att'ectionate little anin.^?!.-, and f.. e easily tamed ; the natives 
of I\rada;ruscar and the Eas ladies, wherein they are mo.stly 
found, have lon^' been accustomed to mak.' them household 
pets. Their want of intelli^rence, however, prevents the de- 
velopment of the friendliest relations. Mere {,a' is apt 
to become monotonous. 

But in the (juadruinana we find the same social disposi- 
tion combined with a vivacity which on the oni' hand makes 
it greatly more interestinfr and copious, but on the other hand 
is not without some eflects of interference. That lively 
.sociability which the monkeys display makes them the most 
playful of animals ; but playfulness has a natural tendency to 
run into mischievousncss, and thus it comes that the jrenerally 
friendly life of the monkey troop is marred by small S(juabbles 
arisino' from time to time out of pranks that are fun to the 
perpetrator, though disagreeable to his victim,,. 

Of the twenty-five genera comprised in the ord.T (Brit. 
Mus. Catnlofjue) all without 1 xception are social, most of them 
very highly so. In bands of from half a dozen to several 
hundreds they rove over a fixed area, which, like the 
tribes of mankind, they appropriate as their own feeding 
district. Brehm says {Saiujdiere, i., 46) "each band chooses 
for itself a settled area of more or extent, over which it 
wanders under the supremacy of a leader which demands and 
receives the most absolute obedience. At first he gains it by 
.strife and strength, but soon the respect which is thus acquired 
lends him a prescriptive authority, to which the others im- 
plicitly defer, fawning upon him in every way for his favour. 
On his part, however, he is truly solicitous for the welfare 

constant watchfi 

! I: 

• i 



his glances on all sides, trusting no living creature, and 





discovering almost always in good time any danger that 

The same competent authority says (i., 41) " the love 
which all monkeys display towards their fellows speaks of 
a tine disposition. Very many animals abandon the sick of 
their company to die or to be devoured. But even their dead 
the monkeys seek to carry away with them." Professor 
Hartmann (Anthropoid Apes, p. 294) tells us that " they take 
care of and defend the members of their families in the same 
way as savages do, and they display much mutual dependence 
and loyalty ". 

TliL <^ulness of their social life is no doubt in part due to 
the comparative richness of their vocabulary. For of all 
mammals, except mankind, the monkeys have the widest 
range of sounds intended for the inter-communication of 
feelings. It has already been pointed out that the nerve 
organism of the more highly developed animals is exquisitely 
susceptible to the influence of sounds. The rooster that hears 
a mile or two away the barely audible crowing of another 
rooster is thrown by it into a frenzy of excited defiance ; the 
kitten whose eyes are not yet opened, and is slumbering away 
its days unmolested by the multitudinous noises of the house- 
hold, yet starts and trembles at the distant bark of a dog, for 
the preservation of the species has in bygone ages depended 
upon the" response that the nerves can make to sounds which 
are intimations of d nger. Still greater is the dependence 
of the species on its susceptibility to the cries of its young -, 
and of all others Jie wail of distress of a feeble little one of 
its own species is the most potent on an organism of the 
higher class. A man in a railway carriage who can rest in 
com<^'ort through the snort of engines, the shriek of whistles, 
the clank of chains, the creak of bi'akes, or perhaps the 
laughter of half a dozen noisy people in the same compart- 
meiM', will grow exasperated beyond tolerance at the feeble 
wail of a ,',ick or spoilt infant. 

Thougl none of the monkeys, so far as is yet known, can 
be credited with anything that may be called a language, they 
have a fairly wide range of cxprer^sive sounds, and are able to 
communicate to each other their feelings by the use of voice 

I r 



daii^-er tliat 

I) "the love 
VH speaks of 
I the sick of 
3n their dead 
b " they take 
I in the same 
1 dependence 

I part due to 
For of all 

the widest 
unication of 
it the nerve 
s exquisitely 
er that hears 
^ of another 
lefiance; the 
bering away 
)f the house- 
of a dog, for 
jes depended 
ounds which 

f its young ; 

little one of 
nisni of the 

can rest in 

of whistles, 
perhaps the 
ne conipart- 
t the feeble 

known, can 
iguage, they 
1 are able to 
use of voice 


much more than is the case with any other animal except in 
the intercourse of the dog with mankind. 

_ Many a savage passes through the routine of daily life 
with the use of not more than 200 words. Many a farm 
labourer among ourselves tinds that 500 or 60;^ suffice him 
for all ordinary wants. If, then, the monkeys are possessed 
of so many as thirty distinct sounds, each conveying a fairly 
definite impression, the effect on their social life would be 
immense. Most people who keep dogs and take any interest 
in them will be able to count a dozen distinct sounds, different 
sorts of growls, barks, and whines used for special purposes. 
Major Skinner asserts that a spaniel which hunted with him 
for years in Ceylon could indicate by its call what sort of 
game it had started, and that he could always be prepared 
for elephant, elk, or boar, leopard, buffalo, or jungle fowl, 
according to the nature of the warning sound. (Fifhi Years in 
Ceylon, p. 180.) 

A dog's most wonderful accom2)lishment is his under- 
standing of the long vocabulary which his master addresses 
to him, but in regard to his own vocal attainments he is far 
inferior to the monkeys, whose perpetual chatter, though, 
like the intoned sounds of a Chinese, or the -grunts and clicks 
of a Bushman, to us meaningless enough, can be seen on close 
observation to carry witb it a constant intimation of mood. 
We can see how, on a sudden change of note in one of them,' 
the rest are instantly altered in demeanour; but no doubt it 
is only the strongly marked contrasts that are perceptible to 
us, as would be the case if we were listening to a foreign 
language. To the monkey ear there may be a score or two 
of gradations where we hear only monotony. 

I have often watched the life of some of the smaller 
monkeys with a sense of deepening surprise. I have 
copious notes of a summer day in 1886 spent unmolested 
before a cage of little brown macaques {Macacus ci,nomol<jm). 
For hours they played together in one of the jolliest of romps ; 
they tickled each other, rolling over and over in the sawdust.' 
They slily pulled each other's tails, and went off on wild 
chases, all in the best r.f humour. Then, in a spell of rest, 
they scratched each other's heads and examined each other's 



I ' 


1 -}. 

l.i ! 



fin-s, or indul^rcHl i„ mutual caresses. One little fVllnw ni 
. ^etur^jl to place his head on the hoso. :i^; 1 r ^^r 

Im ^ ;f %^^'"P-"""- ^^'- elder caressed his broXt a 

^Mth tender hn^-ers, or sometimes took his h-md in )„• 

and patted it there for nnnutes together 111 t'w 7" 

nated with cries of varied imnort tl\ l\ ''^^'''- 

r]^„i * n X vciiieu imiiort, till it became imnossihip in 

^^^Iw \ "' t*^" *'" ^"'^*^°- -« -"owed a ^e 
me J W '' "^'" " ^''''''' '"' ^" ^^^^^'3^ «t-Se of develop 


or club or youn,.er brothers, and shows in a'Clred wa^:^ 
a rou.h unsentimental sympathy of his own sort s ye ruTte 
ready when the spirit of reckless playfulness is u " b, 1 fo 
much that seems callous and cniPl T» +i, , 

rea,>, ,ar«e capacity f„.. .^y^pa:,,"' T^ ttT. S't 

« :::i;:^;:r:orr "™'' "' '- ''^ '-° " 

T shall pay small attention to the mischievous propensities 
he present, my business bein,. to show tl J therfi ^ 
real fund of sympathetic feeling at basis for future Jeve on 
rnent, and we shall in course of time discern tl. v^r hi" 
receives every natural encour-^ement to grow the other is v 
pressui. of circumstances, as surely eliminated ' '^ 

As the quadrumana are the riclic^f ,.i^ oii • i • 

nat„,.„, „,.„>„,„;„„,,.„„ ,,, «:;;t:: : z::;'i: :;;• 

examine the procrress within fl.o ^. i • '-^'"^"i". i shall 

h-iw^ioM witnm the order m some dofm") 'Pi 

nmican says, thev iiv •,!! .., ■ "'°"^"' '^« Professor 
y^, tnej aic all ore^anous and all affectionate. 


i little fellow always 
ithcr of his mother, 
^sed his brown head 
is hand in his own 
All this was alter- 
eanie impossible to 
ual attachments, a 
lited the little com- 
a's observation will 
'i', destructiveness, 
are allowed a free 
' sta^re of develop- 
ibou<,di he will be 
)mrade to get into 
Royalty to school 
a hundred ways 
'■ sort, is yet quite 
!S is upon him for 
monkey the same 
set-off" against a 
t is nowhere ap- 
is due merely to 
'G no interest in 
ey propose to eat 
SB to the level of 

■ous propensities 
that there is a 
future develop- 
that while this 
the other is, by 

nimals in their 
lankind, I shall 
ne detail. The 
3h are also the 
», as Professor 
ill affectionate. 



They seem to be only slightly iu advance of the prosinn-an.^ 
Bate, says (Natnrahsf ,,, j, „,,,,_ j, ^^^ ^,^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

i^o m httle companies of only three or four, but " they are 
often seen „, a tan,e state in the bouses of the inhabitants of 
Para, an.l when treated kind! as they generally are, they 
become^ very iannliar. running about the house after the 
negro cnildren. The expression of countenance is intelligent 
and pleasmg." Of the twenty species of marmosets that a,e 
known, nearly all provide the people of Soutii America with 
domesuc pets, their social qualities making them easy to tame 
and mterestnigly responsive when kept as cc^npanions. One 
specimen (MiJa, uoninm) which Bates observed was verv 
f riendly with visitors, but showed a peculiar affection for its 
master, cbmbing a dozen times an hour upon his shoulder 

The next family, the Cehidm or American monkeys 
exhibit an advance. Of the ten genera, all are social, and 
n.ost species rove in large companies. According to Vo^^t 
heir disposition is "peaceable, patient, confiding". Amon- 
!.o Lilians of South America, he says, "many species ai^ 
kept as domestic animals, and that all the more readily as 
bey become really affectionate in their m ays, and the tendency 
o destroy is not very conspicuous in them ". In their free 
life, as Professor Duncan says, " they are social and kind to 
each other . The genus Alucdes is kncwn by reason of the 
extraordinary concerts with which a band will amuse them- 
selves lor hours together under the leadership of a re<mlar 
conducto. Of the genus Lagotkriv Vogt tells us that when 
an individual is wounded, it "will call its comrades to its aid 
by a peculiar shrill cry," while if the case is hopeless it will 
utter nhe more subdued cry of death, ,id urge them to 
flight . Bates informs us that these monkeys are grave 
mild, and confiding, and that they are much esteemed by the 
natives^ as pets. Brehm gives a long and pretty account of 
one which he himself knew, and grew to like as one of the 
most lovable of creatures. (Sanc/ctierc, i., 224.) 

The next genus of the same, family, Ateks, the spider- 
monkeys, is described by Vogt as consisting of L'entle and 

they are particularly social, and Brehn 


VOL. I. 


1 gives much space 




to a description of their friendly ways ; his account of a 
female named Sally is lon^r and circinnstantial. Bates met 
with an amusing specimen: "It was an old female which 
accompanied its owner, a trader on the river Amazon, on all 
•'s voyages. By ^'ay of giving nie a specimen of its intelli- 
gence and feeling, he set to and rated it soundly, calling it 
scamp, thief, heathen, and so forth. The poor monkey, (juietly 
seated on the ground, seemed to be in sore trouble. It began 
by looking earnestly at him ; then it whined, and lastly rocked 
its body to and fro with emotion, crying piteously, and passino- 
its long gaunt arms continually over its forehead. At length 
its master altered his tone: 'It's all a lie, my old woman, 
you're an p,ngel, a flower, a good affectionate creature '. Im- 
mediately the monkey ceased its wailing, and soon after came 
over to where the man sat." {Nat. on Avuizvns, p. 129.) In an- 
other place Bates describes how extremely mild are all species 
of this genus ; the Indians are especially fond of it as a pet, the 
women often suckling the little ones at their own breasts. 

Of the next genus, the Sakis (Pithecia). Vogt says (p. 09) 
that they always live in companies hidden in leafy recesses, 
but that, when caught, they become very tame and greatly 
attached to their owners. Bates (p. 332) declares that he who 
succeeds in keeping it alive over the first critical month of 
captivity gains thereby a most attectionate pet. He says lie 
saw no monkey in South America that showed so strong a 
personal attachment as did this timid, silent little creature. 
Without prolonging the monotonous i-epetition of the same 
general terms, I shall sum up the smaller genera, Urocaria, 
Callithrix, Vhrymtlirw and Eriodcs, by saying that all of 
them live in small troops ; all are gentle, good-natured, difE- 
cult to keep in captivity, as they pine for the forest, but, if 
once domesticated, they always become most lovable little 
pets. JVi/ctipithecus is less social, generally wandering in 
pairs united by indissoluble attachment, but never in com- 
panies. Yet Bates (p. 333) gives an account of one which 
was very attectionate, and a great favourite by reason of its 
pretty ways. 

The chief genus, however, of the whole fauiily requires 
.some further notice, as it represents the highest type of the 


his account of a 
uitial. Batfs met 
old female Avliich 
•er. Amazon, on all 
imen of its intelli- 
soundlj-, callin^r it 
)!■ monkey, (luietly 
.rouble. It be<,^au 
, and lastly rocked 
ously, and passing 
ehead. At lengtli 
, my old woman, 
e creature '. Im- 
id soon after came 
is, p. 129.) In an- 
A\d are all species 
i of it as a pet, the 
• own breasts, 
Vo<,;t say.s (p. 09) 
in leafy recesses, 
bame and greatly 
lares that he who 
critical month of 
pet. He says lie 
iwed vso strong a 
it little creatdre. 
tion of the .same 
genera, Uromria, 
nng that all of 
)od-natured, diffi- 
the forest, but, if 
3st lovable little 
y wandering in 
t never in com- 
at of one which 

by reason of its 

family requires 
liest type of the 


American monkey.s. This genus, Cchm, always lives in 
troops of at I.'ast thirty, which travel in single Hie over the 
tree tops. Bates says (p. 208) : " It is very frecjuently kept in 
the houses of natives. I kept one myself for about a year 
which accompanied me in my voyages and became very 
familiar, coming to me always on wet nights to share my 
blanket. He offended me greatly one day by killin-r in a 
jealous fit my choice pet the nocturnal owl-faced monkey " 
{yurhpithems). Brehin describes them as "lively, docile 
mischievous, inquisitive, whimsical creatures, more frequently 
tamed by man than any other kinds. Their social feeling 
IS so strong that they consort freely with any species of 

Professor Morgan (Animal Life an,! IntMvjcnce, p. 397) 
tells of a fig'it between two baboons which he saw in the 
Hamburg Zoological Gardens. One retreated with its arm 
deeply gashed, and "sat down in a corner of the cage moodily 
licking his wound. Thither followed him a little Capuchin 
monkey {Cchm mpnchmus) anxious to comfort him, nestlinc-- 
against him and laying his head against his side." '^ 

It was on a specimen of Cchus that Romanes made the long 
and interesting series of observations printed at the end 
of his Auimal lutellvjence. The details of ten weeks of 
carefully recorded life show not only what Romanes calls a 
•' tireless spirit of hivestigation " but also a fine capacity for 
gratitude, affection, and tenderness, mixed up with much self- 
will, and no small degree of mischievousness. 

But if tl-.e genus Cehus marks the highest limit of the 
American monkeys, it reaches no more than ^ medium 
standard when compared with the monkeys of the >ld World 
which in the British Museum Cataloym are grouped under the 
name of Crcopithecida'. For the very lowest genera of this 
family, Colohm, Nnsalis, and Semnopithccus, answer well to 
the description I have given of Cehus. They are all social 
living in families which form large assemblies, and move about 
under the direction of an old male. Vogt says : " In a troop of 
these monkeys living in freedom there nearly always prevail 
a bustling activity, a continual commotion, and a boundless 
gamesomenese which only sometimes degenerates into .juarrols 






t ■ - 


: i 


."540 liu-; '>ui(ii\ A.\!) u]!o\VTi. of hie moral iNSTiis'trr. 

and viol(3n(.e. In jjencral the niein'oTS of a troop stand by 
one another i';..ithfully in dan^^er, and we have reports from 
e3%"-witnesses which must inspin' us w'th ^•enuiiit <uhii:/atio:i 
for the hio'h cour -oe displjiyed by individual monkeys (ii\ sucli 

Practically tiie same aocouia is to be j;iven of ('uroielnin, 
Mamri'.-i, and ThcrupithrvHS, except that on the 
whole th.'i)' affectionate ways are slightly more conspicuous. 
Bat it is more especially when they are young that the> are 
Hj extremely gentle an<l sympathetic. As the males grow 
older an(.I develop their canine teeth they become somewhat 
morose and often (luarrelsome. Professor Duncan (CaascU's 
^\llurnl Hidorij, p. 126) tells of a macu.jue that had long been 
kept in the yard at Gibraltar by itself, Ojie day a newly 
captured specimen was brought in. They at once recognised 
each other, and rushed into each other's arms, folding breast 
to breast in a warm embrace. 

One of my brothers once patted on the head a small 
moping macatfae at the Zoological Gardens in London. He 
spent some time fondling it and commiserating it. The next 
time he returned was in the crowd of an Easter Monday ; but 
the little creature recognised him, picked him out of all the 
visitors, and was so eager in its affection that the keeper, 
observing it, volunteered the information that it had not long 
been weaned, and was yearning for sympathy. Romanes 
quotes {Animal Intdlujencc, p. 473) an account of the manner 
in which some of these little monkeys nursed and tended a 
sick comrade on board ship. " It was truly affecting to see 
with what anxiety and tenderness they nursed the little 
creature. A struggle often ensued p v ^,^^ them for priority 
in those offices of affection ; and som. Id steal one dainty 

and some another, which they wouL' -ry to it untasted." 

There is quite a multitude . as on record wherein 

mouk,.ys of this family have car., r^ oh a wounded companion, 
or the body of one that had bee.- i.ded, and I have notes of 
about a (iozen travellers who, aftt , wj; j/,,-sing the human-like 
gi'ief of a group of monkeys for the c!( m or agony of one of 
their number, have expressed the re.sf ■ n never again to shoot 
a monkey. In Nature (xlv., 350) there is found an account 



r ii troop .stiuid by 
; have reports from 
|i;'ejiuiiit. ;niiAi'i'atio:i 
lal monkeys on such 

^'iven of Crirurchii.t, 
except that on the 
T more conspicuous, 
oun^' tliat the}/ are 
is the males <j;vow 
Y become somewhat 
r Duncan {Casscll's 
tliat liad long been 
One day a newly 
at once recognised 
rms, folding breast 

the head a small 
IS in London. He 
iting it. The next 
aster Monday ; but 
him out of all the 
1 that the keeper, 
hat it had not loni>' 
ipathy. Komanes 
lint of the manner 
rsed and tended a 
ily affecting to see 

nursed the little 
• them for priority 
d steal one dainty 

to it untasted." 
)n record wherein 
)unded companion^ 
nd I have notes of 
ng the human-like 
or agony of one of 
ever again to shoot 
found an account 

of an Indian monkey which for seN-eral days sat mourning 
over the little mound that marked the spot where its mate had 
been buried, after l)eiiig shot for plundering fruit trees. 

The highest genus of the family, consisting of the baboons 
{C/piocephalus), he&rn a much more equivocal reputation. They 
are not often tamed, being, like savage man himself, inveter- 
ate lovers of liberty, ami the males are too strong and 
too powerfully ai-med with great canine teeth to be trifled 
with as household pets. Brehm has no very flattering 
account to give of some aspects of their nature, " wild, passion- 
ate, shameless, lustful, and mischievous," such are his epithets. 
But of course these may be equally applied to the lowest 
races of savage man w^ithout denying to them a fundamental 
capacity for social life, and for sympathetic relations under- 
lying these (|ualities. Brehm himself acknowledges the great 
strength of their attachment. " They have an extraordinary 
affection for one another and for their ottspring: they also 
become much attacheil to any one who has fed them and 
reared them from youth ; and they make themselves useful 
to him in many ways. But they are so passionate that a 
single word, a mocking laugh, nay even a sly glance may set 
a baboon in a fury, when he will forget for the time being all 
his former affections." (Suw/cfinr, i., 1(58.) 

Brehm speaks from abundant knowledge ; for he himself 
in Africa kept several baboons for years as household inmates. 
He gives an account of one which he trained to be hall porter 
and which fulfllled that duty with, intelligence, 
and great zeal. Perro, as he was called, " lived in friendship 
with all animals which we possessed, with the exception of 
the ostrich. Towards young animals he sliow^ed a warm 

Whilst the naturalist was living in the Soudan, he and his 
friends had (juite a troop of baboons occupying the courtyard 
of the house. Each knew its own master, and soon learnt to 
recognise the name that had been given to it. "It w^as a 
trifling matter for a newly bought baboon to learn both. We 
l)rought the animal into >;he interior of our dwelling and shut 
iiim in a room. Then one of us took a whip and threatened 
the startled animal, whilst its owner entered and in de- 



if ' 





1^1 F 


monstrative faHhion constitutoil himself tho protector of the 
oppressed Very rarely was it necessary really to beat tlie 
baboon ; he understood the threat and the protection ottered, 
provin^r Iiimself always thereafter grateful to his master for 
the help otiered in distress." 

Brehm says that when fever laid him low, when he was 
sutierinfr from i)ain and from sore losses, and found himself in 
a sad pliu-lit, it was his baboon above every thinf( else which 
brightened him up. It in times of trouble that he learnt 
properly to know the nature of these remarkable creatures. 
Of one which he subseciuentl/, out of his atiection for it, 
carried with him to Germany he says : " Her devotion to me 
exceeded all bounds; whatever I chose to do, her atiection for 
me remained ever the same. Friendly words softened her, 
lauf^hter angered her, especially if she observed that it was 
aimed at her. She answered me immediately if I called her, 
and followed me like a dog. When her companion, a smaller 
moidvey, died, she was most unhappy and from time to tinje 
uttered a barking cry, even in the night when it was her 
custom to sleep soundly. We feared lest she might not survive 
the loss of her companion, and therefore sold her to a men- 
agerie where she could find fresh associates." [Sauffdierc, i., 180.) 
In their free life the baboons are eminently social. Bland- 
ford, a most satisfactory witness, both by reason of his high 
standing and his favourable opportunities of observation, 
states that in Abyssinia the baboons go in bands of from 250 to 
300, the males taking the lead and also bringing up the rear 
of the troop, exhibiting the greatest watchfulness, while the 
females in the middle of the colunni confine their attention 
to the care of the young. The juniors sport about and play 
all manner of mad 2Dranks, being always liable to a scolding 
or a cuffing from their elders if their exuberant spirits carry 
them beyond bound.s. (6'ra%// and Zoology of Abi/sdma, p. 222.) 
Professor Duncan says that in general baboons go in herds 
of as many as 300 individuals, and are " usually amiable and 
full of fun. A single cry of alarm makes the whole troop 
halt, and remain on the qui vice till another bark in a different 
tone reassures them, when tho^' proceed upon tlieir march." 
{CassdVs Xnt. Hisi., p, 139.) Vogt asserts, upon good testi- 



e protector of the 

really to beat the 

protection oti'erecl, 

to his master for 

low, when he was 
1 found himself in 
ything else which 
ible that he learnt 
irkable creatures. 
s affection for it, 
er devotion to me 
I, her affection for 
rds softened her, 
rved that it was 
ly if I called her, 
ipanion, a smaller 
fom time to time 
vhen it was her 
night not survive 
Id her to a men- 
Saiif/dieir, i.,180.) 
ly social. Bland- 
lason of his high 
of observation, 
ds of from 250 to 
ging up the rear 
ilness, while the 
e their attention 
; about and play 
tie to a scolding 
ant spirits carry 
[bj/sdnia, p. 222.) 
oons go in herds 
lly amiable and 
:he whole troop 
,rk in a different 
ti their march." 
pon good testi- 


mony, that if one of them wishes to overturn a heavy stone to 
look for insects, he calls to his aid a few others, and by their 
united efforts they lift a rock far beyond the strength of a 
single individual. He concludes his description with 
words : ' I find no evidence of any natural depravity in the 
accounts given of their habits in a state of freedom, but only 
of their social virtues, and of their brotherly readiness to stand 
by one another in presence of danger ". 

Sir Andrew Clarke, in his ZooUnjii of South Africa, remark.s 
on the very affectionate life of the chacma baboons, as he had 
observed them in their free state; and Sir Samuel Baker 
(Xilc Trihiittirifs, p. 162) notices how strict is the discipline, 
the males always on the watch, while the young ride on the 
shoulders of their mothers. He agrees with other observers 
that baboons have a great variety of sounds for different pur- 
poses. He narrates a case which strongly corroborates one of 
Brehm's narratives. Two baboons which the Arabs had 
caught were iiogged by them with merciless animosity, till 
La<ly Baker interfered and obtained their release. The poor 
animals long after showed their gratitude for the sympathy 
extended to them. 

Of the anubis baboon Prof. Duncan (i., 153) tells us that 
the companies rarely exceed fifteen to twenty, but there are 
always one or two sentinels on guard. No matter how tempt- 
ing the fare, these are never seen to eat while on duty. Of 
baboons in general, as observed in confinement, he says that 
they are very paternal in their conduct, tender to the females 
and to the little ones. The infants are taken in their arms, 
and " pressed with loving embraces to their breasts in a 
manner c^uite human". 

Social Sympathy in the Apes. 

WitJioiit risking the monotony of heaping evidence on 
evidence, we may safely assert that of all the monkey order, 
exclusive of apes, the baboon is the most richly endowed with 
sympathetic (Qualities. There remains, however, a yet higher 
level in the apes themselves. The lowest of the four genera 


i\l u ^ 




of Siiiiiada- coiiHiHts of the ffibboiis (IL//ohn/cs), wliich staiKl 
luucli oil tlie .same grade aa thu babuuiiH, the apes tlius be- 
fjinning where the lonk-jy s jcave off. All of tlie .species are 
social, and easily convertible into affectionate household pets, 
when the great difficulty of healthy feeding has been 
.surmounted. Prof. Duncan (i., 74) considers that they are 
extremely docile and affectionate animals. In captivity " not 
only do they become very fon<l of their keeper, but recollect 
him after long lapses of time ". 

Vogt .says {Mammnlia, i., 40) that "with one exception 
all observers who have seen gibbons in a state either of 
nature or of captivity describe them as good-humoured gentle 
creatures, which live at peace with other animals, and have 
no bad habits". A writer in Xatnre, ix., .?43, declares 
that gibbons are highly sympathetic to injured companions. 
He says that while some of them were rumiing about his 
garden, free, but friendly, one fell and hurt itself badly, after 
which tlie others all gave it the greatest attention, one in 
special taking every morning the first food she got, and 
giving it to the ."ripple ere she ate any herself. This, how- 
ever, is diametrically opposed to the testimony of Duvancel 
(quoted Brehm, i., 107 i, who says that if one of a troop is 
wou' ■•■d th' rest always abandon it, unless it be fi veiy 
young one, when its mother stays behind to assist its lliglit, 
or, if that be in vain, to face the enemy. 

H. O. i'orbes, an o'jserver peculiarly worthy of reliance, 
says of the wau-wau gibbon : " It had a v-,.,Kleri'ally iuunan 
look in its eye, and it v, with great distiv s I witnessed 
the death of the on'y one I ever shot. Falling on its back 
with a thud on tl.> oui' ' it raised itself on its elbows, pas.sed 
its long taper fin<; ov the wound, gave a woeful look at 
them, and fell back at full length dead. A live .specimen 
brought to me by a native I kept in captivity for a short 
time, and it became one of the gentle and engaging 
creatures possible. But when the calling of its free niates 
reached its prison house, it used to place its ear close to tin; 
bars of its cage and listen with such intense and eager wistful- 
ness that I could ])ear to confine it no longer." (iVatimdist'.'^ 
Wanderings, p. 70.) 



is), which Htaiiil 
e iipoH thus l)(i- 
f tlie species are 
household jtets, 
lediui^f haa been 
) that they are 
I captivity " not 
3r, but recollect 

one exception 
state either of 
uiiioured <rentle 
nials, and have 
, .143, declares 
ed companions, 
nin^' about his 
elf badly, after 
tention, one in 
I she ^rot, and 
ilf. This, how- 
ly of Duvancel 
e of a troop is 

it bo a very 
issist its lli^dit, 

hy of reliance, 
leriUlIy Imman 
sH I witnessed 
ig on its back 
! elbows, passed 
woeful look at 

live specimen 
ity for a short 

and engaging 
its free mates 
ir close to the 

eager wistful- 


Forbes possessed a .siainang gibl)on, of which he 
says (p. I.'jO): "The tender caressing uiunner in which lu' laid 
his long anus on my neck, and ins head on my breast, was 
extremely amiable. Every evening he used to take a walk 
with me round the scjuare with liis hand in my arm, and he 
enjoyed i\\>- outing apparently as much as I did." Bennet 
describes two e(iually attectionate gil>bons which were 
hold friends of his; Har' iatni descrilies five, Vogt two, and 
Brehm four. Wallace gives an account of one which never be- 
came good friends ,vith him, though on excelleiit terms with 
his Malay boys. {M(d. Arch., p. l;U . But after all, gibbons 
are rarely kept in confinement. They are found in tin ir wild 
state in only a .small area, and, even there, are by no means 
numerous. " They caiuiot endure the loss of freedom. They 
long for their woods, for theii- free Nports in the foliage, and 
grow (juieter and more melanchol}' till they die." These are 
Brehm's words. But of all that have lived for some time in 
captivity his further expre.s.sions are true: "amiable in 
bel' viour and in the highest degree friendly towards all to 
V ' they have once granted their alfectioii ". 

1 lie next genus (Siiiivi) contains but the one species, 
orang-outang, described by \'ogt as a good-humoured and well- 
disposed creature, much attached to its keeper and to those 
who are kind to it, but in captivity relap.sing into (juietness 
and melancholy. It is not very .social in its fre<' 'if( , Hart- 
mann says that the younger animals rove in parties of three 
or four; Wallace thinks that when fully grown :.t. is a 
decidedly .solita'X' animal, though he once saw two of them 
at play together. It is quite certain that they never form 
societies, a fact which .seems .strange to any one who has ever 
made friends with them in captivity. Cuvier .says of one 
kept in Paris that it was peculiarly geiitle, and that it loved 
companionship, making bo.som friends uf two kittens. It was, 
however, always ready to sun itself in the atiection of one or 
two persons who wn-e its especial favourites. Wallace's well- 
known experiences with a baby of the species {Mnlaij Arc//., 
p. 42) suggest the idea of a very dependent, but likeable, little 
crt iture. Brehm considers the orang to be slow and earnest- 
looking, the expression of its brown gooddiumoured eyes 


i ii 


\wu\<r iiiexprnssibly niolHiichuly; ho siiw none tliat could ho 
compared with the chimpaiizeo in .syinpathctic (piality. 

And indeed there is no doubt l)ut that the froriila and 

chimpanzee head the wliole of the mammalia except man in l■eeIinJ,^ Of tlie ^^orilhi little i.s known, Imt that little 

i» most favourable. He is conHned to ho .small a re^'ion, is so 

rare and so shy even there ; his stronnrth is so ^a-eat, his love 

of freedom so intense, liis natural aversion so stron<( against 

those wlio t<'ar liim from his woods and his comrades that 

we should bo very unreasonable if we wore to expect him 

at once to develop a devoted affection for his captors. If 

tlio avera<(e London citizen saw liis wife and family shot, 

and were himself cast into chains and carried off to be' 

exhibited in a barred ca<;e in a distant country, the scientiHc 

forei<;-ner would dia<,ni()so his character as distinctly sullen 

and revengeful. 

Only a dozen i;-orillas in all liave been captured alive, and 
of thes.- all but two or three have perished within a few 
weeks. One survived its capture nearly two years, and is the 
best kiiown specimen of the ^-enus. Falkenstein says of it 
that "it clunf.- to human companionship and displayed a 
wonderful dependence anil trustfulness, showiii<,^ no trace of 
mi.schievous, malicious, or savajro habits, thouoh sometimes 
self-willed. Its {,'ood-humour and shyness, or rather roguish- 
ness, deserve special mention." The same jrorilla was taken 
to Germany and lived for a time in the Berlin Aciuarium, 
Hartmann there observed him and found him obedient and 
good-tempered, though rather mischievous. " On the whole," 
Hartmann says, " he behaved with propriety, playfulness, and 
good temper ; there was much which resembled man in his 
look and bearing" Dr. Hermes, the director of the Aciuariura, 
says of this gorilla : " He exhibits great sociableness toward.s 
children of two or three years ; he is very amiable ; kisses 
them, and lets them do anything with him without making 
use of his great strength. Older children he treats more 
i-oughly, though lie plays with them readily enough and runs 
races with them round tables an,, chairs. He shows great 
tenderness in the company of ladies, and is highly grateful to 
them if they pay attention to him, placing his arm round 


L) that could 1)0 

Jii3 ;^()rilla find 
. except man in 
ii.lmt that little 
1 a rejriun, i.s ,so 
{jroat, his love 
.stron^f against 
comrades that 
to expect him 
is captors. If 
d family shot, 
fied ort" to be 
^, the .scientific 
stinctly sullen 

iired alive, and 
within a few 
3ar.s, and is the 
;ein says of it 
i displayed a 
ig no trace of 
gh sometimes 
ather roguish- 
ilia was taken 
lin A(|uarium. 
obedient and 
)n the whole," 
lyfulness, and 
d man in his 
;he A(|uarium, towards 
niable ; kisses 
bhout making 
! treats more 
ugh and runs 
s shows great 
ly grateful to 
is arm round 


tlieni, and li-aning his la-ad on their .shoulders. He cannot 
4indure to be a moment alone." 

After the death of this indivi(hial, a second gorilla was 
obtained for the Berlin Aipiarium. It lived but a short time, 
nni] Hartmann mei-ely sums \ip its character as being " very 
l)layful and ad'ectionate ". (Anliini/jnii/ A/if.^i, p. 2()7.) if there 
were more numerous and more extended opportunities of 
•observation, the gorilla might possibly enough be placed at 
the head of all the lower animals in regard to .social (|ualities ; 
])Ut, .so far as our kiunvleclge now goes, tliat position is 
properly claimed for the chimpanzee. Acconling to Vogt, 
in its natural life, it lives in families which .sometimes 
unite into largcsr troops, whose existence is, in general, merry 
and playful. Each family builds for itself a staging of l)oughs 
and leaves on the forked branches of some large tree ; s(jme- 
times they roof this over as a protection from heavy rain. 
■Savage considers that as a rule not more than from live to 
ten are seen together. Prof. Duncan (.V(^/. Ri.4., I, .51) .says 
that their life is very gentle and amiable, and marked by 
•circumstances that indicate a mutual devotion. 

But it is impossible that the free life of these shy denizens 
of the equatorial forests of Africa should liave been much 
under competent observation. What we know of their 
dispo.sition has therefore been learnt from their lives in 
captivity. Duncan considers the tame chimpanzee to be a 
most docile and obedient animal, capable of being ruled in all 
things by the voice of any one for whom it has ac(|uired an 
art'ection. V^ogt declares that " in captivity, to all who show 
themselves kindly and sympathetic, they exhibit the most 
touching and devoted attachment, and their amiability in 
playing with children is another conspicuous feature of their 
■disposition '. 

Brehm considers them to be (i., 84) "gentle, wise and ami- 
able ". He kept several of them as inmates of his household, 
•each for about a year. " Such an ape," he says, " we cannot 
treat as a mere animal, we must deal with him as we would 
with a human being. His body is that of a beast, his dis- 
position is that of a crude man. He understands what is said 
to him, and we understand him also, though his speech consists 




1! • 



M ' 


;l ' ( 


not in words, but only in iiccented notes and syllables, so fiiH 
of expression that we cannot well mistake his nieanin'o-. He 
distinguishes between men and children ; the former he likes, 
tlie latter he loves, unless it be a boy, for rou<,di lads are apt 
to provoke aiul worry liim." 

" iMy chimpanzee knows his friends well enouoh, and dis- 
tuifruishes them perfectly from stran-ers, tliou-h he readily 
makes friends with anybody who approaches him kindly. 
He is most comfortal)le within the family circle, especially if 
he is allowed to roam from room to room, to open and shut 
the doors, and continuously amuse himself after that style. 
He is always busy in his investi^ration of every conceivable 
object : he opens the door of the stove to watch the fire : he 
draws out chests, rummao-es in them and plays with their 
contents. Praise always exciti.'s him, especially' if it be o-iven 
on account of his swinginf,^ and turuini^-." 

But to understand fully the sympathetic life of win Ji a. 
chimpanzee is capal)l.i, one must read the six pages of closely 
detailed description which Brehm o-ives of those he kept. 
Hartmann jrives short histories of seven chimpanzees which 
he had known in captivity ; he tells of one which died of orief 
at the indio-nity of beinj-- beaten. {Anthropuid Apes, p. 268.) 
Prof. Duncan o-ives two more cases, in one of which a chim- 
panzee developed a passionate attachment to a youno- ne<,n-o,. 
in another to an old woman who had acted as his nurse.' 
Darwin o'ives Bartlett's description (Erpressioii nft/te Ilmnflon.s. 
p. 22.5) of the first meetino- of two cliimpanzees in the Zoo- 
logical Gar<lens: "They sat opposite each other, touching- 
one another with their much protruded lips, and tlie one put 
his liand on the shoulder of the other. They then mutually 
folded each other in their arms." Could Crusoe, meeting the first 
of his own species aft-r a year of solitude, show more clearly 
at the first full-hearted moment the sympathetic yearning of 
human affection f There is something ileeply pat'l.etic in"the 
simple account which Hartmann gives (p. 273) of the deatliof the 
well-known chimpanzee :\Iafuca. She slowly decline.l with con- 
sumption, and just at the end "put her arms round her ke(>per's. 
neck when he cam.- to visit hei-, looked at hii.i placidly, kissed 
Iiim three times, stretched out liei- hand to him, and died". 


•llables, so full 
nieanin*^. He 
nner lie likes, 
1 liuls rti-e apt 

an^h, and dis- 
u;\\ he readily 
him kindly. 
2, esjDccially if 
)peii and shut 
er that style. 
•y conceivable 
1 the fire ; he 
•s with tlieir 
if it he f^aven 

:'e of whioh a 
tjes of closely 
oso he kept, 
anzees which 
I died of ^-rief 
Ajjcs, p. 2(58.) 
I'hich a chini- 
yoinio- neo-ro, 
IS his nurse.. 
tlir Eiiiiit ion>!y 
i in the Zoo- 
er, toucliiniL>- 
the one put 
len mutually 
jtinir the first 
more clearly 
yearnino- of 
thetic in the 
s death of the 
led with con- 
her keeper's 
.eidly, kissed 
id died ". 


Social Sympathies in Man. 

And yet nevertheless there is an advance when we cross 
the border line into the domain of the human species ; for 
there are still richer capacities for sympathy in the case of 
even the lowest of the stunted sava<^es, even the most naked, 
pot-bellied, spindle len'o'cd, fiat-nosed, wrinkle-faced of crea- 
tures. Thouy-h they roam the forest like the apes, with but a 
l)reak-wind to shelter them from the weather, with wild fruits 
and small animals for their food, thou^di they (juarrel and 
fijrht, are truculent and despotic, yet the bands of twenty or 
thirty in vvdiich they rove are united by social sentiments of 
o-reater strength and complexity than any found in the lower 
animals. Not only is parental care more prolonged, but the 
family life is more compact, and probably more permanent. 
Much kindliness and mutual helpfulness prevail within the 
tribe, however hostile it may be to all without it. Casalis 
describes the Bushman as being "small with a flat dirty 
3'ellow face, the skin wrinkled like that of a frog". Yet he 
tells us that he is "kind, generous, and hospitable, readily 
dividing his food with the b.ungry ". (Casalis, Life in B<(mitii 
FAind, p. 158.) {Of. Livingstone, Miss. Trav. ; Featherman, i., 
i52C.) Of the Negritos of the Philippines we are told by Earl 
that " though ferocious towards strangers they live in har- 
mony among themselves ; they are sincere in their social 
relations, and obliging in their habits ''. 

Mouat describes tne natives of the Andaman Islands (Jioj/. 
GciKj. Soc, 1862, p. 121) as being "a wild people, most savagely 
inclined to strangers, but most kindly disposed in their con- 
duct to each other ". He speaks of " this wretched popula- 
tion," diminutive in stature, and completely naked, "yet gentle 
.and ainiable in their mutual intercourse ". Snow tells us 
{Ethnu. Sue, v., 45) that though they are like childi'en, very 
passionate if thwarted in their wishes, they are i xtremely 
atteotionate among themselves. Tennent describes the Ved- 
dahs as being gentle, truthful and honest; a great feeling of 
aiiectionate good-nature prevails in their little communities. 
The impression one gathers from Casati and Sciuveinfurth of 
the Akkas or pigmy tribes of Central Africa is that of a 

?: •■ 






brif-lit, cheery ^rooil-liuniour, callable of niucli cruelty, no 
doubt, and unredeemed by any elevation of cliaracter/but 
with its own charm of impulsive, childlike afi'eetionateness. 
Moving a grade higher in the human scale, we find the 
same general tendency to social life in such races as the 
Fuegians, the Hottentots, the Brazilian tribes, the Tasmanians 
and Australians, but instead of being confined to small bands 
of twenty or thirty it spreads to tribes of 100 or more, and 
is more intense within the tribe. Darwin says of a Fucnrian 
on board the Uaujlc {Nat. Vot,., {., 2.58), "His affections were 
very strong towards a few friends on Ijoard "; and of another 
he says, " The expression of his face at once showed his nice 
disposition; he was merry and often laughed, and was re- 
markably sympathetic with any one in t^ain ". Darwin's, 
little illustrative incidents (for instance, p. 277, edition 1S89) 
suggest a truly feeling nature. 

The Hottentots are described as being low both in morals 
and in intellect, yet in the natural affections they are far from 
(leficient. "In the ordinary relations of life they were of a 
friendly, cheerful and amiable disposition, and lived togethei- 
in perfect harmony. They were remarkable for their unselfish 
liberality, and their fervent attachment to their friends and 
kindred." (Featherman, Suciul Hidoru «/ Mankind, I, .501.) 
Bates, in his Natnran>it on. the. Amazom (p. 3<>fi), says that 
though the forest Indians of Brazil are of a low type, very 
little removed from that of the brutes living in the same 
forests, yet "they have strong afiectir^is, especially chose 
connected with the family -. He speaks of a girl of one of 
the lowest tribes as "always smiling and full of talk". 
Wallace thus sums up the character of the same tribes {Trarda 
on the Amazon, p. 861) : " They show a great affection for their 
children, with whom they never part ; nor can they be induced 
to do so even for a short time. They scarcely ever quarrel 
among themselves, work hard, and submit willingly to au- 
thority." Schomburgh's account of the Caribs describes them 
as a (|uiet, gentle, peace-loving race. 

Of the Australians, Curr says (p. 274) : " In their <lemeanour 
towards each other they wore liahitaally courteous and good- 
humoured. Indeed, though their ways are different from ours 


!h cruelty, no 
cliaracter, but 
e, we find the 
races as the 
le Tasmaniaiis 
to .small baiiils 
• or more, and 

I of a Fuegian 
tfectious were 
nd of another 
owed his nice 

and was re- 
edition 1889) 

)oth in morals 
Y are far from 
a\v \vere of a 
i\'ed tog-etlier 
L' friends and 
/•mr/, i., 501.) 
fi), says that 
>w type, very 
in the same 
ecially those 
:irl of one of 

II of talk". 
tion for their 
y be induced 
ever cjuari'el 
ingly to au- 
scribes them 

r demeanour 
as and good- 
it from ours> 


it always seemed to me that tlie bonds of frieivlship between 
blood relations were stronger as a rule than among ourselves." 
Speaking of a tribe in which he moved freely for twenty 
years, Curr tells us that " a very noticeable feature of their 
economy was the harmonious way in which the individuals of 
the tribe lived together. During their games, constant peals 
of laughter burst from the merry throng. Eminently good- 
tempered and jocose, the black fellow is full of bonhomie, and, 
notwithstanding much that was degrading in his practices, 
he had decidedly something of the gentleman about him." 
(Sqnntting in Vicforia, p. 298.) 

The Rev. Mr. Taplin says of tlie South Australian natives 
(p. 8) : " Amongst themselves there is a great deal of a sort of 
courtesy; they live in their camps without nuich disagree- 
ment". E. J. Eyre, who saw abundance of the blacks in 
their absolutely unsophisticated condition, and who is very 
far from concealing the many evil features of their life, 
speaks most decidedly of their strong social feelings. He 
calls tiiem " frank, open and confiding, and easily made 
friends. When far removed from the abodes of civilisation, 
and accompanied only by a native boy, I have been received 
b}^ them in the kindliest and most friendly manner. It is a 
mistaken and unjust idea to suppose the natives to be with- 
out sensibility or I'eeling," and the traveller narrates a case 
wherein a man bui'st into a fit of uncontrollable tears at the 
mention of a son of his who had died a full year before. 

In short there is found in the humblest tribe of savages 
no small share of the capacity to bear and forbear, no slight 
measure of warm affection and of a natural humanity. The 
dance and the chant, the merry game and the funeral wail, 
their wedding festivities, and their care of the .sick and the 
infirm, even though it tires at last in the case of the very aged 
or the chronic invalid, the festive ceremonies of naminir, 
and initiation, the devotion shown by each to the other in 
battle, and the general cohesiveness of life from year to year 
mark in the poorest savages an advance, solid though not phe- 
nomenal, above the highest social life of the lower animals. 
The more closely we study the earlier stages of human de- 
velopment, the more will we be inclined to agree with the 



i . 





eloquent summary of Tylor {Ant/iropolnr/!/, p. 402) : "Mankind 
can never have lived as a mere strug^rling crowd, eacli for 
himself. Society is always made up of families bound 
toj^ether by kindly ties. Their habits, judged by our notions, 
are hard and coarse, yet the family tie of sympathy and 
common interest is already formed, and the foundation of 
moral duty already laid in the mother's patient tenderness, 
the father's desperate valour in defence of home, the " daily 
care for the little ones, the affection of brothers and sisters, 
and the mutual forbearance, hopefulness, and trust of all." 



402) : " Mankind 
; crowd, each for 
families bound 
d by our notions, 
if sjaiipathy and 
lie foundation of 
itient tenderness, 
lome, the'r daily 
thers and sisters, 
I trust of all." 




The Widening of Sympathy. 

Among men the same general trend of progress continues, but 
greatly quickened, inasmuch as the social sympathies have 
now an effect predominating over all others in deciding which 
of many competing races is to emerge from the struggle. 
Thus it happens that changes in sympathetic temperament, 
which in the lower animals have required lung and im- 
memorial ages, are in mankind completed on a vastly greater 
scale in a few thousand years. In this chapter, therefore, and 
ill the following, I shall deal with the upward growth of these 
sympathies in man, entering into a degree of detail, which, 
though still leaving the story but a sketch, may be in isome 
measure proportional to the increased importance of the 
subject, and also in some sort of accordance with the greater 
wealth of materials now pressing upon us. 

But in its essence the story is still the same ; social 
.sympathy still take.s its rise in family life ; still do we see 
the more specially preservative feelings towards child and 
wife spreading outward to embrace a wdder area. They who 
love a child because it is their own may have by far their 
warmest fervour of devotion only for their own offspring, yet 
they will experience a certain predisposition to tenderness 

and this feeling indeed over- 
a certain com- 

pawsionateness towards the young of all animals, ,so that we 
are conscious, just as the finer of the lower animals them- 
^<eheH are, of a peculiar melting emotion before the lamb, the 
<luckling, the kitten, or the kid. Observe how the calf or 
VOL. I. ag 

towards children in genera 

llows the bounds of the species, giving rise to 




the puppy i.s fondled wlien the mature animal is ne<,dected ; or 
watcli the delio-hted crowd which in a zooloo-icaf collection 
gathers round the baby leopanls or the new-born bear, and we 
shall understand how the primal sympathy of parental care 
has spr.)a(l itself out in a general sympathy for tender years. 
Just as the little girl, when she lavishes untohl atfection on 
her doll of rags, is witnessing to the deepest treasures of 
mherent womanly nature, so does the whole race, by its 
moo.l of melting softness before all that is young, indicate how 
uieradicable has become the general operation of this emotion 
once so exclusive. 

And the conjugal sentiment also tends to spread beyond 
the family limit, so that, apart from any trace of sensual 
feeling, men are touched by the sight of female beauty, and 
moved to generous emotion by the sight of a sex feebler than 
then- own. When a man rises and yields to a woman, an 
utter stranger, his seat in train or tram-car: when he feels, as 
he sees a woman toiling at some and unwomanly task, 
that he would like to set her free and himself undertake the 
drudgery : when, within the doomed vessel whose bulwarks 
are almost awash, he willingly helps to till the last boat with 
the women, though fully realising that in a few minutes he 
himself will in consecjuence be a drifting corpse in the deep 
sea, in such cases he proclaims iiow, after a long stoiy of slow 
development, that sympathy which was originally the tiner 
side of mere sexual feeling has .spread and spread till at last 
it extends to every one that bears the shape of a woman. 

Preservative Value op Soclvl Sympathy. 

^ But while the social sympathies thus derive part of their 
primitive strength fn.m the widening of other .sympathies, 
they are in themselves also of sutRcient preservative value to 
secure a growth of thcur own once a start is given to them. In 
a community of primitive form, where violent death awaits a 
man on so many hands, it is not oidy a deep comfort, but a 
means of safety to have a w=%rm friend, ever true and trusty. 
Sir Richard Burton describes how among the negro races. 

li' ' 


lal is ne<j^lected : oi* 
oolo(,ncal collection 
-born bear, and we 
y of parental care 
^ for tender years, 
antold affection on 
ejiest treasures of 
vliole race, by its 
oun^^ indicate how 
on of this emotion 

to spread beyond 

' trace of sensual 

emale beauty, and 

a sex feebler than 

to a woman, an 

when he feels, as 

unwomanly task, 
self undertake the 
I whose bulwarks 
the last boat with 
a few minutes he 
corpse in the deep 
loui;- stoiy of slow 
•iginally the liner 

spread till at last 

of a woman. 


rive part of their 
)ther sympathies, 
servative value to 
^iven to them. In 
nt death awaits a 
ep comfort, but a 
p true uiid trusty, 
the negro races, 




little To r Tr^ ''. "^^^"'^'"-"^- '-V '-'1 order is but 
httle developed, there is a "passion for sociality" which 
dnves then mto the "sare" or oath of brotherhoo^^l. (Z„ 
A.yum. :., 102.) L,ttle describes this as being very common 
in Madagascar. "It consists of a solemn vow of eternal 
friendship and mutual obligation, sealed by the act of 
solemnly partaking of each other's blood by the two con- 
tracting parties, hy which act they become brothers." Robert- 
son hm.fch describes it as a well-known custom of the Arabs 
and It IS still very frequent among the less settled of the 
Malay races. Li history we often have occasion to note the 
effects of such unions. A somewhat similar feeling of brother- 
hood gave to Sparta he- early predominance in Greece ; while 
Ihebes owed her short-lived supremacy to the brother-oath 
that bound her Sacred Band in bonds of indissoluble fellow- 
ship ihrough all the turmoil of the early middle ages it is 
easy o perceive the sledge-hammer ettect produced by a 'chief 
who had for the nucleus of his army a band of " -a-sidhs " 
sworn to attend him, to defend him, and never to'survive 
linn ; and Mahomet's followers altere.l the history of the 
world by the power of these sworn brotherhoods 

On the contrary, disunion has always been fatal. Could 
the Highlan,lers of Scotlan.l have adde.l to their reckless 
valour a capacity for solid union under one great chief, the 
part hey were to play in the history of the British Isles 
wouhl have },een a very different one, and a much -reater 
Hhare of wealth and power and of consequent populousness 
un^-it .ve drifted north. But, as Macaulay says (ms^..y o/ 
^-A.. IV., 353, Cab. ed.), their armies could perform '4i- 
credible feats of arms," yet their most brilliant victoria. w*,e 
always followed " by the triumph of the con.juered >md ihe 
submission of the con<iuerors," for the conquered were amieO. 
and the conquerors never were. "Loc«J jealousi*^ and k«il 
nu^emsts dissolves! the ill-cemented union of un.vinpathetic 

_ The brilliant history of Eome is on., long stor^- of the 
triumph of union over disunion. J)r, B^arv i- .. ^mrrre-t-- 
passage of his ffo.sMd (p. 265) ^ys tiiat ■ it ^ 
of the different nations who allowed Rome to deal with them 


f ■ 

h i 

;« vii 


one by one lias been the subject o[" much .sterile wonder. 
These l)arbar()us tribes couM no more combine for any j^reat 
operation than they could make a chemical analysis. They 
were mentally and morally une(|ual to the task. Herodotus 
says of the Thracians that if they had but one head, or 
could agree among themselves, they wouM far sux'pass all 
other nations. But Thrace was rioL .i country in the sense in 
which we use the term. It was the locality in which some 
fifty independent tribes were .settled, every one of them in 
its structure and its social life having its own individual 
existence, and being complete after its kind." 

The whole course of history is in its main features the 
emergence of the type that is capable of union, the .subjuga- 
tion, absorption, or often the total destruction of types less 
capable of consolidation; in of'er words, th(^ emergence of the 
social as against the unsocial races in the long struggle for 
existence. One of the most suggestive chapters of the kind 
is that wherein ]\Iacchiavelli describes how Florence, during 
ten years of her peaceful harmony, all her factions reconciled, 
all her internal strifes composed, m;\rched on to greatness and 
prosperity. " It is not possible to imagine," he says, " the 
power of authority which Florence in a short time acquired." 
{Hidorii of Florence, bk. ii., chap, ii.) But after these ten 
years, she became afflicted anew with the bitter discords of 
her citizens, and her greatness innnediately declined. The 
whole history of the Italian peninsula from first to last is 
one long exposition of the truth that " Union is Strength," or 
in other words, Avhen we apply the pi'inciple to living men, 
strong .social .sympathies are the moHt profitable means of 
progress that any nation can possess. 

Within the tribe itself there are always forces at work 
which slowly tend to weed out the less social and leave the 
more social natures. They who think that the great strong- 
bully is necessarily the surviving type in savage life are in a 
large measure mistaken. Such a maa has predominance for 
a time, and he slaughters oti' other bullies who interfere with 
him oi" ehallensi'e his snnrenuicv. but ere lnni>' h«» .succumbs liiui- 
self to the strengtli or fraud of some rival. Among ourselves 
the boxing championship does not adorn any individual for 




1 .sterile woiulor. 
ne for any {^reat 

analysis. Thoy 
task. Herodotus 
)ut one head, or 
. far surpass all 
•y in the sense in 
;y in which some 

one of them in 

own individual 

lain features the 
ion, the subju^^a- 
ion of types less 
cmcrjfence of the 
ont;' stru(;-gle for 
)ters of the kind 
Florence, dui'inj)- 
ctions reconciled, 
to ji'reatness and 
I," he says, " the 
■t time acquired." 

after these ten 
)itter discords of 
• declined. The 
n first to last is 
I is Strength," or 
e to living men, 
fitable means of 

i forces at work 
al and leave the 
the great strong 
r'age life are in a 
predominance for 
tie interfere with 
ly siic'cumbs liini- 
Among ourselves 
ly individual for 

more than a few years. Once he passes the meridian of his 
strength, some other at the age of maxinnnn vigour wrests 
the belt from him. But in savage life such a fall most 
probably implies also death, and he who reads the story of 
))arbarian coiKjuerors from the fourth to the eighth centuries 
will notice how rarely the mere warrior type preserves his 
command and his life for more than a few years, ere he falls a 
victim directly or itidirectly to his own love of violence, 

^ In such a book as that wlierein Captain Musters describes 
minutely the incidents of a twelvemonth spent within a 
Patagonian tribe, we see how steadily the big, powerful, but un- 
amiable fellow disappears. One after another, as the year rolls 
by, the loud and arrogant braves descend to their blood-stained 
tombs, M'hile a steadier control lies with him who is able to 
secure a following. He may often be sucli as we might not 
admire, but some of the qualities that make men liked must 
be his to secure the recjuisite devotion from others. Catlin 
speaks (i., 19) of the constant killing ofi' among the Indian 
tribes of the (juarrelsoine, and I find references to several 
negro races that have existed within recent times, but which 
started their own ruin by internecine wars and slaughters, and 
were eventually exterminated or absorbed by their neighbours. 
" Savages," says Robertson Smith of tlie early Arabs {Kinship, 
p. 127), "well know the danger of (piarrels within the tribe," 
and the records of the Malays during the jDresent century tell 
of peoples who by reason of their innate ferocity have been 
wiped from tlu^ face of the earth. 

Seeing then that is subject in his own degree to the 
necessities of the struggle for existence, three being born 
where only one can survive, the type which has been emer- 
gent all along the line is the one tha. has, if other things 
wei-e fairly ecpxal, been most richly endowed with social sym- 
pathies, and the progress of mankind has in conse(]uence been 
one of constantly increasing power of union. Hunter, speak- 
ing of the early peoples of India (p. 97), says that " the race 
progressed always from looso cc'federacies of tribes into 
several well-knit nations". The^^ -mited again, until India 
reached her palmiest days, whf ■, all were cemented, even 
though badly cemented, into the great Mogul Empire. So do 






tliu early liistoriiinH dcscrihe tlio prooresH ul' China, and Cox, 
in his /fis/ori/ of Orcrcr (bk. i., chap, ii.), rclatuH how, in tho 
bujfinnin^', tho HcHentjs started from scattered fainiHes, tlien 
joined in phratrias or hi-otlierhoods ; these i'ornuMl tlie wider 
tribes, and finally many tribes contrived to live i)eaceably 
within the same polls or state. How isolated wn'e these 
states ; what dissensions rei(,med between Attica ami Spai'ta, 
Corinth, Ar<i;-os and Bo 'otia, Locris, Doris and Arcadia, every 
one knows. But when the Gi-eeks of the various states began 
to be capable of meetino- without iiyhtinj;', when they knew 
the patriotism of a common lanj^uajL^e, common relij^ion, and 
national i^ames, they formed lea{,'ues of greater strength, and 
if they could have learnt the lesson of hearty and trustful 
union of the whole, the history of the world might have been 
different, with the predominance of their race assured. As it 
Wita. the degree of combination which they attained under 
Ah;:v;ander shivered to pieces the ill-cemented Persian empii-e, 
yet the Macedonian dominion itself crumbled away l)efore the 
attack of the Romans, incomparably the l)est united and most 
strongly consolidated of these ancient peoples. 

Gaul fell a prey to the Romans for want of union ; in spite 
of her millions of people, she rarely nundoered 500,000 in 
any solidly united community. Hail they formed a nuitually 
trustful confederacy, Ca3sar would have been powerless against 
them. So too of the Germans. Mommsen says that in 50 li.c. 
they were " at that stage of culture in which they had as yet 
no national union," though they formed populous organisa- 
tions, averaging somewhere about 500,000. England shows 
very clearly this process by which men grow more .social, and 
therefore better qualified to live together and prosper. The 
first fleets of the Saxons landed many petty tribes, each 
to dwell on the soil it had seized from the utter disunion of 
the Britons. But the process of conquest demanded heavier 
blows tiian small tribes could deliver. Those were the most 
successful who were the most capable of consolidation. Some 
eight or ten amorphous states began to emerge, and in the 
course of a couple of centuries secured predominance. Yet 
England was of no weight as a whole ; the national strength 
being spent in awful scenes of internal warfare. But the 


Jhiiiii, and Cox, 
x'H how, in tho 
!(1 fiunilie.s, then 
rnnnl the wiiler 

live peaceably 
tod were these 
iea ami Sparta, 

Arcadia, every 
)iiH states l)e(;-an 
hen they knew 
)n reliirion, and 
iv strength, and 
ty and trustful 
ii;;ht have been 
assured. As it 
attained under 
Persian empire, 
iway l)el'ore the 
niited and most 

union : in sjoite 
red 500,000 in 
ned a mutually 
)werleHS against 
s that in 50 ac. 
they had as yet 
ulcus oi'ganisa- 
England shows 
nore social, and 

prosper. The 
ty tribes, each 
iter disunion of 
nanded heavier 

were the most 
idation. Some 
•ye, and in the 
iminance. Yet 
itional strength 
fare. But the 





kingdoms most cajiable of Joining or of being amalgamated 
increased in strength, and in ,S00 a.d., under a singl.! o\erlord, 
England was nominally one, though weakened" by Welsh', 
Cornish and Cumbrian enemies, and itself but poorly united. 
The sym[)athy which bound Northumb' ' to Kentishman 
was almost infinitesimal: and Dane, Ai,_ .lute aiid Saxon 
dwelt together with never-ending bloodshed. Sieges of 
houses, capture of villages, theft of cattle, burning of "crops, 
slaughter of men and ruin of districts paralysed the people's 
ertbrts, wasted their substance and aI)sorbe(l th(;ir powers. 
On this loosely united mass the first smart tap of a Norman 
host, far more blest with the strength which l<jyalty, discipline, 
and hearty co-operation can supply, fell with a shattering 
force. Subse(|uently the whole story of Norman and Planta- 
genet England is the struggle of consolidating against dis- 
ruptive forces, the central power constantly stri\'ing to weld 
the people into one strong wliole, the barons as steadily seeking 
the selfish glory of local autocracy. But the social sympathies 
were vital enough to slowly make for union : and a central 
power, under fair control, as we shall see, of the general will, 
asserted its supremac}^ When the Tudor times arrived, Eng- 
land was strong in that patriotism which united all her sons 
from Cheviot to Channel as brothers, and oidy in propcjrtion 
to the growth of that social feeling was England's prosperity 
apparent at home, and her influence felt abroad. 

Indantl lost her liberty through want of union. Scotland 
nearly lost hers through the disunion of her aristocracy, but 
when the case was desperate, she retrie\ ed herself thi-(jugh 
the capacity for patriotic union displayed by her common 
people. At a later date in proportion as all the people of the 
British Isles were found capable of harmonious union, so did 
the strength and prosperity of the whole progress. Witl.out 
any exception, through all the ramifications of history, this 
truth is pi.iin, that the less social type yields before the more 

Incueastng Size of Social Unions. 

Tliis absolutely unde via ting law of progress is ,s,:-en in a 
consideration of the size of the community that is character- 
















11:25 i 1.4 















WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 






]l - 


"^ fi! tfMm 


istic of any stage of human development. The lower savages 
combine in horde.s numbering from twelve to eighty, the 
average- being about forty. Burchell (i., 291) reckons a Bush- 
man community to range from fourteen to forty ; Earl con- 
siders an average Negrito tribe to number twenty-five, though 
sometimes it may reach to fifty. The Veddah tribes number 
sixty persons each, and the Semangs of the Malay Peninsula 
fi'om twenty to eighty ; while the Andamaners are the most 
social of this grade, their communities reaching to eighty or 
even 100 persons. These tribes are incapable of further 
union for any common purpose, and the numbers mentioned 
seem to be the extreme limit of their capacity for combina- 

The middle savages, on the average of six races, reach 
about 150 as the social unit. The Tasmanians, according to 
G. A. Robinson, the protector of the aborigines in 1830, 
averaged neai'ly 300 to a tribe, while the Fuegians rarely ex- 
ceeded forty. (Fifzro//, ii., 178.) The Australian blacks are 
estimated to have averaged about 150 to each community, 
though a slight degree of cohesiveness was sometimes seen in 
two or three neighbouring tribes. The Hottentots, when 
originally known, were in tribes of from 100 to 400 ; the forest 
tribes of Brazil range from 100 to 300, and the Ainus of 
Japan present communities not widely different from these iu 

The upper savages, as typified by the North American 
Indians, would average about 360 to an encampment. School- 
craft's tables show that the different communities ranged from 
130 to 700, but these were capable of some union among them- 
selves, forming confederacies that ran up to several thousands, 
the average of sixty-Mve confederacies being about 4000 
persons to each, according to the United States census of 
1848. This description applies to the Eskimos, Koniagas, 
Aleuts and all of the other allied races of the north, and also 
to the higher savages of South America. The Patagonians 
and Araucanians, for instance, formed rt)ving connnunities of 
several hundred persons, but were sometimes joined into 
loosely cemented leagues, which, according to Captain Musters, 
would average nearly 30^' ■ persons; he speaks of one chief 




The lower sava^fos 
ve to eighty, the 
1) reckon.s a Bush- 
3 forty ; Earl con- 
rt'enty-five, thoug'h 
lah tribes number 
i Malay Penin.sula 
ners are the most 
:hing to eighty or 
apable of further 
ambers mentioned 
icity for combina- 

f six races, reach 
lians, according to 
:)origines in 1830, 
'uegians rarely ex- 
tralian blacks are 

each community, 
sometimes seen in 
Hottentots, when 

to 400 ; the forest 
and the Ainus of 
rent from these in 

North American 
impment. School- 
tiities ranged from 
nion among them- 
several thousands, 
)eing about 4000 

States census of 
skimos, Koniagas, 
he north, and also 

The Patagonians 
ig communities of 
letimes joined into 
) Captain Musters, 
leaks of one chief 

who could assemble a force of 1500 men, the confederacy in 
this case being conse(iuently more nearly GOOO persons. The 
Damaras and other negro races on this level form tribes of 
about 300 persons ais:;' capable of forming leagues. 

This growth of social feeling assists in the conversion of 
men from wanderers into settled populations. For co-opera- 
tion makes a little agriculture possible, and when the tribe is 
no longer dependent for food solely on the natural products of 
the forest, it has less cause to rove, it builds better dwellings, 
and lives adjacent to the food supplies of its clearings. More- 
over, when the loose confederacies of several thousands, such 
as the higher savages are capable of, have become well knit 
together by long contiguity and a more settled life, the weight 
of the mass lends it safety. The ruin of a comnmnity is now 
no more the rrsult of a night surprise, or of a single battle. 
Military expeditions become campaigns, and the dwellings of 
the people in villages begin to be fortified. As a result' we 
find that communities of several thousands become the pre- 
dominant feature of the lower barbarian life, these forming 
not merely alliances of dirt'erent peoples, but single, well- 
united nations. 

For instance the Maoris, v/ho were a fair type of the class, 
averaged about 4000 to a conmiunity when first well known.' 
The total number is estimated at 100,000, and these were 
divided into nations variously described as from eighteen to 
twenty-seven in number, the average of five statements being 
twenty-two, which would imply about 4500 persons to each 
nation. Morgan speaks of the Iro»iuois Indians as having 
numbered 70,000 people divided into five nations, which 
would give an average of 14,000 to each. The munber 
is probably an excessive estimate, but he mentions one village 
of nearly 3000 inhabitants, a population which, if true, is 
indicative of a high capacity for social life ; in conse(iuence of 
which they were in the fair way of conquering the whole of 
the races on the eastern sea-board of America when their 
career was cut short by the arrival of the European popula- 

An enumeration of the warriors of the Dviiks gave to fivo 
tribes an average of 820 each, which would make "the unit of 









•social cohesion about 8000 persons ; and the Tatars upon 
the lower barbarian level muster somewhere about 2000 or 
8000 in a counuunity. In New Guinea, New Hebrides, 
and the other islands peopled by the Papuan race, as Turner 
tells us (p. 84), the villages of SO to 100 individuals are 
governed each under its own petty chief, but from six to ten 
villages are solidly united in communities that are uniler a 
.single heail-cliief whose power has a tendency to be hereditary. 
The social unit among these people is probably more than 1000. 
Among the Kaffirs, each village of about 200 persons is under 
the rule of a chief, but all these chiefs are strictly subject to 
a liead-cliief or king wliose laws prevail through the wliole 
of a wider community which may be reckoned at from 2000 to 
20,000 persons. However, as the fortunes of war fluctuate, the 
numbers within any one kingdom are constantly varying. 

Among the middle barbarians we find very much larger 
associations, accompanied by more permanent dwellings and 
more efficient agriculture. The great bulk of this grade con- 
sists of the negro races of Central Africa. I have gathered 
the estimates, made by travellers, of the numbers in each of 
thirtj'-tive well-detined connnunitios of these people, and '' 
give an average of 228,000 persons to each. When the FV 
were taken over by Great Britain they formed a connnunity 
of 146,000 persons un<ler one king. 8o in Samoa, the whole 
80,000 people whom the islands could support were under the 
control of one fairlj' vigoi-ous central power. 

There is a great jump therefore in the capacity for social 
organisation between the lower and middle irrades of bar- 
barism. But on reflection this is seen to be inevitable. For 
at a certain stage of development one union compels others. 
If a solidl}^ integrated state has reached the lunnber, say of 
100,000 people, it begins to tind that warfare is most effici- 
ently carried on with a professional or semi-professional army. 
If it puts 5000 men in the field, it leaves four men at home to 
support every one that goes abroad ; and, when there is a solid 
enough mass left behind to form a steady basis of operations, 
.such a force carries all before it. Warfare ceases to consist 
of border forays, or petty liostilities. The IMaori tribe 
fought with its neighbours, it knew nothing of those at the 


the Tatars upon 
e about 2000 or 
Now Hebrides, 
1 race, as Turner 
' individuals are 

from six to ten 
hat are under a 

to be hereditary. 
•r more than 1000. 

persons is luider 
strictly subject to 
I'oui^h the whole 
i at from 2000 to 
war fluctuate, the 
itly varying;-, 
ery much larger 
it dwellintvs and 
I this grade con- 
I have <;'athered 
lubers in each of 
people, and +' 
iVlien the Fi_^ 
ed a connnunity 
lanioa, the whole 
t were under the 

ipacity for social 
} grades of bar- 
inevitable. For 
compels others. 
3 number, say of 
re is most effici- 
rofessional army. 
' men at home to 
n there is a solid 
sis of operations, 
ceases to consist 
he ^faori tribe 
; of those at tlie 



other end of the island. But the negro king who lias a 
few thousand professional soldiers at his absolute disposal 
•carries his conquests far and wide. He compels other tribes 
to consolidate ; otherwise they are destroyed or absorbed 
within his own community. But there is a limit roughly set 
to tlie extent of this amalgamating process: for in a land 
devoid of good roads, and at a stage of civilisation wherein 
tlie means of transport are in general rude, the etficioncy of an 
army beyond a certain limit is by no means proportionate to 
its size, and it will certainly happen that 20,000 men well fed, 
and in good connnunication with their base of operations, will 
in the end baffle a force Ave times as large, if it is ill supplied 
and in excess of its means of transport. 

But some of these negro states contrive to emln-ace nearly 
1,000,000 inhabitants within a single fairly consolidated 
state. They can put into the field for a brief campaign, if it 
is not too far away, nearly 100,000 men, inclusive of 15,000 
cavalry. Such an empire, though perhaps cumbersome and 
unwieldy by reason of its crude capacity for organisation and 
administration, speaks of increasing powers of social union. 
3Ioreover, village life begins to expand into town or even 
city life. No savage knows anything of either of these, 
while the lower barbarian, as a rule, never forms a village of 
more than 1000 persons, that of the Iroijuois with 8000 being 
the largest on record. The negroes, liowever, and other 
races on the same level, are capable of building and organis- 
ing towns of 10,000 to 80,000 inhabitants. The chief town of 
the Latookas has about 12,000; and Abomey, the capital of 
Dahomey, has, it is estimated, more than 25,000. Some of the 
African states have as many as half a dozen towns apiece, 
ranging from 5000 to 80,000, and it indicates a huge advance 
in social feeling and the capacity for organisation that negroes 
can dwell in associations so large and so intimatelv united. 
<t^uite a gulf must divide the Bushman ami tlie neighbouring 
negro, a gulf that is founded on fundamental nervous difler- 
ences ; for the one has shown himself incai)able of learnino- 
from the other the lesson of social co-operation. And indeed 
it is not so much a lesson that is to be learnt, as a nature 
tliat is to be acipiired. 


I ' 





In the hij^^hor l)arbarian.s we reacli a still j^reater .le^'ree 
of social union. The island of Mada^^ascar, with 8,500,000 
people, formed, when Hrst observed by white men, but a sin^de 
state under the one sovereign, who resided in a capital number- 
ing nearly 100,000 inhabitants. The Malays form states that 
range from -250,000 to 1,000,000 or 2,000,000 people. In 
Java about 5,000,000 were divided under twenty different 
rajahs ; in Sumatra the independent states averaged 400,000 
persons to each : in Celebes they are estimated to have 
averaged 600,000 ; while on the Malay Peninsula they range 
from 100,000 to 500,000. In Abyssinia 3,000,000 people are 
divided into three independent states ; and among the Tatar 
races, tlie Turcomans for instance, a single khan may have 
as many as 3,000,000 under his rule, while others have not 
a twentieth of that number. They average, however, about' 
500,000. Taking the best numbers available for what they 
are worth, I find that the average of sixty-one independent, 
states of the higher barbarian level is 442,000 persons. They 
have at least tlree towns estimated to contain over 100,000- 
inhabitants, and about a dozen which exceed 30,000. 

Again we make an upward stride when we move into the 
rank of the lower civilisation. I reckon, in a somewhat 
arbitrary way perhaps, some twenty-three states upon this 
level. Most of them have been, during the last half-century, 
absorbed into the empires of the European Powers : but taking 
the estimates about the time of the annexation of each, they 
seem to have averaged about 4,000,000. They had towns 
running up to 250,000 inhabitants, at least so the estimates 
stood for two of them, and eight others were supposed to have 
over 100,000 each. 

In the middle civilised, such states as Siam, Burmah, 
Persia, Afghanistan, and so on, there appears a degree of 
social cohesion sufficient to unite populations never less than 
4,000,000 in number, and reaching a maximum of 10,000,000, 
with an average of 5,000,000 or 6,000,000. They liave cities 
such as Bangkok which approach a population of 500,000, 
while others range between 100,000 and 200,000. The 
higher civilised races aggregate for thirty independent states 
about 720,000,000 persons, or an average of 24,000,000 to 



II ji;reater <lejfreo 
•, with 8,500,000 

men, but a single 
a capital nuniber- 
i form states that 
,000 people. In 

twenty different 
ivera^red 400,000 
timated to have 
nsula they rantje 
)0,000 people are 
imong the Tatar 

khan may have 

others have not 
!, however, about. 
le for what they 
one independent. 
) persons. They 
lin over 100,000 


ve move into the 

in a somewhat 
states upon this 
ast half-century, 
vers ; but taking 
on of each, they 
riiey had towns 
so the estimates 
iupposed to have 

Siam, Burmah, 
ars a degree of 
; never less than 
in of 10,000,000, 
They have cities 
tion of 500,000, 
200,000. The 
dependent states 
if 24,000,000 to 



1. 1 

«ach. They have four cities of 1,000,000 inhabitants, and 
fourteen estimated to contain at least 500,000. It is im- 
possible to realise all the play of co-operative exertion, the 
mutual forbearance, the interdependence of each upon all the 
others that are implied in the residence of 1,000,000 people 
within one closely packed area. 

China, and also India, as it was under the Mogul em- 
perors, rank as the most populous empires that the world has 
ever seen, and if mere numbers could alone determine the 
degree of social combination, they would represent the highest 
achievement which mankind has yet attained in this regard. 
But they have never exhibited the consolidation which marks 
the great empires of the cultured races. These number four- 
teen, and possess, according to the Statesman a Year Book, a 
total population of 420,000,000, which gives to each an aver- 
age of 30,000 000. Their cities present incomparably the most 
wonderful social life that the world has ever witnessed. 
London with nearly 6,000,000, Paris and New York 
with 2,500,000 each, their orderly populations living in a 
harmony from which internal warfare is utterly absent ; 
all working into each other's hanils : all fed, clothed, educated, 
amused, and provided with a thousand comforts and con- 
veniences by the easy play of co-operative forces ; these are 
as yet the triumphs of social sympathie.s. In these races of the 
lower culture no than 30,000,000 people dwell in cities of 
over 250,000 each, there being fifty-three such cities which 
average 023,000 inhabitants apiece. 

The centuries that are coming are sure to witness a.ssocia- 
tions to which these will seem but small concerns, for still the 
empires grow, and still do the instincts of people lead them to 
mass themselves in ever larger cities, thereby to reap in the 
fullest measure all those advantages of social sympathy 
which arise when man dwells beside man to comfort and be 

The examination thus slightly sketched out has, in its 
classification, the defect of some arbitrariness, and in its 
numbers the drawback in many cases of mere estimates, 
wliere we might wish statistics, but accuracy is of small im- 
portance to this part of our inL|uiry, and it is abundantly 

1 1 





i , 



certain that as man profi^resses, so do Ins social instincts- 
triunipli. At what rate the pro<(ress advances may be seen, 
in this little recapitulatory table. 

Lower Savages, 


of 8 

races, 40. 

Middle Savages, 



Higher Savages, 



Lower Barbarians, 



towns up 

to 1000. 

Jliddlc Barbarians, 




Higlier Bari)arians, 




Lower Civilised, 




Middle Civilised, 




Higlier Civilised, 




Lower Cultured, 




Herein we may compendiously see how steadily men liave- 
availed themselves of the advantag-es of combination in pro- 
portion as the advance of social sympathies has rendered 
combination a physical possibility. For all such capacity is. 
a growth. It would be utterly impossil^le to teach 1000 
Fuegians or Australian aborigines to dwell together har- 
moniously in one town ; it would have been utterly impos- 
sible to have formed a solid and permanent army out of 
100,000 Highland clansmen. It was found utterly impossible, 
in any of the forty-five socialistic connnunities of America, 
chronicled by J. H. Noyes, for an average of 198 persons to 
live in the same dwelling or on the same farm, enjoying a 
perfect connnunity of possessions, and forming one single 
enlarged family. Though the members came together with 
boundless enthusiasm, the communities lasted on an averai-'e 
a little less than three years. They had greatly over-esti- 
mated even the nineteenth-century capacity for social sympathy 
possessed even by cultivated men and women, and had 
forced themselves into an intimacy of union wliich will be 
possible, if ever, only in centuries to come, when the average 
human temper shall be much more developed and sweetened. 

Social Sympathy Begins by being Deep but Narrow. 

In all cases social sympathy is a growth, and men will 
instinctively take advantage of its benefits up to the full 
measure of the faculty which they possess. If they are slowly 



i.s social instincts 
ances may be seen 

owns up to 1000. 







steadily men Lave- 
jmbination in pro- 
hies lias rendered 
II sucli capacity is. 
le to teach 1000 
'ell together har- 
den utterly impos- 
lent army out of 
utterly impossible, 
nities of America, 
of 198 persons ta 
farm, enjoy in^^ a 
rniins'- one shiirle 
ime together with 
.ed on ail average 
greatly over-esti- 
or social sympathy 
women, and had 
ion which will be 
when the average 
d and sweetened. 

:p hut Narrow. 

'th, and men will 
its up to the full 
If they are slowly 





and silently <li-awn together by mutual attraction, they form 
a solid and permanent mass; but no sort of external compul- 
sion nor any artificial contrivance will hasten the proces,s. 
The growth is one that is never ceasing, yet never seen : a 
year or twenty years, as they roll by, leave no appreciable 
change, yet the centuries mark tlie silent progress that lias 
been made. And this progress is due to the one persistent 
fact that tlie elimination of the unsympathetic of each 
generation leaves the next one on the average more sympa- 
thetic. If we did nothing but hang or incarcerate all the 
murderers in our midst, the uniformity of the action, though 
tediously slow, would yet be surely felt. The process, how- 
ever, is far more decided than this. Not only is the careless 
father, the unkind husband, less represented in the succeed- 
ing generation than his more sympathetic fellow, but the 
very (piarrelsome man, the utterly selfish citizen, is knocked 
on the head, or outlawed, or imprisoned, or otherwise elbowed 
out of the throng of men who find it pleasant to dwell 
together in unity, and who, in ways often imperceptible to 
themselves, contrive to jostle out the atom that jars with the 

I now purpose to examine in moderate detail the stages 
by which this process has advanced. And at the outset^ it 
will be necessary to observe the sharp contrast which exists 
between two different directions of progress, wl^.ereby, on the 
le hand, the social sympathies have deepened, and on the other 
hand have widened. The two processes advance by steps 
which are in large measure independent, and the former is 
always the earlier. Sympathy must deepen before it can 
widen. The ordinary savage feels much devotion towards 
those within his tribe, but he spears or brains the outsider 
without compunction. The Scotsman feels his heart warm at 
the hand-grip and at the Doric accent of a 1)rother Scot, when 
he is inditlerent to Frenchman and Italian. Sir John Hawkins 
was a man so tender-hearted that he spent his fortune in 
founding a hospital for decayed sailors at Chatham, yet that 
fortune was actpiired by his skill in originating the English 
traffic in negro slaves. His heart could be full of compassion 
for a kindly Englishman, especially if he were a sailor, but 


1,1 1 


I 'I 






liis sympatliotic i'eeliii^f.s couM not cross the boundury of 
colour; iuul a trade, in which 300,000 iicj^rooH woro chirinj;' his 
lifetime torn from their homes and carried amid scenes of 
dark atrocity to be sold as cattle in far lands, had in it no 
sui,'<,a'stion of cruelty, merely because the men wex-e so widely 

In the simplest and most natural form, social sympathy 
is dependent on daily intercourse ; we grow to like those with 
whom we live, and a savage horde of Kfty people, consisting 
of persons who have grown up in close association through all 
the length of their lives, will most naturally be knit together 
by strong bonds of internal attachment. But to the neighbour- 
ing horde they liave no friendly feeling, for all savages suffer 
severely at times from famine, ami though the individuals 
within the little tribe may have learuu to share with each 
other, and though the play of family and social afi'ection may 
forbid as a rule that one should starve wliile others have 
enough, it is not so between tribe and tribe. What one takes 
the other loses, and each must either learn to assert its claim 
or go without. Every spot where game is more than usually 
abundant becomes a cause of contention, every valley wherein 
edible roots are easily gathered, every stream that is well 
stocked with tish, helps to engender bad feeling ; and if one 
tribe should kill a man of the other, the very strength of the 
social feeling will set the injured connnunity athirsting for 
revenge, retaliation being, as we shall see (chaps, xx. to xxiii.), 
a necessary fundamental feature in every man. But without 
fui'ther elaboration, it is easy to understand how tribe must 
jostle tribe, and how along with powerful sympathies to those 
within the tribe, there are sure to go hatred and hostility to 
those without. And even when the social feelings have so 
far triumphed as to bind some millions of people together in 
one great nation, the same contrast is to be observed: German 
loves German witli a patriotic fervour, and Frenchman cherishes 
for Fx-enchman a deep devotion ; yet in each nation men are 
filled with the notion that the others are aliens, seeking to do 
them harm wherever harm is possible, and therefore to be 
watched and suspected. 

Hence arises that type which for so long has filled the 


tho l)()ini(lary of 
H wore diirinj;' his 
1 aiuiil HcoiioH of 
tids, had in it no 
n were so widely 

social Hynipathy 
.o like those with 
people, consisting- 
ation through all 

be knit to(;ether 
to the neij^h hour- 
all savat^es sutt'er 

the individuals 
share with each 
;ial art'ection may 
hile others have 

What one takes 

assert its claim 
lore than usually 
y valley wherein 
!am that is well 
ilinir ; and if one 
^ strength of the 
by athirstinj; for 
ipa. XX. to xxiii.), 
m. But without 

1 how tribe must 
npathies to those 
I and hostility to 
feelings have so 
eople together in 
Dserved : German 
ichman cherishes 
1 nation men are 
ns, seeking to do 

therefore to be 

ig has filled the 



309 ol men ns tin, manly i<leal : the hero, gentle to all with- 
m the c.mmunity, and Herce to all without; the man who is 
true to his kni.hrd, loyal to his country, but deadly t.. the 
U-e.gner. We shall fail utterly to understand the stran^^e 
leatures ot the development of social syn.pathy unless we 
perceive how the necessities of the case have thrust these two 
apparently nicon.patible qualities i„to juxtaposition • how 
the perlect knight should be gentleness itself to all within 
un.l ferocity personified to all without. But such have been 
the needs of the struggle for existence, a race survivin.- 
only It It could hold well together within itself, yet fi-dft 
with relentless destructiveness against competitive races wfth- 

In " Cymbeline " we have one of hundreds of passa.^es in 
winch the poets have enforced this strange blending of opposite 
(juahties, as the highest type of character :— 

Oil tlinu goddoss, 

Thou divine Xaturo, lunv thyself tlinii blazonost 
In those two prineely hoys. Tiiey are as soiitio 
As zephyrs, blowing below the violet 
Not wagging his sweet head. And yet as rough. 
Their royal blood enehafed, as the "rndost wind' 
That by the top doth take tho mountain pine 
And make him stoop to the vale. 

Starting then from this fundamental fact that those 
within the tribe are friends, those without it presumably 
enemies, we have to trace two processes. In the first, the 
friendliness and devotion within the tribe grow stronger and 
deeper; in the second, the area over which a man can^extend 
firstly his toleration, then his friendliness, and lastly his feel- 
ing of brotherhood, expands in the measure already seen in 
our numerical comparison. In the remainder of this chapter 
I shall deal as fully as my limits will permit with the former 
process, but only partly with the latter, leaving to the next 
chapter the story of the widening of human sympathy beyond 
the bounds of tribe, of race, of language, of faith, and of 
colour. In this chapter, then, I shall indicate how within the 
tribe kindness grows prevalent, humanity increases, an.l 
patriotism develops; how, as the tribe widens into the nation 

VOL. 'I. 24 


■If I 




Ft'('Hii<,'H of loyalty <,'iither a UHnful iutt'iisity, and how the 
capacity for obedience increnHCH so as to euiphaHiHe the jfeneral 
harmony. Kut as tliese can be l)ut sketclics, I shall sub- 
siMpiently choose a sinjrje line of in(|niry to be follv)\ve(l in 
more detail, and by examinin;^ tlie treatment of the sick and 
feeble in each ^n'ade of proj^'resH, it will be easily possible to 
show how steady and marked has been the <,a-(jwth of a 
j^eneral feeling of humanity. 

Social Sympathy in Savages. 

Amont:^ the lower sava<;es we lind in all its simplicity 
the condition already described, the tribe of fifty persons 
bein^f solidified by stron^f affections amono' themselves, and 
also by the pressure of a deep hatred for all without, a hatred 
most cordially reciprocated. Livin^rstone relates the chuck- 
liny satisfaction with which the Bushmen would recount 
the number they had killed of men, Avomen, and children, 
belonging to other tribes (Miss. Tnurls, p. 159), but they 
never learnt the deep blackness of hostility which led to 
carniibalism. Earl tells us that amoiii; the Neirritos of the 
Philippines, whenever a man dies, his relations must go off 
and take the life of some man in a neighbouring tribe. (Iidces 
of ImUioi Archipelatjo, p. 125.) In varying measures the samo 
is true, or at 'oast is known once to have been true, of all 
these lowest races of mankind, and yet we have seen, at the 
close of tlie last chapter, that they live in great harmony and 
good-will among themselves. The Bushmen, according to 
Burchell, are capable of a most impulsive and afiectionate 
generosity. The Veddahs are quiet and gentle in their tribal 
life, and the Andamaners, though " noted for their audacity 
and implacable hostilitj' to all strangers " (Snow, Etiin. Sue, 
ii., 35), are praised by every observer as being "gentle and 
amiable in their intercourse with one another ". {lioyal Geo. 
Soc, 1862 p. 121.) 

In the case of none of these lower savages does can- 
nibalism occur. Strange to say, that is not a feature of 
mankind in its very earliest stage. . Enmity requires' to. 



ty, and Iidw tlio the jft'iifral 
lies, I shall suh- 
) ])(' I'ol lowed in 
t of tho .sick ami 
•asily p()ssil)l(' to 
he i^rowth oi a 

ill its HinipHcity 
of tift}' pei'sons 
themsL'lvfs, ami 
ivithout, a hatred 
ilatos the chuek- 
1 would recount 
ni, and children, 
, 159), but they 
ty which led to 
Nej,a'itos of the 
ions must ^o oft* 
h\^ tribe. (Ji'iias 
easures the same 
been true, of all 
lave seen, at the 
iat harmony and 
;;n, according to 
and afi'ectionate 
tie in their tribal 
»r their audacity 
Snow, Ethn. Sue, 
sing " gentle and 
iv". {lioi/al Geo. 

ivages does can- 
lot a feature of 
iiity requires' to. 



• l.vpen an.l blaek..n .-re a p.-ople can s.. far oon.iuer the useful 
n.stinct display...! by all th.' higher n.ammals of aver- 
Hion to the Hesh of their own species. But it is to be 
reniembere.l that, whil.. progress kin.lles wai-ni.'r tires of 
affection witlnn, it in earlier times a fiercer Hre of 
enmity Han- up against all without, .so that cannibalism an.l 
hea.l hunting are characteristics of a certain .le(.,ve of 
a.lvancement: they begin at the siage of the mi.1,11.. savage ; 
reach th.'ir culmination among the lower an.l mi.l.ll.. bar- 
barians, an.l thenceforward stea.lily die out. 

Cannibalism, as a .sy.stematic practice, is the result of 
.savage warfare an.l revenge. Sometimes near the lowest 
lev.'l of mankin.l it occurs, not as a practice but as a last 
re.source ami.l the int(.lerable gnawings of continue.l famine. 
1 bus Fitzroy relates how in such circumstances the Fue-ians 
suddenly kill the ol.l w.mien of their party with a blowlrom 
behmd, an.l eat their b<j.lies (vi., 188). But Snow expressly 
tells us {mno. .SW-., i., 2(54) that they are cannibals, not from 
choice, but only as a dire necessity. ])a)-win, however, sugg.-sts 
that, even at this level, revenge plays some part in^ the 
practice, for he says " the .liti'.Tent tril)es when at war are 
cannibals". In regard to the naked savages of the Brazilian 
forests. Bates {N„tumlist on Atnuzons, p. 882) mentions two 
tribes, and Wallace {Travels on Amazon, pp. 847, 853, 859) 
three others, who eat the bodies of the slain if there be any 
pressure of hunwr. 

In the great majority, however, of the mid.lle savages no 
large part of the of an enemy is eaten, but only some 
portion of it which may express the hate an.l 
of the coiupieror. Among the Australians, only the ki.lney 
fat, as a rule, was used in this way. The tribes of Queens- 
laii.l seem occasionally to have approached to .somethin-^ in 
the way of a cannibal repast, but neither in Tasmania no"r in 
Australia was it customary to devour a I find 
no charge of cannibalism brought against either Hottentot or 
Ainu, ,so that we are justifie.l in looking upon it as a practice 
only .lawning at this stage of advancement. 

Nor does it become a feature of ordinary life even amono- 
the higher savages. It occurs, but by no means commonly" 



372 TH].: OUIGIX and growth OV THK moral IXSTIN'CT. 

a.nono- the Xorth American In.lians, with whom, as School- 
craH exphtms m the case of the Con.a,.clie.s (i., 285), tlie eating, 
ol apart o the flesh of a .lea.l enemy ^' was a n.etaphysical 
passion rather tlmu a brutal appetite". Bancroft !leclares 
that the rnmeh, one of the chief tribes of Canada, in times 
ot ternl,le starvation use.l to drift into cannibalism, and he 
considers the natives of the Darien peninsula to have been 
more or less addicted to the practice: certainly, when Colum- 
bus firs visited the Carib population, they seem to have been 
decidedly cannibal in some of their practices. 

_ When therefore the Mar.piis de x\adaillac gathers the 
evidence that the neolithic inhabitants of Europe were can- 
nibals (M.mers and Moiuunent. of JWkistonr Proph, Emdish 
trans., jx .51), and Vogt asserts this custom amono- the earliest 
known races of Belgium {L,ctuns on Man, p. 846), they are 
not thereby provin<. these people to have been on the lowest 
grade, which is either not at all cannibalistic or only so to a 
.slight and occasional extent. 8o far as I can discover, the 
habitual practice ot cannibalism occurs in only seven o^t of 
torty-six savage races, and in none of these is it ever 
extensive. No savage race will of its own free choice feast 
upon a human tedy: that revoltin-.- indulo-ence of ferocious 
liate belonys to the two gra.les next above the savao-e 

But savages, even thouo-h little addicted to cannibalism, 
have heir own development of ferocious hatred for those out- 
•side the bounds of the community. The North American 
Indian, however peaceful and loyal within his tribe, thirsts 
tor he scalps of all that are without, ami his noblest orna- 
men is a long fringe of human hair attached to his person or 
1- dwelling. No young Sioux warrior was likely \o «nd I 
gu-1 who would many him, till he had scalped a man; over 
his grave would be recorded as the height of his glory the 
n^umber of men of women, and even children, whoin he had 
shnn outside of the tribe. This is true of the savage where- 
soever he is found. The Nagas among the hills of Xssam, the 

r r 1.^r''"';?a "^' "^^^^^ tribes of Formosa {Ro^j. 
^.. ^..., 1889, p. 229) are expected to bring in the gory head 
o at least one stranger before it is worth their while to think 

of man 

laire. N 

O (I' 

ii-1 would look at a youth who had 



1 wlioiii, as School- 
1 (i., 2;i5), tho eatiiio- 
■vas a iiietapliysical 
Bancroft declares 
if Canada, in times 
iinnibalism, and ho 
isiila to Jiave been 
linly, wlien Coluni- 
soeni to have been 

laillac ^'athers the 
Europe were can- 
n-ir Pfopic, Eno'lish 
wmn^ the earliest 
p. 840), they are 
)een on the lowest 
tic or only so to a 
can discover, the 
only seven out of 
these is it ever 
1 free choice feast 
H'once of ferocious 
ilie savage, 
id to cannibalism, 
tred for tliose out- 
Nortli American 
his tribe, thirsts 
his noblest orna- 
d to his person or 
18 likely to find a 
ped a man; over 
' of his y'lory the 
en, whom he had 
he sava^'e Avhere- 
lills of Assam, tlie 
of Formosa {luii/. 
in the goiy head 
3ir while to think 
ith who had not 



beo-nn lus career of slau^ditor. In Australia, the most ^dorious 
moment of a man's life was when he slit open an enen.v's side 
and teanngoutthe fat in which the kidneys are en.bedded,' 
ate a mouthful and smeared his body with the rest 

In India, we know how the a])ori.-inal races on 'the savage 
level tlnrsted for blood. Sir Joseph Hooker quotes Maj^r 
Sleeman {Hnnalnj,a JnurnaJs, I, GO) to the ertect that "an 
annual y returning tide of murder swept unsparino-ly over the 
whole face of India," but we are tohl that each of the savac^es 
abstained from killing ■' i„ the immediate neighbourhood of his 
own vdlage . H,s innate ferocity was direct olelv ao-aii. A 
the strange One of these "Thugs," caught by the British, had 
a record of 931 murders ; and out of a tribe numbering about 
twenty men the least successful had taken twenty-foui lives 
Among savages all this ferocity will, up to a certain point 
luiye Its a.lvantages. If the stern alternative is to slay or be 
.shun, to starve or appropriate, then the active, bloodthirsty .ace 
wdl clear away the gentler and more apathetic, thereby secur- 
ing more room for itself. But the matter is easily ov'erdone • 
a restlessly aggressive an.l nuu'derous race may draw upon itself 
■so pecuhar a detestation, that in the general enmity it may 
be crushed out of existence. An.l this i.s the more likely to 
be the case if ,ts neighbours are in advance of it in civilisa- 
tion, so as to be better armed and combined in lar-er num 
bers For instance, the Negritos of the Philippines Tre dyin<. 
out because of their hea.Miunting customs. " The in-actice'^' 
as Earl says, "leads to their being abhorre.l by all the sur- 
roundnig races, and will end in their extermination" In 
\ ictona the Government spent £(30,000 a year on the natives 
or at the rate of £10 a head, and had live zealous protectors 
o conserve their rights ; yet, when tribal bounds were disturbe.l 
by the advent of the white men, mutual feuds amon.r the 
tribes largely assisted in annihilating the race 

In one tribe alone of Lilian Thugs the British authorities 
l.anged 200 men out of (!00, and all the rest except seventy were 
transported. There is fairly good reason for believing that if 
the Indians of North America had thirsted less for se.Ip^- 
they might now have been a tolerably numerous an.l well- 
■settled race. 



^'1 I !i 



i > 



But all tliis o-rowtli ol" forocity is in tlie main reserved for 
the outsiiler. Within the counnunity tiiere is the steady de- 
velopment of affection and harmony, Lewis and Clarke, 
speakiny of Indian tribes who in 1804 beheld them as tlie 
first white men they liad ever heard of, tell us (p. 40) that 
the " IndiaiiM are very <;enerous and liospitable. So readily 
do tliey n-ive and take amon<,f themselves that there is almost 
a community of jroods." L. H. IMoroan speaks of their " un- 
bounded hospitality," and Schoolcraft (ii., 64) declares that 
" the character of the Indian in domestic life is forbearin<''. 
not easdy vexed, but almost habitually passive". Ayain (ii., 
74) he tells us that " the most perfect sincerity and cheerful- 
ness prevail, and their intercourse is marked with the 
broadest pi-inciples of charity and neighbourly feelinj^- ". 

Of tlie Eskimo, Xansen says {Grecnlitnd, pp. 170, 172) : 
" There is a frank and homely f,^eniality in all their actions 
which is very wiiniin<>- and can only make the stranger feel 
thorouo-hly comfortable in their society. In our tent the best 
of understandings seemed to prevail among the many occu- 
pants." Musters, after living a ^^ear as a semi-naked denizen 
of Patagoin'an tents, deprecates the contemptuous terms so 
freely bestowed upon savages. He found them " kindly, 
good-tempei-ed, impulsive children of nature, taking great 
likes and dislikes, becoming firm friends or ecpially confirmed 
enemies. In my dealings with them I always was treated 
with fairness and consideration." 

Similar testimony is given by Bates and Wallace as to the 
general good-nature of daily life in a Brazilian tribe. In 
Wat.son and Kaye's elaborate account of the peoples of India, 
race after race, ferocity to all outside their own has 
been notorious, is described as "mild and gentle among them- 
selves," and we are told that " great kindi /iss prevails ". 

That this kindness is something more than a mere animal 
good-humour, yet that it has its limits, is clearly seen ni con- 
sidering the treatment of the sick and feeble among savages. 
Up to a certain point they are always well cared for ; but the 
patience of a wandering tril)e in course of time always be- 
comes exliaustod. The Bushmen, when an old person has for 
a while been a burden, abandon him in some convenient spot 


; main reserved for 
■e is the steady de- 
jcwis and Clarke, 
eheld them as the 
;ell us (p. 40) that 
tahle. So rea(Hly 
hat there is ahnost 
tiaks of their " un- 
64) declares that 
life is foi'hoarin^', 
fsive ". Ajrain (ii., 
n-ity and cheerful- 
marked with the 
nu'ly feeling- ". 
id, pp. 170, 172) : 
1 all their actions 
3 the strauf^er feel 
1 our tent the hest 
ig the many occu- 
emi-naked denizen 
inptuons terms so 
id them " kindl}-, 
ure, takinj;- j>'reat 
equally confirmed 
ways was treated 

Wallace as to the 
razilian tribe. In 
i peoples of India, 
ide tlieir own has 
;ntle amon<^' theni- 
iss prevails ". 
!ian a mere animal 
learly seen m con- 
le amon^ savaijes. 
sai-ed for ; but the 

time always he- 
old person has fur 
le convenient spot 



witii a little food and some water (Kolben, Cap<' of Good 
Hope, p. 321), and Lichtenstein coirohorates the statement : 
"As soon as they perceive a sick man near his end, he is 
carrie<l to some solitary spot, a tire is made and a vessel of 
water is set near him ". {Travels in South Africa in 1808 
i., 258.) 

The Australians, thou<,di they "show a <,a-eat amount 
of sympathy with sick people" {Nat. Tribes of S. A., 
p. 225), o-enerally put the aj.-ed to death. The practice is 
described by Dawson, Smythe, Curr and other recoo-nised 
authorities. Dawson asserts tliat the insane are killed, and 
Curr describes as a typical case tlie fate of an old wdman 
T whom he knew. She was still ha]ij.-ino- about the tribe 

I I' when reduced l)y a<.>e to be little better than a skeleton, 

imbecile in mind, hideous in person. She was allowed to 
follow the rest, it is true, but met with scant assistance. She 
on the otlier hand was patient and uncomplainin<r, with an 
interest in tlie children and a civil word for all." At lem-th 
she became too feeble to walk, and her <>-roans at nif>'ht be- 
came distressinf*- : so the tribe built a pile of dry wood, laid 
her on it, an<l set fire to it. They went upon their march, 
and shortly afterwards the white man found the half-charred 
])0(ly still lying- on the embers. When he next met the tribe, 
they made no concealment of the fact that she had l)een 
burnt alive. It was the custom of her race, and her groans 
had frightened theni. 

Kolben tells us that among the Hottentots (i., 319) a 
special hut is built for the abandoiunent of the aged, but no 
son is allowed to build one or leave liis father in it till he has 
obtained the consent of the tribe, which, however, is rarely 
refused. The Damaras are, of all the negroes, the race most 
truly on the savage level, and Galton describes their great 
want of compassion for the sick. When diseased or old, a man 
is pushed out of the camp, and left to die of cold, or by the 
Jaws of wild beasts. " They kill their useless or worn-out 
people ; even sons smother their sick fathers," and he 
describes an atrocious incident of which lie knew. (South 
Afi'iea^ chap, iv.) 

I have found express testimony to th. -e loveless habits in 


in I: 






twtMity-cin^ht (liffciviit rams of savii^ros, and for 01113' «nc liavo 
I found tlu( practice (letiiud. Anioii^^ the Xortli Anu-rican 
Indians it was everywhere customary. Lewis and Clarke 
describe it niiimtely ainon^r the Chippeways, and a well- 
known passage of Catlin makes us vividly realise it aiiioii<r 
the Sioux. There, he says, it is so well understood that the 
a(,aMl themselves insist souietimes on beinjr abandoned, saying- 
" they are old and of no furthei- use ; they left their fathers 
in the same manner, they wish to die and their children must 
not mourn ". Catlin gives a picture of a case he knew : a 
chief once considerable in his tribe, reduced by aj,a' and 
disease to merely skin an.l bones, left lyino- the Hicker- 
in^r embers, with his dish of water and small store of food 
beside him. A few months lafjr Catlin passed that way, and 
saw the poles and the buttalo skin, the half-l)urnt firebrands 
and the skull beside the wolf-gnawed bones. 

The Eskimo had the same practice. Hartwig (Pnl((r 
Worhl p. :r,U) and Hall (i., lO.S) describe the pathetic sight 
of a female skeleton lying as the sick woman hail been left, 
three years before, her lamp by her side, and her little pro- 
perties gathered around her. And yet wi^ see from School- 
craft (iv., ()7 and 5(5, also v., 17!)) that the North American 
races were capable of much tenderness in their nursing of 
the sick. So also the people of Kamschatka can be very 
kind, but they abaiulon the feeble and the aged. (Spencer, 
JJ<'S(: i>ocioL) Likewise do some at least of the Siberian tribes^ 
while it is well known that the Guiana and Columbian tril)e.s 
of South America used to sling the sick in a hammock, leav- 
ing them with a for.r days' supply of food to die in the 

The savage, therefore, has his virtues and he has his vices. 
He has a considerable amount of that social sympathy which 
is essential to the cohesiveness of successful human life : but 
his kindness even within his own tribe has its limits, while 
his habitual attitude towards all that is witiiout tlie tribe is 
detiance and ferocity. But the feature which most clearly 
indicates how slow is the development of the higher class of 
social capacities among savages is their want of any settled 
system of government. Li tlie lower savages, the tribe is 


>iuri ixsrixcT, 

for only oiu^ liavo 
Xorth AiiU'ricjui 
ewis iviiil Clark t! 
iiy.s, and a woll- 
ri'alise it aiiion^ 
lorstood that tlio 
baiidouc'il, sayiiin- 
left their fathers 
loir children must 
case he knew : a 
ced by aj^e and 
X'side tlie Hicker- 
all store of food 
ed that way, and 
-burnt firebrands 

Hartwin- {P(,f,(r 
le pathetic sio-ht 
m had Ijeen left, 
id her little pro- 
see fi-om School - 
North American 
their nursinu' of 
tka can be \eiy 
ai;'ed. (Spencer, 
e Siberian tribes, 
.Columbian tribes 

hannuock, leav- 
l to die in the 

he has his vices, 
synipatliy which 
lunaan life : Ijut 
its limits, wliile 
hout tlie tribe is 
ch most clearly 
higher class of 
t of any settled 
S>'es, the tribe is 





1 mal 

istMl as is the ti-oop of ap. 
IIS by his stn^n^^th 

(i mil 

)es or monkeys : the sti'(jn;;est 

a certain ascendency which he 
M.aintanis so louf. as his bodily vi^r<,„,- that of anv 
other male. In the mi.ldie sava-es there are still no chiefs in 
tlie proper sense of the te.-n.. All the w.-it,.rs, now re-a.-ded 
us authorities with re-ard to the Tasn.anian and Ausr..ilian 
races, caution us a-ainst the mistakes into which th.- early 
voya-ers we.-., betrayed by their antecedent n.,tions. There 
IS no cluet, althou^di one or mon, in.lividuals ^.enerally pos- 
sess a certain ascendency. H half a dozen of <,m-seives were 
Koii.f; oH for a walkin^r trip the {greater experience or a'tivity 
or self-assertion of some one would ^dve bin. insensioly a sort 
o| lea<lerslnp, but that would be a very dirt'erent thinj;- from 
Ins beino- constituted the ruler of the party with a coercive 
iiutho,-.ty. So u, an Aust.-alian camp, no one is boun.l to 
olH-y any other further than he pleases, but there are alwavs 
H lew who naturally take the lead, an.l son.etimes one umn 
may so overtop the others in the deference willinoly yi,|de,l 
to Inm, as to become in a mild way a kind of dictator. "" A W 
Hovvitt says that such a position is not infre-piently hel.l by a 
mere bully, but very nmch more often it is ^.-adually won by 
some elderly man whose bravery an.l wis.L.m happen to be 
con.b;ne.l with a kin.ll^- way an.l a considerateness which 
wins affection. For the man who can ^-ather half a .lox..n 
<levo ed followers is stron^-er than the most powrfnl nuui 
who has to rely on his own ri^-ht ban. I al.jne. 

Th.! P^ue^dans are .lescribed as beino- on a f.,otin- of 
i^quahty amono- -hemselves, except in re^rar.l to th.. .l.-ferenc.. 
which all are willin|;- to pay to the one who naturally -rows 
into the position of lea.ler ; an.l though the early travellers 
spoke of chiefs among the Hottentots, we now know that 
these were men of only a very limite.l auth.n-itx-. So also 
amonj,- the forest tribes of Brazil, as Wallace relates, though 
tliey iiave chiefs power is hereditary in tlie male line 
yet the cont-ol of tliese is very slen.ler, being contine.l to 
certain .lehnite splieres hi which it is convenient to have one 
to act as spokesman or manager on behalf of all. This ab- 
sence of recognised government is characteristic of a low 
legree of social coliesiveness. 


. m 



11 ■ 









In tlio hiy-l„M- sava<j:t>.s we approacli neai-or to tlie ordinary 
idea of a chief, thouo-li still tlie true feeliny of tiie coiniuunity 
is rejiuljlican, tlie leader havin^^ no personal claim upon the 
obedience, much less upon the loyal devotion, of any other 
member of the tribe. Schoolcraft describes the government 
of tlie Xorth American Indians as residin<r in the council of 
Avarriors : an elderly man, whose courage and exploits have 
given him a standing in the tribe, is certain, if he have wis- 
dom and elofpience as well, to secure an ascendant place in 
the council : he liecomes, therefore, a chief, but he is " the 
mere exponent of public opinion," and so long as opinion is 
unanimous he is strong. But if he comes into contact with 
the general opinion his power is gone. If the son of a great 
chief is himself a man of more than average powers, his 
father's greatness forms one of the circumstances that may 
bring him into notice, and if other things are fairly e(iual, he 
is more likely than any one else on his father's death' to 
.succeed to the vacant position of intiuence. Thus there is a 
certain tendency for the chieftainship to become hereditary : 
but 111 no case does it truly assume that form. Any young 
warrioi- who <lisplays a character without doubt more capable 
than that of the chief will insensibly work up into the top- 
most place.^ His counsels will be the most eagerly heard, his 
footsteps Avill be followed more and more completely till' the 
hereditary chief drops back into the ranks and the new man 
has all the ascendency. As President Burnet pithily puts it 
(Schoolcraft, i., 281) : " The authority of their chief is rather 
nominal than positive : more advisory than compulsory: and 
it relies more upon personal influence than the investment of 

This description applies to all the races of South America 
that are upon the same level. Among Araucanians, Pata- 
gonians, and Abipones each man naturally falls into line 
behind the boldest and astutest spirit, otherwise there is no 
government. Galton gives the same account of the Daniaras. 
So also the hill tribes of India, e.jually with the Tatar races 
of Siberia that are of this grade, all are wanting in that sense of 
personal devotion which lends so great, even though so artificial, 
an aid to the massing of barbarians in great communities. 

'I ; i 


I'or to the ordinary 
of the coiuiimiiity 
lal claim upon tlie 
;ion, of any otlier 
s the government 
'j; in the council of 
and exploits have 
1, if he have wi.s- 
scendant place in 
)f, but lie is " the 
long as opinion is 
into contact with 
he son of a great 
erage powers, his 
[stances that may 
re fairly e(]ual, he 
father's death to 
Thus there is a 
3come hereditary : 
)nn. Any young 
)uht more capable 
k up into the top- 
eagerly heard, his 
completely till the 
and the new man 
et pithily puts it 
eir chief is rather 
compulsory: and 
the investment of 

•f South America 
raucanians, Pata- 
y falls into line 
Jrwise thei-e is no 
t of the Damaras. 
ii the Tatar races 
ig in that sense of 
longh so artificial, 


Social Sympathy amono Baurahians. 

The central feature which marks tlie transition from 
savage to barbarian life is the settle.l al)o.le, along with 
which, and essential to it, is the practice of cultivation^ This 
leads to the system of slavery, which, though found in a 
hnuted degree in the higher savages, is in general not charac- 
teristic of savage life. For, when a slave has to be fe<l by 
the huntsman skill of his master, he is a burden rather than a 
help, and amid roving habits it is difhcult to see how there 
can be enough of drudgery to make it convenient to feed him. 
But when the barbarian is settled in a fixed hal)itation, with 
his ground to be tilled round about it, a slave to do the 
lal)orious work will not only feed himself but help to feed the 
family. Prisoners are now not generally slain but enslaved, 
and out^ of this condition there arise the first gradations of" 
rank. The slaves are a despised part of the population, and 
yet the freed .slave, or the children of a slave woman by a 
freeman, may have a status a little better than that of a skive, 
though inferior to that of a man born without taint of ser- 

But at the other end, also, gradations of rank become 
apparent. For on the barbarian level, there is a strong ten- 
dency for communities to swell to consideral)le size. "" The 
pressure of food limitations is for a time removed so as to 
permit the tribe to multiply ; and a tribe which, as wander- 
ing savages, could barely secure sustenance for a few hundred 
members, may, by the cultivation of a fertile area, find its 
food so much increased that its natural pcnver of multiplica- 
tion will cause it to expand to as many thousamls. In the 
savage state, so large a population must either have scattered 
out in search of game, o: , if the land were already occupie.l, must 
have been starved ilown to the carrying limits of their own ilis- 
trict. But cultivation permits of increase within the limits of 
one community, and that community has every inducement 
to cling together. For it now hoids property ; its fielils and 
fences and its permanent houses have to be defended from 
the inroads of its neighbours, and in no way can it sit so 


f- ': 

I ' 




secure as by the co.i.soli.lation of its uxunhcvs rouiul tl.e vilhu^e. 
find its crops. ^ 

All this inevitably calls for fixity of ^rovernn.ent. When 
100 warnors only are fif,.htin.-, there is nee.le.l no .-reat. 
generals up. They concert their action anion,, thenisdxes. 
i^ut 1000 warriors in tlie ti.1.1 are inefficient if the 
same .coree of indivi(h,al independence continues. The 
s rcn^rth of the force will now be manifestly bound up witli 
the skill an.l warlike f,.enius of its captain : and the larger the 
niunber, the less will each man rely on his own indivhlual val- 
our: the more will lie feel himself but a small fraction of a frreat. 
machine the virtue of wnich lies in the presidin-, spirit of him 
U'ho lends it the strength of unity. If ten men fiu-ht a-ainst. 
en men, each individual feels the importance of hi.s" own 
bravery, and has little reason to rely on a lea<ler. He sees 
all that is ^roin^r on and can take care of himself. But 
It a man is one of 10,000, opposed to another 10 000 
he necessarily feels himself but a humble instrument in" 
he hands of the master mind : lie tio-hts badly if he 
uvs no faitli in his u-e„eral ; but if he rests .secure in the 
blessed conhdence that, thou^di darii^ers may be imminent, 
there is one whose watchfulness, foresio-ht, and capacitv ^ive 
Inm, as a unit in a mi^dity whole, a security he must Neces- 
sarily forfeit 111 isolated action, then the of his own 
individual importance declines, while hi.s habit of turnin.r to 
the central figure for implicit guidance grows upon him " 

Hence, even in the lowest barbarian races, which can al- 
ways p ace from 800 to 1000 men in the field, the control of 
the eadmg mind grows much more definite and personal than 
m the case of the highest savages. The chief is now no 
ionger one who merely takes such deference as the rest are 
wi ing. to give. For the .safety of the whole he is invests 
with official authority, and it is to the interest of all to see 
tliat each yields an implicit obedience. Moreover as it is 
nnpos,sible in the field or in strategy that one man should 
nave direct and personal control over each one of 1000 sul)or- 
dmate chiefs arise, each group submitting itself to iis mcst 
capable warrior, who takes his instructions from him on 
whom the whole rely. And tliese positions of command 

m ! 


lomul tile villfiifo 

ei'imu'iit. Wlien 
leeded no ^roat 
oiij,^ theinst'lves. 
lefficient if tlie 
continues. The 
• bound up with 
kI the hiro-er the 
11 individuHl val- 
^•action of a ^q-eat 
mtr spirit of liini 
1011 tin-ht ao-aiiist 
ice of his own 
eader. He sees 

himself. But 
uiother 1 0,000,, 

instrunient in 
s badly if he 
s secure in the 
" be ininiiiient, 
d capacity ^-ive 
he must iieces- 
^e of liis own 
t of turniiio- to 
ipon him. 
, which can al- 

tlie control of 
I personal than 
lief is now no 
iis the rest are 
he is investctl 
t of all to see 
oover, as it is 
10 man should 
)f 1000, subor- 
If to its moot 
from him on 

of coniniaiid 



will not be shift 

men j,father for war, tl 

iii^' and uncertain. So oft( 


ous leader 

of by, 

ley will turn for o-iiid 

M as the tio'htiiM 

nice to the vie- 

will s..ttl . . ^'^i'" '""! '^' ■ "'' ^^'"^ ^^'' «'^''^'3- '>^" '•'"''< 

udl settle permanently on the shoulders of those who have 

won a commandiiio. inrtuenee over others. 

And a;,.un, when the community is now in possession of 
bouses and farms, when Hxity of abode has ^dven rise to 
n,dits of water and of tishino, of nearest firewood and o 
stoutest slave, disputes, though less impulsive, .ather a wider 
-portance And yet they can no longer be^settled in tl 
conclave of all the warriors. A .judicial assembla,.e of 1000 
men is clumsy and inefficient, and if small disputes are of 

uideii .Natura ly, then, the power of judo-i,,. .cconliu. to 
he customs of the race, passes into the hand; of „.en ^ho 
bave acquired some influence in the community, and, while 
people are wilhn. to refer minor disputes to the local chief- 
anything- of importance makes them turn their eyes to the' 
^reat chief whose word has so much influence with all. and 
^^ho can command so powerful a following-, if it should be 
necessary to use force in maintaining- justice 

Little more is needed to found a 'reo.ular gradation of 
lanks throuo-h slaves to freemen, thence to petty chiefs, and 
«o the head chief. This stag., occurs in all the lower 
^ harian races. It is characteristic of Papuan and Maori, of 
Kaffii, Dyak and Indian hill tribes; it is characteristic of 
| and Kiro n., and other Tatar races; of Iro.juois and 
llilmkeets, and of all the Central American people when first 
known to Europeans. By deo-rees mankind finds the ad- 
vantage of massino- itself in still larger groups, and when the 
1 uddle barbarians are in communities of 50,000 to 250 000 the 
<b.s iiictioii of rank isintensiHed. The great chief be'comes a 
iMug, and the subordinate chiefs become nobles, while the 
career of coiK|uest which consolidation has inaugurated, leads 
to an increase of the servile population. And all these con- 

ditions of rank have a certain tend ^ _ 

The children of slaves are born to the sad 

ency to b 


parents. But the nobl 

e"s estate d 

.thereby commence life with a de 

ds t( 


escenus to ins sons 

'Oil of their 
in tl 



' i' ; 


f I' 



i* I 



public oyo wliicli I'lisui-cs tlu'lr iiilluidict', if only tlioii- capacity 
is inodumtely iulo<|Uiitu t(j the hunlcii of f^ l)(M|u.'iitlHMl 
to thoin. Of course it is still open for merit of the kind ap- 
preciated in such a comnuniity to rise to the top, but there is 
less ilispute, less of restless upheaval, and more of prescriptive 
harmony, when rank and influence are, in some measure at 
least, hereditary. 

Thus do kin<,fs arise and nobilities, hau^dity by reason of 
birth and of wealth. It is the ^^reat feature of life in all the 
ne<rro communities, in Fiji, and amon^r the Polynesian races, 
such as Ton<,fans and Samoans, who have reached the level of 
middle liarbarism. It was the feature of (Jreeks in the days 
before Solon : it was the feature of Romans in the time of 
Xuma, and of the Germans when they first emeri,^^] into 
history; of the Jews when they had settled awhile in Canaan, 
and of the English when E<,diert was youni;-. 

As men become more richly endowed with the social 
sympathies, and, therefoi-e, capable of forminjr still lar<>'er and 
stron^^er comnuniities, the devotion to a kino- and the sub- 
serviency to a privilejred class become in general a means 
of consolidatinf,^ the state. A few people in the past, as the 
Romans and Athenians, were able to form ar! ^locracies, or so- 
called democracies, and yet retain much harmony : but as a 
rule frreat states have jrathered round some line of kini,^s 
who have been able to inspire their people with unbounded 
devotion ; and in a Mahy state, or such a country as lilada- 
jiascar, or Taliiti, or Hawaii, in ancient IMexico or Peru, in 
Babylon or primitive Egypt, the royal family became, as 
Ellis says of the Polynesians, sacred beings whose touch con- 
secrated every article they used. In Assyria, as Rawlinson 
tells us {Ancient Movarchics, ii., 07), the king was the key- 
stone of the whole community, and Wilkinson uses practically 
the same terms in describing the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt 
(i.. 314). In Manu, we find that the Hindoos regarded their 
king as a " powerful divinity in man's form," and Kemble 
tells us (i., 172) that among the Saxons in England it was in- 
famous for any warrior to survive the fall of his sovereign. 

We are now inclined to scorn this servile deification nf 
men, this prostration of human beings before the pride of 


Illy tlieir capacity 
tiioss l)('((Uc!itlied 
of the kind ap- 
top, but there is 
i-e of prescriptive 
«)iiie ineaHuri' at 

hty by reason of 
of life in all the 
'olyiiesian races^ 
died the level of 
eeks ill the days 
I in the time of 
.sfc enier^^ed into 
ivhile in Canaan, 

with the social 
;• still lar<;-er and 
i<,' and the sub- 
jeneral a means 
the past, as the 
Mocracies, or so- 
nony : but as a 
e line of kin^rs 
vith unbounded 
)untry as Maila- 
:ico or Peru, in 
(lily became, as 
hose touch con- 
a, as Bawlinson 
g was the key- 
uses practically 
ancient E^^vpt 
ref,''arded their 
," and Kemble 
^land it was in- 
lis sovereign. 
e deification of 
e the pride of 



monarchs, but it had it 



s vahie in the history of the past. It 

H permanency of union not other 


•>li!. H. Hruukv Low descril 

wise at that sta"-o 

K's the Dvaks in tl 

Ics as clusterino- n.uii.I their head chief, alfin-litl 

leir own 



erent to 

NO loufT as he is .secure. One has to thin! 

tor a little to realise what soli.lity .such a feeling. o-ive 
to a body of „KMi. If there had arisen amon,. the Hi-dikiid 
claas one ma,ster min.l intluence could have Ix^n felt 
m this vvay or a generation, and ^.tthered round him the 

which they know to be ^.reat, con.solidation. .stren^^th, and 
p osperity must have followed. But the race was incapable 
ot tliat de^a-ee of social combination 

The whole course of Uibbons ^reat hi.story shows how 
often when circumstances were favourable, the appearance of 
a BelLsarius a Mahomet, a Charlemagne, a Haroun, or any 
such exalted spirit, mi,d.t kindle an com^ 
mon t^n. would knit hu,e bodies of men in powerful ass!:;;;, 
ion It also SHOWS how the nations enjoyed their times of 
nost peaceful and contented pro.sperity when the veneration 
of centimes had so .-athered round the throne of Rome o 
Constantinople, or of Susa that obedience was rendered wi'tli- 
out .piestion ; for vast .systems of oro-anisation thereby b - 

uka of the manner m which the French enthusiasm for 
^.H3oleon consolidated a great nation and concentrate,! its 
rtorts, and we know how .strong has been the tendency for 
tlie Napoleonic influence to become hereditary 

to be Ti^"-'''' u- ^'f'yr^ P*^*"«t'«"> therefore, whatever is 

use d "t t "t -^"^^^-- 1^-1. in their season, a 

usttul part to play in widening the social .sympathies in 

nereasmg the numbers of men that could contriv-e to dwell 

oM'ether in peace, united by brotherly feeling. And thou-di 

e antagonism to those beyond the limits .still continues,^it 

lo ts by degrees something of its bitterness and ferocity For 

when a man has acquired a sense of fellowship towards 

uiil ion other men, the bulk of whom he has neve 

hi US hostility towards a man for being a stranger must 

lessen, though, as we shall see, the old instincts exhibit them- 

:li' I 


I) :»l 


selves ill a Imte of those who speak luioth.-r liiti;,ni)i<ro, „r wear 
outlandish clotlies, or .show a .litfeivnt tint in theii^skins. 

Mut whatever amelioration there is takes plaee Imt slowly : 
unci, returnin;; a;,Min to our lower harharians, we lind in them 
an intense ferocity of feelin^r towards those without the limits 
<.f the community. This is especially shown in the habits of 
head huntin<r and of cannibalism, which are practices that 
reach their culmination in this and the followin<r staj,'e. Here 
it is that we Hnd the most exultant deli;,dit in the slau^diter 
of all (outsiders. 

Woodfoi-d {Ndfumlist anumij the Head Himfcrs, p. 157) 
mys that the main object in life amon^^ the people of the 
Sol(MU(jn Isiands is tu take the heads of enemies. In one 
trip he saw a .small ban.l brinjr in thirty-one heads. Forbes 
says that in Timor Laut the ^'reat object of warfare Is to 
gather men's heads (p. 450), and Cre'spi^niy describes the 
same savage thirst amono- the Muruts of North Eoi-neo. (R„;j. 
(}<■<,,!. Sue, 1872.) He saw .some men kill a poor old defence- 
less woman because she was an outsider and they wanted her 
liead. Yet, .stran^^e to say, amon;.^ themselves these people art- 
very kin.lly and well-conducted. Wallace <rives them an ex- 
cellent character. He .says of the Dyaks, for instance : " They 
iue Irnthful and honest to a remarkable (le<;Tee. Crimes of 
violence amon^- tliemselves are unknown. In twelve years 
under Sir James Brooke's rule there had been but one mui.l. v 
within a Dyak tribe." 

Yet listen to what Brooke has to say of tlieir condn.-.t as 
between tribe and tribe (Joai'iuil, i., 195): "The life of tlie 
Dyaks is terrible. Day after day, month after month, it is 
the sam-^ ^tory, a life of watchfulness and tli<,dit and %ht." 
Karl Eoc .,v/.s (p. 21G) : "The head huntin^^ of the Dyaks is 
workin. i}? nf the '/ice of tlie earth ". But about 1840, as 
Brooke UAh n^ i'l ■. ))e^ran to find that, amid the more power- 
ful races that surrounded f.n m, inevitable destruction lay in 
the course they were pursuing.- : and since then head huntin>;- 
has visibly declined. Wallace says that the practice was a't 
the time of his visit only recently extinct in Celebes (iMnl. 
Arch., p. 89), and Boyle made the same observation in Borneo. 
But the mania for heads is still rampant in New Britain, 

• if.u, iN-srrxcT. 

l)iii^nj(i<,'e, or woar 
11 their skins. 
I placi' lint slowly : 
s, \vf timl ill tlitMu 
without tlu; limits 
n in the hahits of 
,re practicos that 
wiufT sta<,f(!. Here 
in tlie slauj^hter 

Hunters, p. 157) 
lie people of the 
inemies. In one 
e heads. Forbes 
of warfare is to 
iiy tlescrihes the 
th Borneo. (Itoij. 
poor old (lefence- 
tliey wantetl her 
i those people are 
ives them an ex- 
instance : " They 
^•ree. Crinies of 
In twelve years 
1 but one muid.r 

thoir condii.-t as 
"The'.ife of the 
fter month, it is 
lii^'ht and fitrht. " 

of the Dyaks is 
it about 1840, as 
the more power- 
istruction lay in 
sn head huntiiii^- 

practice was at 
n Celebes {M<(1, 
ation in Borneo, 
n New Britain, 



New /ealan.l, (ho Solomon Islands, and the Louisiade ami 
D bntrecaste.uix Arp|n-pela^ro.s. It was strong, ami Herce in 
iNew Lulrdonm till that island was occupied by the French 
The sMue ihi, for the bloo<l of outsiders is characteristic 

.1,1 the mid.ll.. barbarians in an almost e.,ual de^rree. Most 

01 llH, races exhibit a Herce deli^dit in the pcxsse.ssion of 
human hoa.I.s. Major Wissman says, for instance, that " amo.n. 

ho Wawemba there exists a perfectly developed rank, .C 
termino.1 by the number of heads a man possesses". Before 
a (Jalla youth may marry he must have secured at least one 

luman liea.l, and other races demand the same ^^ory passport 
to the tenderest affections. African travellers have constant 
occasion to describe how the dwollin^.s of ne^a-o chiefs and 
warriors are d -corated with ^diastly lines of human skulls 
winch have rotted on posts or on walls. Forbes (quoted 
Spencer, JJesc. So,:, [v., 22) says that he saw one small build- 
ino. adorned with 148 skulls, and Laird and OldHel.l describe 
how, m the villages of the Calabar coast, these grisly trophies 
are stuck up on all hands, or may be seen kicked about the 
.streets in derision. 

The same unutterable ferocity to those outside their com- 
nnnnties has in all ages been characteristic of the Tatar races 
K.iwhnson says (ii., 511) : " The Scythian who slew an enemy 
m battle imme.liatelv proceeded to drink his blood. He then 
cut oH the h ad, stripped off the scalp, which he hung on his 
br.-Ilc rein; of the upper portion of the skull he made 
a .Innking cup for his feasts.- These practices were familiar 
to our Teutonic ancestors. Even when they had been baptised 
an. had accepted a faith of mildness, .so late as the sixth 
and seventh centuries, the skull of an enemy of the race was 
handed round as a goblet, long after he was dead and gone 
In he year 573 A.D., Alboin, king of the Lombards and master 
ot Italy, sent to his wife, Rosamond, her father's gold-orna- 
uiented skull that she might .luart' the wine that filled it to 
the brim. Diodorus describes how busy were the Celts on 
the held ol battle after victory (xiv., 115), each man cutting 
on as many heads as he could gather, these being precious 
'badges of glory ; and Gibbon relates how the Mo<mls even 
in the beginniiiir of the fifteenth century, madeVi-amids 



VOL. I. 


1$ ii 


i i 


of the skulls of the slain. Nay more than that, Tamerlane, 
whose heart, he tells us, " was not devoid of the social virtues," 
killed hu<re populations for the mere purpose of raising- pyra- 
mids of their heads. On the ruins of Bay-dad, as it is well 
known, he raised one such trophy consistinj^ of 90,000 skulls. 
Yet doubtless Marlowe's picture of liim in his private life is 
not untrue, and perhaps he was in reality that 

Imago of hoiuHir and nobility 

which he is asserted to have been. For it is ev^" to be 
remembered that the barbarian ideal regards the greatest 
kindliness in the home as in no way inconsistent with fierce- 
ness and slaughter against the stranger. 

It is the type of hero that runs through all Homer ; the 
noblest of men is he who is faithful among his ati'ectionate 
kinsmen, and yet drives his spear with no remorse through 
the flank of the fallen foeman. Even the women adore this 
mingling of affection and ferocity, and mothers pray that 
their sons might be kind at home, terrible abroad. Hector 
{Iliad, vi., 481) lifts up his babe Astyanax and kisses him, 
and prays to Zeus that he may grow up 

to boiir tlio gory spoils. 
Having slain some foo, tiu'rehy rejoicing the 

heart of his mother. 

Aristotle says (Politics, vii., 2) that among the Macedonians 
a public disgrace was attached to one who attained full 
manhood without having slain an enemy, and that there were 
tribes which erected on a man's tomb a column for eveiy 
person he had killed. 

The Jews, in the days of the Judges, were upon the same 
level. King David, who was of the middle barbarian grade, 
gathered the foreskins of his slain enemies, and it was with 
100 of these that he paid King Saul for his daughter. 
(2 Samuel iii. 14.) It is a custom practised even now by negro 
and ot'icr races. Bruce asserts that it was common among 
the Abyssinians (vi., 110), and it was well known to Egyptians 
and Assyrians. As to the general usages of the Jews, the 
Mosaic injunctions leave us in no doubt. " Of the cities 
of these people which the Lord thy God doth give thee for 



that, Tamerlane, 
le social virtues," 

of raising pyi'fi- 
ad, as it is well 

of 90,000 skulls, 
lis private life is 

it is ev^" to he 
rds the greatest 
:itent with tierce- 
all Hoiner ; the 
' his aft'ectioiuite 
I'emorse through 
'onieii adore this 
jthers pray that 
abroad. Hector 
and kisses him. 

iig the 

the Macedonians 
10 attained full 
I that there were 
)]umn for every 

e upon the same 
barbarian grade, 
and it was with 
)r his daughter, 
en now by negro 
connnon among 
)wn to Egyptians 
jf the Jews, the 
'■ Of the cities 
th give thee for 



an inheritance, thou shalt save nothing alive that breatheth, 
but thou shalt utterly destroy them, liut of the cities tliat 
are very far oti' from thee, thou shalt smite every male therecjf 
with the edge of the sword, but the women and the little ones 
thou shalt take unto thyself." (Deut. xx. 10.) No one can 
read the historical parts of the Old Testament without seeing 
that the Jews answer to the general description of the middle 
barbarians, being richly gifted with patriotism, and the social 
sympathies that display themselves within the community, 
but without compassion or any sense of justice to those beyond 
its bounds. 


It would be unnecessarily tedious to gather the evidence 
of the same state of things among otlier barbarian races. It 
existed uniformly among all of them. In some, however, the 
ferocity felt towards those outside the trilie or nation led to 
the fullest development of cannibal tastes that the human race 
has known. We have seen that it was a custom dawning 
among savages, who, however, never learned to look on 
human bodies as an article of festive diet. That vindictive 
revenge is found only in the stages of lower and middle bar- 
barism, but it is far from being general even in these, for it 
reaches notorious dimensions oidy among some of the' Poly- 
nesian and Papuan races ; and is met with among very few of 
the negro peoples. Otherwise it is little known. The Maori 
and the Fijian have had the unenviable distinction of being 
the most cannibal of men. The primary motive was, as 
Thomson says of the Maori, " to gratify revenge and hatred, 
to cast disgrace on the persons eaten, and to strike terror"! 
It seems, however, to have grown to be a horrid appetite ; 
perhaps, as it has been suggested, by reason, after the extinc-' 
tion of the moa, of tlie absence of animals which might 
have furnished a meat diet. Thomson tells us {Stury^of 
New Zealand, i., 144) that " there were few lilaoris above the 
age of forty who had not partaken of human flesh". The 
great chief Ilongi and his army of 1000 men ate 300 bodies in 
1822 after the capture of Totara, and carried back with them 







■ 'k* 



■ i""' 

388 Tin-: origin and caiowxn t)F tiik moral ixstixct. 

a loiitf line of prisomji-s, whose succeHsive slau^'hter inii;-ht pro- 
lono," the feast and a fibre 1 to tlie wouien and cliil(h-en a share 
in fclie triuniplianfc revenue, Te Whero, not lonj-' aftei-, cooked 
200 bodies at the close of a successful tiirlit. 

The Fijians were their only riv^als in these abhorrent festi- 
vals. MirtS Gordon Cunimiuf,' (^4^ Home in Fiji, p. 134) 
speaks of a chief who had a register of forty-ei<;-ht people 
whom he liad eaten, and there v/ere two others who ^'loried 
in having- shared in the consumption of a total of 87:^ human 
bodies. I\I. Bensusan (Roy. Geo;/. Soc, 1862, p. 40) mentions 
a feast, towards the end of 1851, in wliich about fifty bodies 
were devoured. The fact that a reg'ister was kept in a way 
Ave would never think of doing in regard to sheep or bullocks, 
would indicate that the primary object was not nutrition, but 
a grim revenge. There can, however, be no doubt that the 
appetite grew by what it fed on, foi' Erskine tells us in his book 
on t!ie West Pacific, that one district of Fiji was inainl}' peopled 
by men and women who were well aware that tiiey were 
being fattened for the great festi\'als as they recurred, and 
Avho were (juite resigned to the fate before them. 

Of the natives of the New Hebrides, the Rev. Dr. Steel 
tells us that wliile they generally devour only the bodies of 
those slain in battle, the}' are sometimes led ])y their appetite 
for fiesh to make excursi(^)is for the ca[)ture of victims. (Nnv 
Hebrides, p. 25.) Wooilford descril)es how in the So'omon 
Islands camiibalism was a d.iily practice : and he relates a 
most gruesome scene of the slaughter of a boy for a feast, a 
spectacle apparently only too common. (Naturalist Amnn;/ 
Head Hunters, p. 157.) In New Ireland the people still 
glory in making cannibal l)anquets, but in New Britain, 
though the practice survives, it is rapidly dying out. (Roii. 
Geog. Soe., 1887, p. 8.' It was universal in New Caledonia 
till the French assumed control. {Kthnol. Soc., iii., 03.) Mr. B. 
H. Thomson asserts (Roy. Geo;/. Soc, 1889, p. 527) that it 
was ver^' common, though now almost unknown, in the 
Louisiade and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos ; Ellis is assured 
that it prevailed in the Marquesas and other Polynesian 

The Rev. Mr. Chalmers says of the Papuans of New 


iii;'hter lai^fht pro- 
il cliildroii a share 
lon<;' after, cooked 

le abhorrent I'esti - 
in Fiji, p. 134) 
orty-eio-ht people 
thers wlio <;'loried 
ital of 87:^ human 
2, p. 4G) mentions 
about fifty bodies 
vas kept in a way 
sheep or bullocks, 
not nutrition, but 

doubt that the 
-ells us in his book 
as mainly peopled 
) that tliey were 
ley recurred, and 

lie Kev. Dr. Steel 

nlj' the bodies of 
by their appetite 
of victims. (Neiu 

V in the So'omon 
and he relates a 
boy for a feast, a 

aturnl'ist Amon;/ 

1 the people still 
in New Britain, 

dying out. (Roii. 
in New Caledonia 
»r,iii.,G3.) Mr. B. 
n, p. 527) that ii 
unknown, in the 
s ; Ellis is assured 
other Polynesian 

Papuans of New 





brated by a cannibal feast ". (New G 

inea"they lived only to %ht, and the victory was cek 

innm, p. 188.) But he 
considers that these propensities are dyin<r out, and Wilfrid 
Powell says that they are now scarcely known in tli.' island. 

Among the more barbarous .Aialay races cannibalism is 
prevalent to a certain extent, the less civilise.l peoples of 
Sumatra, Celebes and Borneo being somewhat addicted to 
it, but the extent must l^e slight, as the testimony is so very 
contradictory. Rajah Brooke expressly states that the Dyaks 
were cannibal, while H. Brooke Low entirely denies the accu- 
sation. Karl Book asserts that a single village has been 
. lown to Slaughter forty captives for a ten days' festival- 
but as this was evidence gathered from hearsay, there is 
reason to believe it exaggerated, more especially as perma- 
nent residents in the island deny that cannibalism is realh- a 

_ Among the negroes the general feeling towards cannibalism 
IS one of deep disapprobation, and this is shown by the w;>y 
m which the travell.u- is always being told, by the race with 
whom he happens to be, that other ami hostile races further 
on are addicted to the practice. But, as he moves onward 
these tribes always keep afar off like an i;inis fataas. Each 
tril)e fixes the charge on those beyond it. Aiid yet there is 
evidence enough that seve,-al of the negro races, not more 
than 4 or 5 per cent, of tlie wiiole, are cannibals. It is prov-n 
against the Niam-niams (Casati, p. 142 : Petherick, p, 458), also 
against the Monbuttos and Mpoagwe; and Lichtenstein states 
that at least .some of the Bechuana tribes used to gnaw, though 
with apparent abhorrence, a mouthful froin the liml)s of dead 
enemies. But the only notoriously cannibal race is tliat of 
tl.e Fans, of whom Reade tells us that they have grades of 
sentiment in regard to the practice, some forms of it beimr 
approved, some tolerated, and others condemned. * 

In the higher barbarian races the practice ceases to be a 
«ign of warlike ferocity, though Ellis tells us that among tlie 
lahitians (Polynesian Research,,, i., 310) "occasionally a 
warrior out of bravado or revenge has been known to eat two 
or tlu'ue mouthfuLs of a van.piishe.l foe ". It often lingers on 
in s(mie races 





an adjunct of religion, for tl 

le war least w 



'<*.)() iiii; ouKiix AM) (niowrii of tui': moral iNs'riN<"r. 

Nrry apt to ili'it't into a solemn relij^-iouw rite, luid in that case 
the feast ol' human l)oih'es often formed part of an old-time 
custom, maintained us a reli;4'i(ms ohlioation when the taste 
for camiihalism had expired. 

This seems to have hei'u the nature of the cannil)al feasts 
of Ai'ahia mentioned hy Robertson Smith (A'/;/,s7//y>, j). 2X4), 
and of similai' festivals anion;;' the Teutonic races whi'ii they 
first emer^'e into notice. Such a sta^'e, however, is best known 
to us in the case of tin; Mexicans, who, at their feasts of the full 
moon (Bancroft, N'dfirc ]{(iccs, i., 107), wen^ accustomed in 
every temple to sacritice to the smi-^'od nund)ers of captives 
and of children otl'ered hy their parents for the sacred ])uvp{)se. 
Every month some hunih'eds of lieai'ts were wi'enched from 
tlic 3'ct livinn- bodies, so that ei-e thei)- ((uiverin^- had ceased 
they min-ht In; oli'ered upon the altai' ; and then, as I'-escott 
ilesci'ibes (i., chap, iii.), the roasted bodies were eaten in a solemn 
feast. Diaz reckons that about 'IrtOO bodies were thus devoured 
anmially, perhaps about one to each 2000 of the population. 
The same practice to about tlie same extent prevailetl anion*;' 
the kindi'ed races of Central Ame'-ica. J^ut the Peruvians had, 
ei'e the arrival of the Spaniards, out^'rown the detestable 
custom of eatiiit;' the victims. 'I'hey celebi'ated liuman sacri- 
fices moi'e often perhaps than I'rescott asserts {Peru, i., 105), 
but the}- never devoured a body. (Kenzoni, Hist, of New 
World, Eiiii'. trans., p. 24(S.) Acosta estimates that about 200 
boys had been known to form a sin^'le sacrifice on a ^^reat 
occasion ; but for a lon^- time before the arrival of the 
Spaniards, the j;'rowin<jf power of humanity had asserted itself 
in spite of the conservative tendency of relij^ion, and it had 
become customary to substitute dummy forms. (Quoted Spencer, 
Bcsc. N.-c, ii., 2(5.) 

In civilised races, cannibalism as a custom entirely dies out, 
thoun'h the jirimitive sava<;'ei'y of each race occasionally betrays 
itself. In Manu the Hindoo is told that he who reaches tlu' 
last extremity of hunger may without sin kill a child and eat 
it (X., 105). But as a rule the histories of sie_i;'es, famines, and 
shipwrecks anion*;' civilised men indicate how stronj;'ly de- 
veloped is that i'oi'm of social sympathy whieli foi'liids a man 
to save his own life by consumino' the flesh of a fellow-man. 


, ;iM(l ill that case 
•t of an old-time 

I when tlu>. taste 

e caiinihal feasts 
Ki iis/t i/>, ]). -iS4), 

nu;(!s when tliey 
er, is best known 
• I'easts of the full 
'e accustouieil in 
ihors of captives 
e sacred pnvpose. 
\ wi'Ciiiched from 
LM'in<;' liad ceased 
then, as l'"escott 
eaten in a solemn 
>re tlius devoured 

the population, 
prevailed auion<;- 
10 Peruvians had, 
n the detestable 
;ed human sacri- 
ts {Pn-ii, I, 105), 
li, Hist, of Neiv 
iH that about 200 
ritice on a ^^reat 
i arrival of the 
lad asserted itself 
ij,non, and it had 
((.Quoted .Spencer, 

entirely dies out, 
•asionally betrays 
' who reaches the 

II a child and eat 
i^i^es, famines, and 
low str()n<>-ly de- 
ch for])id.s a luiin 
of a fellow-man. 






)f th 


is sui;'n'estive, li()W(!Ver, or tlie rtiven;;'etnl onj^iii ol caiini- 
I)alism as a custom, that even in civilis(((l rae(\s (extreme hatred 
<lrives fenjcious spii'its to the old practice. TIk! leadin<,f 
w>)nn'ii of AFecca at(^ the enti-ails of Abihomet's uiich; after the 
battle of Oliod, in which he was slain; and at Florenci^ in tlie 
fourteenth century, when rulers, who had bc'cn the objects of 
po])ular (execration, were overthrown, the' citizens ate their 
ilesh as a sij^ni of ven^'iiance <;'lutted to the last extreme. 
(Machiavelli, ii., chap, viii.) Durinj;- the French i-evolution the 
heart of t\\v unfortmiate Princess Lamballe was cooked in the 
streets of Pai'is and (saten by an avenj;'er of the people. 

Yet we are Justified in sayinj^- that head hunting-, seal]) 
pitlierinjf, cannibalism, and analo^-ous demonstrations of fierce 
hatred a<;'ainst the outsider, i-each th(;ir climax at the sta^'e of 
the lower and middle barbarians an<l thenceforwai'd die (jut. 

Caxnii'.als may he Afkectiox.vpe, (iOod-temi'euei) Peoi>le. 

It is strano-e to note, however, that with all this capacity 
for cruelty, the barbarian lives a happy and att'ectionate life 
ill the main, within the limits of his own people. Cjisl)oi'ne 
says of the Maoris {Neiv Zculand, p. 20) that thou^li 
"they are suspicious ami (juick to resent a wm-oiij^-, there is 
much natural courtesy in their manners, and much of 
eastern politeness in their intercourse ". Thomson speaks of 
them as extremely hospitable, though he considers them to Ik; 
veui^eful. Jealous, vain and arrogant ; cheerfulness prevails 
i.i their life, an<l they reckon it disgraceful to ^ive way to 
aiiyer. They have little true benevolence, but, like children, 
they easily become compassionate, and are moved to tears by 
that which jn-oduces a te;iiporary impression on them. (Ston/ 
of A\'iv Zeolniul, i., .S5.) In connection with this most 
notoriously canniV)al of all races, it sounds stran^'ely in our 
ears to hear the words of Taylt r, a missionary wlio knew 
the Maoris well, and extenuated none of their faults: "In 
theii- social relations there was much to admire. The love of 
theii- ortspj'ino- ;iiid their rehitiuns, their miod feeling ond 
kindliness one towards another, their careful avoidance of all 

I I 
1 ! 


j : 

I 1 







cause of (niarrel, and their powerful emotion of joy on meet- 
ing with absent friends, all prove tliem to liave been not 
deficient in natural atfection." {New Zealand and its In- 
habitants, p. 10.) 

The Fijians, their only rivals in cainiibalism, though de- 
scribed as " cruel, treacherous and sensual," are ^'et by many 
travellers spoken of as " witty and polite". (Erskine, West 
Pacific, p. 272.) Tiiough inveterate liars, they were not 
" deficient in humanity, and were marked by a universal 
hospitality ". It would be tedious to quote in detail the 
favourable delineations of writers who have described the 
home life of Papuan and Polynesian races. Friendliness, 
kindliness, good-humour and similar terms are employed in 
regard to races which have been notorious as cannibals and 
head hunters. Indeed, among all descriptions of these people 
in their homes I have found only one that speaks with 
severity. A, R. Wallace declares of the Papuans of New 
Guinea that they are " very deficient in affections and moral 
sentiments, being in their treatment of children veiy often 
violent and cruel ". {Malay Arch., p. 587.) Yet he is not 
without a gooil word for them, and the lives cannot be very 
luifriendly of those who are "joyous and laughter-loving", 
^loreover, the Rev. James Chalmers, who actually lived with 
them and knew them intimately, though he speaks severely 
of their ferocity in war, and describes the state of suspense 
and fear in which every one lies down to sleep at night, 
how they live up in trees or on the water, and how th.ey 
sleep with their arms by their side and a bunch of dry nut 
shells at the door to rouse them if an enemy intrudes by 
night, yet describes their daily life as eminently kind and 
merry (pp. 112, 120). 

E^Uis sa3\s of the Tahitians that " next to their hospitality, 
their cheerfulness and good-nature strike a stranger. They 
are, generally speaking, careful not to give offence to each 
otiier, and there are '"ew domestic brawds." Little tells us 
that in Madagascar " a pleasing feature ol' their life is the 
studied courtesy and hospitality shown to strangers" (p. 61), 
while among themscdvos t.h(>y are "always reserved, onuvtenns 
and exceedingly well behaved. The entire population may 

^il i 



I of joy on meet- 
3 have been not 
iu(l and its In- 
Mum, thouf>'h de- 
are yet by muiiy 
(Erskine, West 

they were not 

by a universal 
te in detail tlie 
;e described the 
;. Friendliness, 
Eire employed in 
as cannibals and 
s of these people 
lat speaks with 
'apuans of Xew 
3tions and moral 
idren very often 
Yet he is not 
s cannot be very 
lughter-loving "'. 
bually lived with 

speaks severely 
tate of suspense 

sleep at ni^dit, 
', and how tliey 
unch of dry nut 
my intrudes by 
lently kind and 

,heir hospitality, 
stranirer. They 
offence to each 
Little tells us 
their life is the 
anjijers " (p. 61), 
■iprvf'd, couvteons 
population may 




be described as showin^^ what we in Enj;-land would call 
irood breeding." (p. 71). The author then proceeds to ^nve 
examples of the extreme politeness which pervades their 
everyday life. Ellis considers that thou-h they are some- 
what indifferent to distress and death, yet "there is much 
kindness of heart, and selfishness is held in universal detesta- 
tion ". (Hist, of Madai/dscar, p. 1.S9.) 

In re^rard to the negroes, Livingstone speaks repeatedly 
of their "punctiliousness of manners" and of the extreme 
hospitality met with, where fear was absent: while Laird 
and Clapperton and Park all praise the invariable kindness of 
the women. Barrow considers the Kaffirs " mild and gentle " 
and Lichtenstein says that though they are " barbarous to 
enemies, they are true and faithful to friends ". Burton <aves 
the negroes of East Africa a decidedly scathing charactei-rand 
several other writers agree more or less fully with his unfavour- 
able views ; but by most travellers they are credited with good- 
humour and a desire to please. Of the negroes of the rest of 
Africa, the testimony uniformly indicates at least a surface 
kindness of manners. No one need expect anv great sacrifice 
from a negro for the sake of obliging ; but in the ordinary 
amenities of life, an average village is marked by an abundant 
good-nature and cheerfulness. 

Rohlf speaks of the hospitality and courtesy generally to 
be met with among the Moors, and Hotten says that though 
the Abyssinians are inveterate liars, yet they are courteous in 
nianner, and rarely exhibit cruelty among themselves: while 
Gobat was struck by the mildness with which they treated 
servants and slaves. Hue, in his Travels in Tartur,,, de- 
scribes the Mongol races as being " full of gentleness and good 
nature in their domestic life, even though fond of pillage, 
cruelty and unnatural debauches " (i., 257). 

Among all the lAIalay races the same contrast exists of ex- 
treme gentleness within the community, together with much 
ferocity towards all without it. Wallace says (Malay Arch l- 
l>dyu, p. ,585) : " The higher classes of Malays are exceedingly 
polite, and have all the (juiet ease and dignity of the best-bred 
E^l•op(^.n,s. Yot this is compatible with a reckless cruelty and 
contempt of human life which is the dark side of their 


i i 



■i j- 1 





charactei'." Sir Stamford Raffles says that the Javanese are 
" kind, att'ectionate, y'entle, and contented ". (Hist. <i/ Jaiui, i., 
248.) " Tliey have a i,a-eat sense of propriety and are never 
rude or abrupt but uniformly easy and courteous" (i., (iO). 
]\Iarsden says of the Sumatrans tliat tliey are " mild, peaceful 
and forbearing, unless their anger be roused by strong provo- 
cation, when they are implacable in their resentments ". {Hist, 
of Su))t(il I'd, p. 208.) 

I have already run much risk of being tedious with re- 
iterated statements of the same class of facts. I shall not 
pursue the (quotations of otlier writers as to the general mild- 
ness of domestic manners among barbarian races. It must be 
enough to say that all of them exemplify this increase of 
those social sympathies and consei^uent daily amenities 
which not only are necessary to life in communities, but also, 
as the capacity for them increases, lead to the steady enlarge- 
ment of the size of the community. Thus 1,000,000 people on 
the higher barbarian level will live in peacefulness among 
themselves for generations togetlier, obeying the same ruler, 
submissive to the same laws, working harmoniously, and 
finding the amusements and delights of life chiefly in the city 
nnd the social gatliering, while 1,000,000 savages would make 
5000 mutually hostile tribes. 

Care of the Sick and Aged. 



But we must beware of travelling too fast in our notion of 
the upward growth of sympathy. Even the domestic nature 
of the best of barbarians is far from being angelic, as we may 
easily determine by a considei-atlon of their treatment of the 
.sick. No sort of corporate or public care for the feeble or 
poor is provided in any of the barbarian races, until we reach 
the very highest communities of their liighest grade, wherein 
begins to appear some slight notion of systematic benevolence. 

Of the lower barbarians, some show a little improvement 
in this respect over the savage, others show none that is 
perceptible. Tlie Maoris never abandoned a sick person 
a,ltogether. If his case seemed hopeless, he was certainly 




tlio Javanese are 
{Hist, of Jd.rd, i., 
ity and are never 
ourteous" (i., 60). 
re " niild, peaceful 
[ by strono- provo- 
cntments". (Hist. 

■ tedious with re- 
acts. I sliall not 
i the jj^eneral mild- 
races. It must be 
y this increase of 
i daily amenities 
inunities, but also, 
lie steady enlargo- 
,000,000 people on 
^acefulness amonj;' 
ig the same ruler, 
larmoniousl}', and 
chiefly in the city 
values Avould make 


st in our notion of 
le domestic nature 
mgelic, as we may 
• treatment of the 

for the feeble or 
3es, until we reach 
est grade, wherein 
natic benevolence, 
ittle improvement 
ihow none that is 
ed a sick person 

he was certainly 

removed from the dwelling ami placed in a hut or shelter at 
some distance away: but there he was always carefully fed 
and tended till the end arrived. Yet this is a rare case among 
lower or middle barbarians, who almost all hml the strain 
of a very prolonged illness or decrepitude more than their 
patience can tolerate. Nor need we be surprised at this. 
Among ourselves, when we hear of a man who has for twenty 
years nursed and tended with undeviating affection a bed- 
ridden wife, or when we hear of a family who have year after 
year waited with fond solicitude on the helpless old age of 
their grandparents, we accord to their goodness the praise 
and admiration whioh is their due. We need never expect of 
a Ijarbarian the steadiness of purpose which this implie.s. It 
is a growth of social sympathy in general beyond Jum. He is 
capable of yielding to the emotions of kindliness which well 
up in his heart as a passing imprcsssion. He is capal)le of 
spreading his affectionate attention over days and weeks as 
the outcome of disinterested affection. But it is too much to 
ask him to be for years together the willing slave of the sick 
or the im2X)tent. 

Hence we find in this grade of humanity the very general 
custom of burying the aged either alive or else after having 
been strangled. Codrington asserts that it is a custom uni- 
versal in Melanesia (p. 847), while the Rev. Dr. Steel declares 
it to have been common in the New Hebrides : " the aged and 
delirious .ire always buried alive". (Neiv Bchridcti, i\ 219.) 
'Purner, in his Poh/vcsia (p. 450), describes it as a practice 
among the New Caledonians and most of the neighbouring 
groups, though, as he says, " the sick are well tended to tht 
last". Among the Fijians the custom reached its acme, for 
there the burial of an eldei-ly person was made the occasion of 
a sort of festival, and the individual to be interred seems 
generally to have consented readily enough to the process, in 
oi-der that he might reach the world of spirits before complete 
debility had ruineil both body and mind. 

M. Bensusan tells us {Roij. (}co<i. Soc, 1SG2, p. 40) that 
" old men and women in Fiji are often buried alive by their 
children from the idea they entertain that they are perfectly 
useless wdiea old, and that their spirits are dead even if their 


r < '■ 
' 'I 


V ! ! 


IxxlieH an! alive". Ho relates how y\v. Hunt, a ini.ssionaiy^ 
was once invited by a youno- man to his mother's funeral, but 
when the old lady herself was seen to hejid the processioii he 
was surprised and demanded an explanation. The youni;;^ 
man said that his mother had consented, and that he and his 
brothers were actintjf thus out of Hlial regard. When they 
reached the new-made grave the olil woman took an atiec- 
tionate farewell of children and grandchildren, " a rope was 
put round her neck by her own sons, who strangled her, after 
which she was laid in the grave with the usual ceremonies ". 
]\I. Bensusan adds that " when man, woman, or child is ill 
with a lingering sickness it is the practice for the invalid tO' 
be strangled by the relatives ". 

But the Papuan stock is more inclined to this impatient 
way of anticipating nature than the Polynesian. The burial 
of sick or aged is rare among the latter race, wh ^ in general 
are of more gracious life and are more wiiniing in tiieir atiec- 
tions. f^llis, it is true, says that in Tahiti {Polynesian Rc- 
sewrches, iii., 48) one who had been very long sick and was 
expected to die was sometimes buried alive if his friends 
thought he took an unnecessary time in departing. But this 
was a 2)i"Hctice rather tolerated than approved ; though indeetl 
the common usage was little better, for the Tahitians, like 
the Polynesians in general, were not patient with the sick. 
"A small hut was erected with a few cocoanut leaves, either 
near a stream or at a short distance from the dwelling. Into 
this the sick person was I'emoved, and for a time the chihlren 
or friends would supply a scanty portion of food, but they 
often wearied of sending thi.s small alleviation, and it is 
believed that many have died as much from hunger as from 

This practice of burying alive the sick, and more especially 
the very aged, seems to have prevailed among the Tatar tribes, 
for I have found it spoken of as an obsolete custom of quite a 
number of races throughout Northern Asia. But in general 
when we reach the level of the middle barbarians we ha\e 
left behind us the region of active atrocity to the feeble : 
and we meet with a prevailing type which exhibits kindness 
for a time longer or shorter according to the race, but which 


uiit, a inisHioiiaryf 
)ther',s I'unorul, but 
the procossiori lie 
tion. The youni^ 
(I tluit he and liis 
,mr(l. When tliey 
lan took an att'ec- 
Idren, " a rope was 
tran^led her, after 
usual ceremonies ". 
lan, or child is ill 
! for the invalid to 

1 to this impatient 
esian. The burial 
ce, wh "^ in jfeneral 
lin^ in tiieir atlec- 
i {Polynesian Re- 
oiij; sick and was 
ive if his friends 
partiiif^. But this 
ed ; thouj;h indeed 
he Tahitians, like 
3nt with the sick, 
unit leavfs, either 
he dwellin<4\ IntO' 
I time the children 
of food, but they 
jviation, and it is 
)m hunger as fi'om 

,nd more especially 
ig the Tatar tribes, 
.( custom of (piite a 
a. But in o-eneral 
arbarians we ha\e 
;ity to the feeble : 
exhibits kindness 
lie race, but which 



nt leno;th is W( 

■aried of well-d 

of the same people widely d 

on in-. 


eiiee we may receive 

the obse 

iscr((i)ant accounts, acc()rdin(r as 

lerver has witnessed the tenderness bestowed on' the 
s>ck under the inHuence ,.f a new-born pity, or the callous 
indirtenmoe exhibited in tlu- same case after the pity has 
^••own „|,1 and stale, and the routine of .laily mirsin.r has 
b..come repulsive. Thus Wait/ relates of the ne.n-o mces 
circumstances which shine out in the lioht of true " imanity 
or torn! devotion ; yet Burton, who, however, is littlr inclined 
to see the < points of the neyro, says that he " is a hanl- 
hearted mav., who seems to io-nore all the charities of father son 
and brother. It is painful to witness the complete inhumanity 
with which a porter, seized with smallpox, is allowe.l by his 
comrades to fall behin.l the march in the jun-de" (Lah' 
R'V'ons, ii., .S20.) But it is to be remembered that a 
man with the smallpox, if no relativr, would be a difficult 
subject for,;ven a civilised man to face up to: and he who 
sH.ul.l uilhno-ly and unrepniin«-ly nurse a perfect stranger 
through that loathsome, dangerous and most infectious disease 
would deserve credit for the highest possible humanity. 
Livingstone shows apparently a more balanced jud.nnent 
than either of these writers in his appreciation of tliene-To 
character. " There is not among them," he says, " an approach 
to that constant stream of benevolence Howing from the rich 
the poor which we have in England, nor yet the unosten- 
tatious attention which we have among our own poor to each 
•other \et there are fre.pient instances of genuine kindness 
and liberality, as ^vell as actions of an opposite character. The 
rich show kindness to the poor only in expectation of services, 
^and a poor person who has no relations will seldom be supplie.l 
<3ven with water in illness, an.l when dead will be draggeil out 
to be devoured by the hy;i3nas instead of being buried ■' {Mis- 
^^nniaru Travels, p. 511.) But while he relates cases of -a-eat 
neglect and cruelty, he adds others of much kindness," ami 
>^ays, " by a selection of instances of either kind, it would not 
l)e difficult to make these people appear exce.ssively good or 
uncominonly bad ". 

Mrs. French Sheldon (Anthrop. Inst, xxi., 3G0) says that 
" die negroes of East Africa are kind and sympathetic to the 

' n 




f 1 

$ i 

'Ui i 


;il)(S Tiir: ouKiiN ANi) (iitowi'ir of 'iiii: moii.vl insiinci'. 

sick up to till' point when they tliiiil< tliric is no lio])(( ; l)Ht 
the dyinj;" pt'i'son is iiliiimloncil ". Indeed tliis is tlie e'enerul 
picture of Innnan nature in the middle luirhariiin staee. Our 
'IVutonic ancoHtoi'M, when we tii-st learn oi' them, had not even 
reached it, For (Jrimm tells us that "they killed the a^ed and 
tlie sick, ol'ten huryinj^' them alive ". 

It is not till we reach the hsvel ol' the hin;her harharians 
that wu Hnd a public opinion which condcnnis the abandon- 
ment of the sick or ai^ed, insists upon kindncHs to these and 
also to the poor and ind'ortunate as the duty of all. In iMada- 
^^ascar KUis praises " tlie kind and patient manner in which 
they attend upon the sick". (Ifisf. of M((<hi(/<isr(ir, i., 2;{1.> 
Lepers there place their litth; baskets by the roadside, and 
the passers (h'op into them food or money to alleviate the 
surt'erini^s of people they never saw before and may never 
see a^^ain. Here bej^'ins to l)e apparent the first dawn of 
benevolence as a systematic feature of society, ^'et strange 
to say, these people can look without appreciable emotion at 
much human agony. Like our forefathers of the middle ages 
they could give freely in charity to relieve the woes of some, 
while they flocked to executions to enjoy a morbid excitement 
in the suHt'riugs of others. 

The same description applies to the Malays ; always ready 
to assist the suliering and needy, and tilled both with the 
instinct and the duty of sympathy, yet capable of looking 
unmoved upon nuich human agony. In Abyssinia also there 
is this incongruous association ; but amid much that is 
callous, the habit of almsgiving has grown to such an excess 
and bred so much of the beggar element that travellers are 
perfectly plagued by the prevalence of mendicants. (Harris, iii., 
55.) Indeed from this point forward we must be prepareil 
to notice how, as the hearts of the conmiunity in general 
become softened and their charity ready to flow, there grows 
up, in addition to those who have real claims of sickness or 
distress, a parasitic class who are either too lazy or too in- 
competent to face the arduous task of providing for them- 
selves and so abuse the growing kindness of others. 

In savage and barbarian life the pauper is an impossibility. 
There is no fund of general benevolence on which he can. 


JH IK) liopt! ; l»\jt 
lis is tilt' ut'iuTiil 
irian Mtii;;e. ( U\v 
0111, hiul not ('Veil 
Hod tlio H^'o(l mill 

li^lior luii'hariiins 
mis tlio abandoM- 

IO.SH to tllt'SO Hlltl 

i)t' all. Ill Matla- 
inaniioi' in which 

(Kjitucd.r, i., 2;n.> 

ho roadsido, and 
to alleviato tho 
and may iiover 
10 first dawn of 
ity. Yet strange 
jiablo oiiiotion at 
f tho iiiiddlo aj^os 
ho woos of sonic, 
orhid oxcitoiiiont 

AS ; always roady 
il l)oth with the 
pable of looking' 
y^ssinia also thoro 
1 much that is 
;o such an oxcoss 
lat travollors are 
ants. (Harris, iii., 
fiust be prepared 
anity in {general 
iow, there grow* 
(IS of sickness or 
) lazy or too in- 
/iding for them- 

an impossibility, 
n which he can 



pung.', nor has there arisen any of that industrial organisa- 

tion which is so elaborate that il 

if he fails to ch 

a man miss his mark in it. 


noose an occiij 

he chooses an occupation \vlii(!li chances to grow hsss iiecmsary 
or overcrowded, li(> is lost for the rest of life, unless of that 
superior sort of competence which can turn to and learn a 
second calling when the Hrst has failed, h, civilised societies 
all forms of misfortune and incompi'tence linger on, supported 
by the general eHbrts of all. In mon' i)rimitiv(! times the 
stern rule is " work or starve ". No matter whothor the man 
who fails to w^ork is prevented by sickness or old age, mutila- 
tion or mere laziness, it is all the sauu;. Starvation will take 
him out of the road. In general, travellers are struck by the 
absence in savage and barbarian people of the deaf, the blind, 
and the idiotic. It is not that never existed, but in 
such societies their existence is not prolonged as with us. 
They .soon perish, even if not purposely destroyed, which is 
their ordinary fate (Norman, Far East, p. 553), as it was 
in modiioval Europe. Human pity and tenderness of the emo- 
tional and impulsive sort had long boon dwellers in the breasts 
of men before there dawned that i)atient sympathy wdiieli is 
capable of labouring with unwearied gentleness through vears 
of helpless age or sickness, that but for love woukl be in- 
tolerably irksome. 





i i- 



the growth of sympathy as shown in benevolence. 
Civilisation Apparently Breed.s an Element of Misery. 

In civilised races there appears, along with increasing com- 
fort and fulness of life, a body of very evident misery which 
we are too apt to consider as having been called into exist- 
ence by civilisation, whereas it has only been prevented by 
civilisation from being crushed out of existence. For the 
play of human sympathy helps to keep alive all those various 
forms of incompetence which in the savage stage would most 
assuredly be ruthlessly destroyed. Thus sympathy, as it 
grows, provides food for its own further activity, and we 
find that in all the lower civilised races the practice of alms- 
I'-ivinii- tends to tlourish and to fill the land with crowds of 
those who, but for it, were doomed to an early disappearance. 
The blind, the dumb, the deformed, the idiotic, the imbecile, 
the incompetent, the incorrigibly lazy are preserved, when, 
but for sympathy, they would have been eliminated. All the 
countries I have classed as of the lower civilisation belong 
without exception to either the Buddhist or the Mohammedan 
faith. In all, the sacred duty of almsgiving is fervidly im- 
pressed, and in the early zeal of this growing cliarity neither 
bounds nor judgment can be discerned. Buddha told his 
followers that the first of perfections is almsgivhig. 'Give 
away to all who come and ask ; give everything that they re- 
quire till nought remains." (Rhys Davids, Buddhist Birth 
Stories, p. 19.) But in the countries where Buddhism is 
professed, just as in Mohammedan countries and in the 
Christendom of tiie middle ages, almsgiving was perhaps 
oidy in part sympathetic, the charitable having an eye to the 


ENT OF Misery. 

increasing coni- 
nt misery which 
jailed into exist- 
;n prevented by 
^tence. For the 
all those various 
itage would most 
sympathy, as it 
ictivity, and we 
practice of alms- 
[ with crowds of 
[y disappearance, 
tic, the imbecile, 
preserved, when, 
iiinated. All the 
vilisation belong 
,he Mohammedan 
g is fervidly im- 
g charity neither 
Buddha told his 
nsgiving. 'Give 
ling that they re- 

Buddhist Birth 
ere Buddhism is 
iries and in the 
ng was periiaps 
ing an eye to the 


blessings eventually to How to themselves out of their good 
works. In countries like Siam, Burmah, Tongking and 
Tliibet it is an essential of a well-conducted life to "make 
merit " by giving alms, and the merit so made is a thing 
which may be transferred from one person to another, or 
lialanced nicely, debtor and creditor, in the account of a 
man's conduct. Nevertheless, it is something in the way of 
progress when religion no longer demands that human hearts 
should (luiver on its altars, or skulls should gleam upon its 
temple walls, but retjuires rather the sacrifices of charity. 

The descriptions given of such countries in the present 
day remind us of the condition of Europe in the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. A growing power of sympathy abounds, 
but it acts in a very uneven and spasmodic fashion. A king 
of France may wash daily the feet of twenty beggars, yet 
with unconscious cruelty ride over the mangled bodies of 
serfs who only asked for a small relief from intolerable burdens. 
So in Siam, there is a yearly festival in which the ladies 
wash the feet of poor women, provide them with warm 
clothing, and with their own hands wait upon them at a 
banquet. Yet, in this same Siam, no one takes the trouble 
to bury or burn the bodies of those who die poor and friend- 
less. They are tossed into spaces reserved for the purpose, 
where vultures and hyiBiias await the horrid feast. (Karl 
Bock, Tenqdes and Elephants, p. 59 ; R. Brown, Peonies of 
the World, iv., 1G8.) 

The Koran thus admonishes all good Moslems: "Show 
kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans, and the 
poor, and your neighbour who is of kin to you, and also 
your neighbour who is a stranger " (chap. iv.). So we find in 
Arab, Moorish, Berber, Egyptian, Turkish, Persian and Afghan 
hte an ostentatious display of charity whose object is rather 
to open the gate of paradise to the giver than to minister to 
the comfort of the afflicted; for the Koran promises (chap. 
Ivii.) a double reward from God for all the alms that are 
given, and moreover great lionour liereafter ; whilst those 
\ylio fail in this respect are to have serpents twisted round 
their necks on the day of resurrection (chap. iii.). Alms were 
of two sorts, legal and voluntary. For the former the inini- 

VOL. I. 







it ' 


mum rate was 2i per cent, of a man's income, but it rose in 
certain cases to 10 per cent. ; tliis sum iucludinir, oi' course, 
not only what was given to the poor, but also payments for 
the support of religion. This legal almsgiving has now, 
however, everywhere been replaced by the purely voluntary 
ortering, which is ample, though ill-advised. The streets of 
Mohammedan towns are genei-ally pestered with professional 
beggars, the result of a sympath}' which gratifies its 
own immediate instincts witliout exhibiting any of that 
kindly-purposed self-restraint which is most truly charac- 
teristic of a sincere desire for the welfare of others. 

This officious merit-making charity is ver^'^ characteristic 
of all connnunities in all three grades of civilisation. Among 
the Hindoos it is a sacred duty to feed the religious mendicant 
(Elphinstone, 201), and give alms to the poor. Manu directs 
that " according to his ability, a householder must give to 
beggars" (iv., H2). Elphinstone considers that though the 
modern Hindoo is compassionate and benevolent, there is 
a marked deticieney of active humanity in his daily life. Yet 
the progress from the barbarian standard to theirs is both 
Rtriking and solid. 

The earliest dawn of a sympathy that should be both 
warm and wise is undoubtedly to be traced among the Chinese, 
though in this respect, as in all their civilisation, one seems 
to follow at a very early date a long and promising line 
of progress only to find it end in atrophy. Certainly the 
teaching of Confucius in regard to benevolence was wiser than 
that of Buddha, his coeval in time and influence. It is not to 
consist in the mere giving of alms, it is to show itself by a 
willing sympathy towards all men. " Self must be conquered 
before a man can bo truly benevolent". (R. K. Douglas, Con- 
fucianism and Taoidsm, p.